Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 16 Issue 13

September, 2006

Volume 16, Issue 13

Pages 1649–1778

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Feature Article
    5. Full Papers
    6. Index
    1. Cover Picture: Fabrication and Characterization of Three-Dimensional Silver-Coated Polymeric Microstructures (Adv. Funct. Mater. 13/2006)

      Y.-S. Chen, A. Tal, D. B. Torrance and S. M. Kuebler

      Version of Record online: 29 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200690047

      Metallized three-dimensional microstructures (see figure) have been prepared by electroless deposition of silver onto crosslinked polymeric scaffolds created by multiphoton direct laser writing. Surface-functionalization chemistry directs the metal deposition selectively onto the polymeric scaffold and not the supporting substrate. The process enables fabrication of conducting and optically reflective micrometer-scale structures with virtually any complex three- dimensional shape.

  2. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Feature Article
    5. Full Papers
    6. Index
  3. Feature Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Feature Article
    5. Full Papers
    6. Index
    1. Controlling the Morphology of Mesostructured Silicas by Pseudomorphic Transformation: a Route Towards Applications (pages 1657–1667)

      A. Galarneau, J. Iapichella, K. Bonhomme, F. Di Renzo, P. Kooyman, O. Terasaki and F. Fajula

      Version of Record online: 31 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500825

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A strategy for engineering the particle size and morphology of ordered mesoporous silicas (see figure) at the micro- to millimeter scales is presented. It is based on the controlled dissolution/reprecipitation of preshaped amorphous silicas in the presence of surfactants. This pseudomorphic synthesis could be applied to other material morphologies (monoliths, thin films), opening new perspectives in the preparation and applications of hierarchically porous materials.

  4. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Feature Article
    5. Full Papers
    6. Index
    1. Performance Analysis of Printed Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells (pages 1669–1672)

      P. Schilinsky, C. Waldauf and C. J. Brabec

      Version of Record online: 31 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500581

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Printed bulk heterojunction solar cells from poly(3-hexylthiophene) and a methanofullerene with power efficiencies of over 4 % are reported (see figure). Though these devices appear fairly optimized, analysis on the basis of a one-diode equivalent circuit reveals residual open-circuit voltage losses as well as fill-factor losses. Imperfections in the bulk distribution of the nanometer-scaled donor–acceptor heterojunctions are suggested as the origin for the residual losses.

    2. Synthesis, Assembly, and Biofunctionalization of Silica-Coated Gold Nanorods for Colorimetric Biosensing (pages 1673–1678)

      C. Wang, Z. Ma, T. Wang and Z. Su

      Version of Record online: 31 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500898

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Silica-coated gold nanorods are prepared and self-assembled onto quartz substrates (figure, top). The silica coating enables surface modification and bioconjugation of the nanorods with antibodies. Specific binding of antigens to the antibodies significantly alters the optical absorption and color of the nanorod films (figure, bottom). The change in color is visible to the naked eye, enabling these films to serve as platforms for the specific detection of biomolecules.

    3. Encapsulation and Ostwald Ripening of Au and Au–Cl Complex Nanostructures in Silica Shells (pages 1679–1684)

      X. W. Lou, C. Yuan, E. Rhoades, Q. Zhang and L. A. Archer

      Version of Record online: 31 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500909

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A general template strategy (see figure) has been developed for fabrication of a new class of nanostructured materials consisting of Au (Pt)–silica multicore shell particles, which are suitable for studies of Ostwald ripening in confined microspaces and in situ observation of particle growth. This work is expected to motivate further in situ studies of confined crystal growth, while the materials are promising for use in controlled delivery of therapeutics and as building blocks for photonic crystals.

    4. Direct Writing of Three-Dimensional Polymer Scaffolds Using Colloidal Gels (pages 1685–1693)

      B. Xie, R. L. Parkhill, W. L. Warren and J. E. Smay

      Version of Record online: 31 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500666

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Heterogeneous polymer scaffolds (see figure) have been fabricated by a direct-write technique using colloidal gel inks. This aqueous, low-temperature process offers a new route for scaffold assembly from water-insoluble polymers while allowing the inclusion of sensitive biomolecules without risk of denaturation. This permits fabrication of tissue-engineering scaffolds containing bioactive molecules for subsequent drug release and biological signaling.

    5. Synthesis of 2,7-Carbazolenevinylene-Based Copolymers and Characterization of Their Photovoltaic Properties (pages 1694–1704)

      N. Leclerc, A. Michaud, K. Sirois, J.-F. Morin and M. Leclerc

      Version of Record online: 13 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600171

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Copolymers based on carbazolenevinylene units coupled with different oligothiophene units have been synthesized (see figure). The electrochemical and optical properties have been characterized, leading to a better understanding of the structure–property relationships in conjugated polymers. Bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices have been made, and power-conversion efficiencies up to 0.8% are obtained with standard (non-optimized) configurations.

    6. High-Yield Fabrication and Electrochemical Characterization of Tetrapodal CdSe, CdTe, and CdSexTe1–x Nanocrystals (pages 1705–1716)

      Y. C. Li, H. Z. Zhong, R. Li, Y. Zhou, C. H. Yang and Y. F. Li

      Version of Record online: 20 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500678

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Tetrapodal CdSe and CdTe nanocrystals are fabricated using new synthetic routes, and tetrapodal CdSexTe1–x nanocrystals are synthesized for the first time. Interesting nonlinear, composition-dependent absorption and photoluminescence spectra are observed for the alloyed nanocrystals. Moreover, the band-edge positions of these nanocrystals are systematically studied using cyclic voltammetry (see figure).

    7. CO2 Capture by As-Prepared SBA-15 with an Occluded Organic Template (pages 1717–1722)

      M. B. Yue, Y. Chun, Y. Cao, X. Dong and J. H. Zhu

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600427

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      As-prepared SBA-15 modified with tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) shows a very high adsorption capacity for CO2 (up to 173 mg g–1) and can be used to reversibly store and release CO2 under prolonged cyclical operation. The remnant template enables good dispersion of the TEPA species in the support, thereby making it more accessible to CO2, as shown in the figure. The template also modifies the interaction mechanism between the amine and CO2 to promote the capture of CO2.

    8. Heparinized Magnetic Nanoparticles: In-Vitro Assessment for Biomedical Applications (pages 1723–1730)

      S. C. Wuang, K. G. Neoh, E.-T. Kang, D. W. Pack and D. E. Leckband

      Version of Record online: 31 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500879

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Magnetite nanoparticles are made biocompatible and hydrophilic via grafting with poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) followed by heparin immobilization (see figure). In vitro phagocytosis is reduced and blood clotting prevented. These modifications greatly enhanced the potential of the heparinized magnetic nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    9. 3D Hexagonal (R-3m) Mesostructured Nanocrystalline Titania Thin Films: Synthesis and Characterization (pages 1731–1738)

      S. Y. Choi, B. Lee, D. B. Carew, M. Mamak, F. C. Peiris, S. Speakman, N. Chopra and G. A. Ozin

      Version of Record online: 31 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500507

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A simple and reproducible synthesis to obtain optically transparent crack-free large-area thin films of 3D hexagonal (R-3m) mesostructured nanocrystalline titania (see figure) is described. Structural characterization of the films has been achieved using a combination of electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering, spectroscopic ellipsometry, and adsorption techniques.

    10. Fabrication and Characterization of Three-Dimensional Silver-Coated Polymeric Microstructures (pages 1739–1744)

      Y.-S. Chen, A. Tal, D. B. Torrance and S. M. Kuebler

      Version of Record online: 8 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600394

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Metallized three-dimensional microstructures (see figure) have been prepared by electroless deposition of silver onto crosslinked polymeric scaffolds created by multiphoton direct laser writing. Surface-functionalization chemistry directs the metal deposition selectively onto the polymeric scaffold and not the supporting substrate. The process enables fabrication of conducting and optically reflective micrometer-scale structures with virtually any complex three- dimensional shape.

    11. Designing the Width and Texture of Vanadium Oxide Macroscopic Fibers: Towards Tuning Mechanical Properties and Alcohol-Sensing Performance (pages 1745–1753)

      H. Serier, M.-F. Achard, O. Babot, N. Steunou, J. Maquet, J. Livage, C. M. Leroy and R. Backov

      Version of Record online: 13 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600044

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The degree of alignment of nanoribbon subunits in macroscopic V2O5 fibers can be altered by extruding the fibers at different shear rates, illustrated in the figure by the varying birefringence of under polarized light. The alignment strongly influences the overall morphology and geometry of the fibers, and affects their mechanical properties and alcohol-sensing performance.

    12. Microstructure and Superconductivity of La1.85Sr0.15CuO4 Nanowire Arrays (pages 1754–1758)

      X. L. Lu, T. Zhang, J. F. Qu, C. G. Jin and X. G. Li

      Version of Record online: 18 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500595

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Superconducting La1.85Sr0.15CuO4 nanowire arrays (see figure) can be successfully synthesized through a sol–gel method combined with a porous alumina template. The nanowires' superconducting transition temperature (ca. 30 K) is lower than that of bulk La1.85Sr0.15CuO4, and the suppression is suggested to derive from the weakening of in-plane hybridization in the nanowire system.

    13. The Fabrication of a Photoresponsive Molecularly Imprinted Polymer for the Photoregulated Uptake and Release of Caffeine (pages 1759–1767)

      C. B. Gong, M. H.-W. Lam and H. X. Yu

      Version of Record online: 31 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500907

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A photoresponsive molecularly imprinted polymer material based on an azobenzene-functionalized monomer, 4-[(4-methacryloyloxy)phenylazo]benzonic acid, is capable of regulating the release and uptake of caffeine from solution by photoirradiation at 365 and 440 nm, respectively (see figure).

    14. A Computational Study of the Sub-monolayer Growth of Pentacene (pages 1768–1775)

      D. Choudhary, P. Clancy, R. Shetty and F. Escobedo

      Version of Record online: 8 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500148

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Organic thin-film growth is studied by using a combination of ab initio density functional theory calculations and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations; this computational study has been used to generate morphology maps (see figure) that describe how the structure of the first layer forms when small, rigid organic molecules are deposited on a substrate.

  5. Index

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Feature Article
    5. Full Papers
    6. Index

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