Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 16 Issue 15

October, 2006

Volume 16, Issue 15

Pages 1917–2044

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Full Papers
    5. Index
    1. Cover Picture: Toward Large-Scale Alignment of Electrohydrodynamic Patterning of Thin Polymer Films (Adv. Funct. Mater. 15/2006)

      N. Wu, L. F. Pease III and W. B. Russel

      Article first published online: 21 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200690053

      Electrohydrodynamic patterning is used to pattern thin poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films on a large scale. Proper design of the mask used is shown to be crucial. The figure and cover shows optical microscopy images of triangular PMMA arrays.

  2. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Full Papers
    5. Index
    1. Contents: Adv. Funct. Mater. 15/2006 (pages 1917–1923)

      Article first published online: 21 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200690051

  3. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Full Papers
    5. Index
    1. Relations Between Shape, Materials Properties, and Function in Biological Materials Using Laser Speckle Interferometry: In situ Tooth Deformation (pages 1925–1936)

      P. Zaslansky, R. Shahar, A. A. Friesem and S. Weiner

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600120

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Crowns of teeth under compressive load are measured by means of laser speckle interferometry that can reveal nanometer-scale deformations (see figure); the deformations of natural teeth were compared to those of identical acrylic replicas, in order to differentiate between contributions of the structure–material properties from contributions of morphology. With these measurements, it is possible to visualize, for the first time, that the enamel cap in natural teeth behaves as a rigid body, undergoing moderate deformation. This deformation analysis of loaded whole objects is applicable to the study of many stiff biological specimens, including comparisons between normal and altered (repaired or genetically modified) bones.

    2. Fabrication of High-Density, Large-Area Conducting-Polymer Nanostructures (pages 1937–1942)

      B. Dong, N. Lu, M. Zelsmann, N. Kehagias, H. Fuchs, C. M. Sotomayor Torres and L. F. Chi

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600225

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A cost-efficient method for fabricating high-density, large-area conducting polymer nanostructures, such as wires and dots, with controlled dimensions (the figure shows 300 nm wide polypyrrole nanowires with a separation of 300 nm) is reported. It is based on the combination of nanoimprint lithography, a copolymer strategy, and a lift-off process. These nanowires function as nanosensors after depositing gold pads as electrodes on the nanostructure arrays.

    3. High-Performance Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Dioxolane-Substituted Pentacene Derivatives (pages 1943–1949)

      M. A. Wolak, J. Delcamp, C. A. Landis, P. A. Lane, J. Anthony and Z. Kafafi

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500809

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Dioxolane-substituted pentacene derivatives are used to make organic light-emitting diodes with saturated red emission and external quantum efficiencies of up to 3.3% (see figure). The proposed excitation mechanism of pentacene molecules is a combination of energy transfer and charge recombination.

    4. Perpendicularly Aligned, Size-and Spacing-Controlled Nanocylinders by Molecular-Weight Adjustment of a Homopolymer Blended in an Asymmetric Triblock Copolymer (pages 1950–1958)

      D. U. Ahn and E. Sancaktar

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600143

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Perpendicularly aligned, hexagonally ordered, size- and spacing-controlled nanocylinders are prepared in block-copolymer–homopolymer mixtures without a large dependence on substrate surface tension and/or sample thickness. Orientation and ordering are exploited by adjusting the molecular weight of the blended homopolymer. Excimer-laser irradiation is used to preferentially etch a copolymer component to obtain freestanding nanocylinders (see AFM image of size 2 μm × 2 μm).

    5. A Green Polymeric Light-Emitting Diode Material: Poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-thiophene) End-Capped with Gold Nanoparticles (pages 1959–1966)

      S.-H. Wu, H.-M. Huang, K.-C. Chen, C.-W. Hu, C.-C. Hsu and R. C.-C. Tsiang

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500604

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Drastically enhanced properties are realized in a polymeric light-emitting diode (PLED) device made of a novel, conjugated light-emitting polymer, poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-thiophene) end-capped with gold nanoparticles reduced in situ. The threshold voltage of the PLED devices is lowered, and the electroluminescence and photometric efficiency are markedly improved (see figure).

    6. Mimicking Biological Phenol Reaction Cascades to Confer Mechanical Function (pages 1967–1974)

      L.-Q. Wu, M. K. McDermott, C. Zhu, R. Ghodssi and G. F. Payne

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500792

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Electrochemical oxidation initiates phenol reaction cascades. The oxidized intermediates react to crosslink films of the aminopolysaccharide chitosan. By controlling electrochemically initiated crosslinking, films are modified to have spatially varying mechanical properties, and to undergo reversible shape changes in response to external stimuli.

    7. Nanoscale Characterization of the Morphology and Electrostatic Properties of Poly(3-octylthiophene)/Graphite-Nanoparticle Blends (pages 1975–1984)

      E. Palacios-Lidón, B. Perez-García, J. Abellán, C. Miguel, A. Urbina and J. Colchero

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500804

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Bulk heterojunctions in blends of poly(3-octylthiophene) and graphite nanoparticles (NPs) are investigated by scanning probe microscopy. At intermediate NP concentrations, two nanoscale regions with well-differentiated electrostatic properties can be identified (see figure). The first (top) consists of pristine polymer matrix, while the second shows dark holes (bottom) containing aggregated graphite NPs with polymer intrusions between them. The regions' interface forms a heterojunction and contains a new electronic state that may be involved in hole transport.

    8. Photoluminescence and Electroluminescence from Tris(8- hydroxyquinoline)aluminum Nanowires Prepared by Adsorbent-Assisted Physical Vapor Deposition (pages 1985–1991)

      Y. S. Zhao, C. Di, W. Yang, G. Yu, Y. Liu and J. Yao

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600070

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Nanowires with a unique photoluminescence property and size-dependent electroluminescent performance are prepared from tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum by an adsorbent-assisted physical-vapor- deposition method (see figure). Adsorbents that are widely used in column chromatography are introduced to improve the monodispersity of the product.

    9. Toward Large-Scale Alignment of Electrohydrodynamic Patterning of Thin Polymer Films (pages 1992–1999)

      N. Wu, L. F. Pease III and W. B. Russel

      Article first published online: 1 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600092

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Electrohydrodynamic patterning is used to pattern thin poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films on a large scale. Proper design of the mask used is shown to be crucial. The figure and cover shows optical microscopy images of triangular PMMA arrays.

    10. Dendrimer Precursors for Nanomolar and Picomolar Real-Time Surface Plasmon Resonance/Potentiometric Chemical Nerve Agent Sensing Using Electrochemically Crosslinked Ultrathin Films (pages 2000–2007)

      P. Taranekar, A. Baba, J. Y. Park, T. M. Fulghum and R. Advincula

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600147

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Toxic nerve agent detection: A combination of both surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and potentiometric assembly can be simultaneously used to monitor the anchoring of pinacolyl methylphosphonate (PMP), a hydrolysis product and analog toxic nerve agents, using electrogenerated polycarbazole modified polyamidoamine/Cu2+ ultrathin films (see figure).

    11. Synthesis of Ruthenium Nanoparticles Stabilized by Heavily Fluorinated Compounds (pages 2008–2015)

      M. Tristany, B. Chaudret, P. Dieudonné, Y. Guari, P. Lecante, V. Matsura, M. Moreno-Mañas, K. Philippot and R. Pleixats

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600360

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Porous spherical superstructures composed of small ruthenium nanoparticles (see figure) are produced from the decomposition of the organometallic complex Ru(η6-C8H10)(η4-C8H12) in the presence of fluorinated compounds. These superstructures are not only porous, but also malleable. This is evidenced by scanning electron microscopy with a field-emission gun and small-angle X-ray scattering analysis.

    12. Accurate Measurement and Characterization of Organic Solar Cells (pages 2016–2023)

      V. Shrotriya, G. Li, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery and Y. Yang

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600489

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Methods to accurately measure the current–voltage characteristics of organic solar cells under standard reporting conditions are presented. Accurate measurement of device area is extremely important in correctly determining current density and efficiency. The shadow effect, arising from evaporating successive layers from multiple sources (see figure), can result in significant errors in device-area estimation and, as a result, in efficiency measurement.

    13. Flexible and Robust 2D Arrays of Silver Nanowires Encapsulated within Freestanding Layer-by-Layer Films (pages 2024–2034)

      R. Gunawidjaja, C. Jiang, S. Peleshanko, M. Ornatska, S. Singamaneni and V. V. Tsukruk

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600430

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A planar 2D array of silver nanowires is encapsulated between polymer layers by a layer-by-layer assembly process, yielding novel freestanding polymer nanocomposite membranes. These films exhibit a filler reinforcement phenomenon due to the presence of the silver nanowires, as suggested by the membrane response during buckling and bulging experiments shown in the figure. These robust elastic membranes could potentially serve as active elements in sensing devices due to their characteristic optical and mechanical properties.

    14. Fabrication of Hollow Inorganic Microspheres by Chemically Induced Self-Transformation (pages 2035–2041)

      J. G. Yu, H. Guo, S. A. Davis and S. Mann

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600552

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Monodisperse hollow inorganic microspheres with nanoporous shell walls have been fabricated using polymer- mediated or fluoride-mediated self-transformation of solid amorphous particles of CaCO3 and SrWO4, or TiO2 and SnO2, respectively. In each case, the hollow microspheres, which are composed of polycrystalline walls of aggregated nanoparticles (see figure), are produced in high yield and exhibit good reproducibility.

  4. Index

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Full Papers
    5. Index

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