Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 16 Issue 2

Special Issue: Supramolecular Functional Materials

January, 2006

Volume 16, Issue 2

Pages 135–314

    1. Cover Picture: Molecular Recognition by Synthetic Multifunctional Pores in Practice: Are Structural Studies Really Helpful? (Adv. Funct. Mater. 2/2006)

      Y. Baudry, G. Bollot, V. Gorteau, S. Litvinchuk, J. Mareda, M. Nishihara, D. Pasini, F. Perret, D. Ronan, N. Sakai, M. R. Shah, A. Som, N. Sordé, P. Talukdar, D.-H. Tran and S. Matile

      Article first published online: 9 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200690006

      Construction of functional synthetic pores (see Figure and Cover) is attractive for practical applications in sensing and catalysis. This account summarizes five years of research devoted to the development of synthetic multifunctional pores. However, the importance of structural studies to reconfirm the validity of successful design strategies may be debatable, at least within the timeframe and objectives of the NRP 47.

    2. Inside Front Cover: Resorcin[4]arene Cavitand-Based Molecular Switches (Adv. Funct. Mater. 2/2006)

      V. A. Azov, A. Beeby, M. Cacciarini, A. G. Cheetham, F. Diederich, M. Frei, J. K. Gimzewski, V. Gramlich, B. Hecht, B. Jaun, T. Latychevskaia, A. Lieb, Y. Lill, F. Marotti, A. Schlegel, R. R. Schlittler, P. J. Skinner, P. Seiler and Y. Yamakoshi

      Article first published online: 9 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200690007

      Resorcin[4]arene-based cavitands are promising molecular switching devices for nanomanipulation and nanoconstruction. Upon suitable functionalization, they undergo reversible, multi-nanometer-sized contraction/expansion motions (see Figure and inside Cover) stimulated by changes in temperature or pH, or by metal-ion complexation.

    3. Contents: Adv. Funct. Mater. 2/2006 (pages 135–141)

      Article first published online: 9 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200690004

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      Supramolecular Functional Materials: A National Research Program Paves the Way to the Scientific Future (pages 143–145)

      A. Ludi, M. Mayor and S. Husi

      Article first published online: 9 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500411

      Supramolecular functional materials is the theme of this Special Issue featuring research funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation. In this Editorial, the organizers introduce the goals, the participants, and the results of this National Research Program designed to make Switzerland a leader in the creation of the “smartest” new materials.

    5. Resorcin[4]arene Cavitand-Based Molecular Switches (pages 147–156)

      V. A. Azov, A. Beeby, M. Cacciarini, A. G. Cheetham, F. Diederich, M. Frei, J. K. Gimzewski, V. Gramlich, B. Hecht, B. Jaun, T. Latychevskaia, A. Lieb, Y. Lill, F. Marotti, A. Schlegel, R. R. Schlittler, P. J. Skinner, P. Seiler and Y. Yamakoshi

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500181

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Resorcin[4]arene-based cavitands are promising molecular switching devices for nanomanipulation and nanoconstruction. Upon suitable functionalization, they undergo reversible, multi-nanometer-sized contraction/expansion motions (see Figure and inside Cover) stimulated by changes in temperature or pH, or by metal-ion complexation.

    6. Introducing Bulky Functional Lanthanide Cores into Thermotropic Metallomesogens: A Bottom-Up Approach (pages 157–168)

      E. Terazzi, S. Suarez, S. Torelli, H. Nozary, D. Imbert, O. Mamula, J.-P. Rivera, E. Guillet, J.-M. Bénech, G. Bernardinelli, R. Scopelliti, B. Donnio, D. Guillon, J.-C. G. Bünzli and C. Piguet

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500195

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      Judicious tailoring of molecular shapes and interfaces in lanthanide complexes (see Figure) can produce rational control of the thermodynamic parameters responsible for the formation of thermotropic liquid-crystalline phases with predetermined macroscopic organizations. These complexes and their specific metal-centered luminescence can be exploited for probing phase transitions and microscopic environments in mesophases.

    7. Molecular Recognition by Synthetic Multifunctional Pores in Practice: Are Structural Studies Really Helpful? (pages 169–179)

      Y. Baudry, G. Bollot, V. Gorteau, S. Litvinchuk, J. Mareda, M. Nishihara, D. Pasini, F. Perret, D. Ronan, N. Sakai, M. R. Shah, A. Som, N. Sordé, P. Talukdar, D.-H. Tran and S. Matile

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500198

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Construction of functional synthetic pores (see Figure and Cover) is attractive for practical applications in sensing and catalysis. This account summarizes five years of research devoted to the development of synthetic multifunctional pores. However, the importance of structural studies to reconfirm the validity of successful design strategies may be debatable, at least within the timeframe and objectives of the NRP 47.

    8. Supramolecular Ordered Organic Thin Films for Nonlinear Optical and Optoelectronic Applications (pages 180–188)

      R. U. A. Khan, O-P. Kwon, A. Tapponnier, A. N. Rashid and P. Günter

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500225

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      Supramolecular self-assembly of organic molecules is essential for second-order nonlinear optics and highly desirable for organic electronics. A range of molecular-design and growth strategies for achieving ordered organic thin films (see Figure, width = 20 nm) is outlined, and their nonlinear optical and optoelectronic properties are described.

    9. Highly Selective and Reversible Optical, Colorimetric, and Electrochemical Detection of Mercury(II) by Amphiphilic Ruthenium Complexes Anchored onto Mesoporous Oxide Films (pages 189–194)

      M. K. Nazeeruddin, D. Di Censo, R. Humphry-Baker and M. Grätzel

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500309

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      A reversible, naked-eye sensor for mercury ions in aqueous and non-aqueous solutions is presented. The sensor changes from dark red to orange upon introduction of Hg2+ ions. Removing the Hg2+ ions from the sensor's surface by dipping it in a solution of KI causes the sensor to change back to dark red (see Figure).

    10. Photochromic Switches Incorporated in Bridging Ligands: A New Tool to Modulate Energy-Transfer Processes (pages 195–208)

      P. Belser, L. De Cola, F. Hartl, V. Adamo, B. Bozic, Y. Chriqui, V. M. Iyer, R. T. F. Jukes, J. Kühni, M. Querol, S. Roma and N. Salluce

      Article first published online: 30 NOV 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500247

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      New photochromic bridging ligands with covalently bound 2,2′-bipyridine or phenanthroline coordinating moieties have been prepared. The bridging ligand, with a dithienylethene switching moiety, shows remarkable energy-transfer properties from the donor to the acceptor unit (see Figure). The open form induces an efficient energy transfer, while the switching unit in the closed form acts as a trap for the same process.

    11. Single-Molecule Magnets Under Pressure (pages 209–220)

      R. Bircher, G. Chaboussant, C. Dobe, H. U. Güdel, S. T. Ochsenbein, A. Sieber and O. Waldmann

      Article first published online: 30 NOV 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500244

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      Recent work in the field of single-molecule magnets (an example of which is shown in the Figure) is featured. It is shown that, by pushing inelastic neutron scattering measurements to their limits, e.g., by applying hydrostatic pressure, new insights into the relevant physical processes in single-molecule magnets can be gained.

    12. Self-Organized Monolayers: A Route to Conformational Switching and Read-Out of Functional Supramolecular Assemblies by Scanning Probe Methods (pages 221–235)

      B. A. Hermann, L. J. Scherer, C. E. Housecroft and E. C. Constable

      Article first published online: 9 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500264

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      Attachment of Fréchet-type dendrons can self-organize various central components (catalytic, switchable, redox-active) on a graphite surface (see Figure). Self-organized monolayers of nine different molecules, each containing at least one first- or second-generation Fréchet-type dendron, are analyzed with scanning tunneling microscopy, demonstrating progress towards a modular approach for the design of large molecules suitable for self-organization.

    13. Fluorescence Regeneration as a Signaling Principle for Choline and Carnitine Binding: A Refined Supramolecular Sensor System Based on a Fluorescent Azoalkane (pages 237–242)

      H. Bakirci and W. M. Nau

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500219

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      A truly water-soluble choline and carnitine recognition fluorescent sensor system with improved fluorescence enhancement is based on the formation of an inclusion complex (see Figure) between an azoalkane, as a competitively bound fluorescent guest, and a water-soluble calixarene as host with cation-receptor properties. DBO: 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene.

    14. Nitrilotriacetic Acid Functionalized Graft Copolymers: A Polymeric Interface for Selective and Reversible Binding of Histidine-Tagged Proteins (pages 243–251)

      G. Zhen, D. Falconnet, E. Kuennemann, J. Vörös, N. D. Spencer, M. Textor and S. Zürcher

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500232

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      A series of novel graft copolymers, poly(L-lysine)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLL-g-PEG), in which the PEG chains are functionalized by terminal nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) groups have been synthesized. Reproducible surfaces with adjustable ligand density which have been successfully used for reversible sensing of histidine-tagged green fluorescent proteins are obtained (see Figure; scale bar: 60 μm).

    15. Self-Assembly of Amphiphilic Calix[4]arenes in Aqueous Solution (pages 252–259)

      M. Strobel, K. Kita-Tokarczyk, A. Taubert, C. Vebert, P. A. Heiney, M. Chami and W. Meier

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500212

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      Self-assembly of amphiphilic calix[4]arenes (see Figure) with carboxylic acid/trimethyl ammonium head groups and different alkyl chains in aqueous solution has been investigated. Carboxylated calixarenes form vesicles in dilute solution and stable monolayers on water. Ammonium head groups provide high water solubility without detectable aggregation. The head group is therefore shown to be the key parameter in controlling self-assembly in aqueous solution.

    16. Ferrocene-Containing Optically Active Liquid-Crystalline Side-Chain Polysiloxanes with Planar Chirality (pages 260–267)

      J. Brettar, T. Bürgi, B. Donnio, D. Guillon, R. Klappert, T. Scharf and R. Deschenaux

      Article first published online: 12 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500223

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      Engineering the liquid-crystalline behavior of both monomers and side-chain polymers (see Figure) by structural modifications of planar chiral ferrocenes has been achieved; chiral smectic and cholesteric phases are obtained. Planar chirality is an elegant means to design thermotropic liquid crystals with tailor-made mesomorphic properties.

    17. Open-Pore Organic Material for Retaining Radioactive I2 and CH3I (pages 268–272)

      T. Hertzsch, C. Gervais, J. Hulliger, B. Jaeckel, S. Guentay, H. Bruchertseifer and A. Neels

      Article first published online: 7 NOV 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500245

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      A purely organic, zeolite-like material, TPP, is presented, which may be used to remove radioactive I2 and CH3I from a humid atmosphere or from water. The Figure shows the sharp interface between TPP(THF)0.35 and I2-loaded crystals in a filter column after 7 h flow of I2-saturated argon through the column.

    18. Energy Collection, Transport, and Trapping by a Supramolecular Organization of Dyes in Hexagonal Zeolite Nanocrystals (pages 273–285)

      C. Minkowski, R. Pansu, M. Takano and G. Calzaferri

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500284

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      Host–guest systems with organic dye molecules incorporated into the channels of zeolite L have been prepared. The channel entrances can be plugged with “stopcock” molecules that maintain a connection between the guests inside and the outside world (see Figure). This leads to organized materials, offering the possibility of developing new photonic devices, such as artificial photonic antenna systems.

    19. Inter- and Intramolecular Interactions in Some Supramolecular Photochemical Systems (pages 286–295)

      S. Delahaye, C. Loosli, S. X. Liu, S. Decurtins, G. Labat, A. Neels, A. Loosli, T. R. Ward and A. Hauser

      Article first published online: 12 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500329

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      The modification of photophysical properties of three different supramolecular systems by interactions among their individual components is investigated. Excimer formation and dual luminescence in square-planar platinum(II) diimine complexes (see Figure) are studied, while other photochemical effects in tetrathiafulvalene-annulated phthalocyanines, and biotinylated RuII tris-bipyridine in avidin, are also explored.

    20. Synthesis and Characterization of Carbon-Based Nanoparticles and Highly Magnetic Nanoparticles with Carbon Coatings (pages 296–305)

      R. Nesper, A. Ivantchenko and F. Krumeich

      Article first published online: 9 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500310

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      Salt flux systems have been found to be a versatile medium for carbon nanotube and nanofiber formation by decomposition of selected acetylides and of acetylene. Coating of nanoscopic iron particles leads to acid-stable, highly magnetic colloids under such conditions (see Figure).

    21. Supported Cell-Membrane Sheets for Functional Fluorescence Imaging of Membrane Proteins (pages 306–312)

      J.-B. Perez, K. L. Martinez, J.-M. Segura and H. Vogel

      Article first published online: 12 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500236

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      Fluorescence imaging: Cell-membrane sheets suitable for in-vitro functional fluorescence studies have been prepared by direct detachment from cell membranes using poly-L-lysine-coated glass slides. The planar plasma membranes (see Figure) retain their composition and functional properties. Such membrane sheets are suitable for imaging membrane components with single-molecule sensitivity.

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