Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 16 Issue 3

February, 2006

Volume 16, Issue 3

Pages 319–446

    1. Cover Picture: Sequential Nucleation and Growth of Complex Nanostructured Films (Adv. Funct. Mater. 3/2006)

      T. L. Sounart, J. Liu, J. A. Voigt, J. W. P. Hsu, E. D. Spoerke, Z. Tian and Y. B. Jiang

      Version of Record online: 27 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200690010

      Recent progress in sequential nucleation and growth to systematically assemble hierarchical, complex, and oriented nanocrystalline architectures (see Figure for examples) is discussed. This approach is applicable to a wide range of materials, and may play a key role in advancing complex nanomaterials into applications.

    2. Inside Front Cover: High-Performance and Stable Organic Thin-Film Transistors Based on Fused Thiophenes (Adv. Funct. Mater. 3/2006)

      Y. M. Sun, Y. Q. Ma, Y. Q. Liu, Y. Y. Lin, Z. Y. Wang, Y. Wang, C. A. Di, K. Xiao, X. M. Chen, W. F. Qiu, B. Zhang, G. Yu, W. P. Hu and D. B. Zhu

      Version of Record online: 27 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200690011

      A series of new organic semiconductors for organic thin-film transistors using dithieno[3,2-b:2′,3′-d]thiophene as the core are synthesized (see Figure). The compounds exhibit excellent field-effect performances, with a high mobility of 0.42 cm2 V–1 s–1 and an on/off ratio of 5 × 106. Devices based on phenyl-substituted compounds (e.g., 2) have excellent thermal stability and high environmental stability.

    3. InAs/InP Self-Assembled Quantum Dots: Wavelength Tuning and Optical Nonlinearities (pages 327–334)

      R. Nötzel and J. E. M. Haverkort

      Version of Record online: 30 NOV 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500120

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Self-assembled quantum dots can be formed by spontaneous self-assembly during epitaxial growth of lattice-mismatched systems (see Figure). It is shown that continuous tuning of the emission wavelength of InAs/InP quantum dots embedded in GaInAsP on InP is possible, by inserting ultrathin GaAs or GaP interlayers below them. Furthermore, efficient all-optical switching in these quantum dots is demonstrated.

    4. Sequential Nucleation and Growth of Complex Nanostructured Films (pages 335–344)

      T. L. Sounart, J. Liu, J. A. Voigt, J. W. P. Hsu, E. D. Spoerke, Z. Tian and Y. B. Jiang

      Version of Record online: 27 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500468

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Recent progress in sequential nucleation and growth to systematically assemble hierarchical, complex, and oriented nanocrystalline architectures (see Figure for examples) is discussed. This approach is applicable to a wide range of materials, and may play a key role in advancing complex nanomaterials into applications.

    5. Band-Edge Photoluminescence Recovery from Zinc-Blende CdSe Nanocrystals Synthesized at Room Temperature (pages 345–350)

      R. Li, J. Lee, D. Kang, Z. Luo, M. Aindow and F. Papadimitrakopoulos

      Version of Record online: 14 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500319

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Photoluminescent, semiconductor nanocrystals are formed by a room-temperature, aqueous-phase synthesis of zinc-blende CdSe nanocrystals and subsequent etching in HO(CH2)3NH2/H2O (v/v = 10:1) media at a temperature of 80 ± 5 °C. Nanocrystals of regular shape (see Figure) with strong band-edge photoluminescence emission (quantum efficiency ∼ 50 %) result.

    6. Luminescent Core/Shell Nanoparticles with a Rhabdophane LnPO4-xH2O Structure: Stabilization of Ce3+-Doped Compositions (pages 351–355)

      V. Buissette, M. Moreau, T. Gacoin and J.-P. Boilot

      Version of Record online: 8 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500285

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The growth of LaPO4-xH2O shells around (Ce,Tb)PO4-xH2O core colloidal nanoparticles increases their stability against oxidation. A bright green luminescence is thus preserved in nanocomposite sol–gel films (see Figure), whose fabrication requires silica coating and thermal treatment of the core/shell nanoparticles.

    7. Dispersions of Surface-Modified Carbon Nanotubes in Water-Soluble and Water-Insoluble Polymers (pages 357–363)

      L. Vaisman, G. Marom and H. D. Wagner

      Version of Record online: 8 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500142

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Carbon nanotube composites: Microscale aggregate formation is a major problem in nanocomposite processing. Herein, the dispersive effects achieved by a wide range of surface-active agents, as well as surface oxidation and functionalization, are investigated. Uniform, multiwalled carbon nanotube distributions (see Figure) in water-soluble (poly(ethylene glycol)) and water-insoluble (polypropylene) polymers are achieved and characterized.

    8. On-Chain Fluorenone Defect Emission from Single Polyfluorene Molecules in the Absence of Intermolecular Interactions (pages 364–370)

      K. Becker, J. M. Lupton, J. Feldmann, B. S. Nehls, F. Galbrecht, D. Q. Gao and U. Scherf

      Version of Record online: 8 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500550

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Single-molecule spectroscopy of polyfluorenes (PFs) reveals two distinct coexisting emissive species originating from π–π* transitions in the blue region and localized on-chain keto defects in the green (see Figure). Besides demonstrating the feasibility of detecting of impurities in large macromolecules on the single-atom level, the results conclusively illustrate that green band emission from PFs does not arise from intermolecular interactions.

    9. Biosensing Properties of TitanateNanotube Films: Selective Detection of Dopamine in the Presence of Ascorbate and Uric Acid (pages 371–376)

      A. Liu, M. D. Wei, I. Honma and H. Zhou

      Version of Record online: 8 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500202

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Titanate-nanotube (TNT) films demonstrate selectivity by means of charge expulsion and their ability to enhance mass transfer to an electrode surface and electron transfer between dopamine (DA) and the electrode. This enables TNT-modified electrodes to selectively detect DA in the presence of a large excess of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) at physiological pH.

    10. Layer-by-Layer Fabrication and Characterization of Gold-Nanoparticle/Myoglobin Nanocomposite Films (pages 377–386)

      Z. Qi, I. Honma, M. Ichihara and H. Zhou

      Version of Record online: 8 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500450

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Multilayer thin films of a Au nanoparticle/myoglobin nanocomposite (see Figure) have been fabricated and characterized. Although Au nanoparticles are separated from one another, interparticle interactions remain in the film, making it optically anisotropic. The brilliant red films show excellent stability in acidic and basic solutions, and at temperatures up to 100 °C.

    11. Fabrication of Single-Crystalline Silicon Nanowires by Scratching a Silicon Surface with Catalytic Metal Particles (pages 387–394)

      K. Q. Peng, J. J. Hu, Y. J. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Fang, Y. Xu, S. T. Lee and J. Zhu

      Version of Record online: 8 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500392

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Large-area, highly oriented Si-nanowire arrays are prepared on a Si wafer (see Figure) by “scratching” the surface of the wafer with metal particles. The etching technique shows little dependence on the orientation and doping type of the Si wafer. A local, site- specific etching mechanism is proposed.

    12. Assembly of Gold Nanoparticles in a Rod-Like Fashion Using Proteins as Templates (pages 395–400)

      R. Bhattacharya, C. R. Patra, S. Wang, L. Lu, M. J. Yaszemski, D. Mukhopadhyay and P. Mukherjee

      Version of Record online: 8 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500347

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Gold nanoparticles can be assembled in a rod-like fashion if certain proteins are present in solution when the nanoparticles are formed; the protein molecules act as templates when the solution is cooled to subzero temperatures. The assembly process can be tailored by controlling the Au3+/protein ratio (see Figure).

    13. A Colloidal Route for Delamination of Layered Solids: Novel Porous-Clay Nanocomposites (pages 401–409)

      S. Letaïef, M. A. Martín-Luengo, P. Aranda and E. Ruiz-Hitzky

      Version of Record online: 8 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500190

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Irreversible delamination of organoclays has been achieved by a sol–gel process that involves alkoxysilanes, producing silica–clay heteromaterials (see Figure). These inorganic–inorganic nanocomposites present high specific surface areas, micro- and mesoporosity, and can be further functionalized by grafting reactions with organosilanes.

    14. Characterization and Field-Emission Properties of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanonails and Nanopencils Fabricated by a Modified Thermal-Evaporation Process (pages 410–416)

      G. Z. Shen, Y. Bando, B. D. Liu, D. Golberg and C.-J. Lee

      Version of Record online: 14 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500571

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Vertically aligned ZnO nanonails and nanopencils (see Figure) are synthesized on a silicon substrate using a modified thermal-evaporation process, without a catalyst or predeposited buffer layer. An adiabatic layer is used to provide an abrupt temperature decrease and high gas concentration for the nanostructures' growth.

    15. On The Origins of Silicate Dispersion in Polysiloxane/Layered-Silicate Nanocomposites (pages 417–425)

      D. F. Schmidt, F. Clément and E. P. Giannelis

      Version of Record online: 8 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500008

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Studies of a variety of polysiloxane/layered-silicate nanocomposites reveal larger trends in dispersion behavior. The polydimethylsiloxane backbone seems generally incompatible with layered silicates, with dispersion governed instead by the presence of small concentrations of polar polymer substituents. The Figure shows a 367 nm wide phase-contrast atomic force microscopy image with good nanoscale dispersion.

    16. High-Performance and Stable Organic Thin-Film Transistors Based on Fused Thiophenes (pages 426–432)

      Y. M. Sun, Y. Q. Ma, Y. Q. Liu, Y. Y. Lin, Z. Y. Wang, Y. Wang, C. A. Di, K. Xiao, X. M. Chen, W. F. Qiu, B. Zhang, G. Yu, W. P. Hu and D. B. Zhu

      Version of Record online: 22 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500547

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A series of new organic semiconductors for organic thin-film transistors using dithieno[3,2-b:2′,3′-d]thiophene as the core are synthesized (see Figure). The compounds exhibit excellent field-effect performances, with a high mobility of 0.42 cm2 V–1 s–1 and an on/off ratio of 5 × 106. Devices based on phenyl-substituted compounds (e.g., 2) have excellent thermal stability and high environmental stability.

    17. Fabrication of a “Soft” Membrane Electrode Assembly Using Layer-by-Layer Technology (pages 433–444)

      T. R. Farhat and P. T. Hammond

      Version of Record online: 21 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500327

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Thin-film carbon–polymer electrodes have been assembled from polyelectrolytes and stable carbon colloidal dispersions using the layer-by-layer technique atop both metallic and non-metallic, porous and non-porous substrates. The Figure shows a cross section of an electrode assembled on a plastic slide from water soluble polymers using linear poly(ethylene imine), poly(acrylic acid), and a colloidal solution of graphite flakes.

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