Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 16 Issue 9

June, 2006

Volume 16, Issue 9

Pages 1125–1256

    1. Cover Picture: Three-Dimensional SiCN Ceramic Microstructures via Nano-Stereolithography of Inorganic Polymer Photoresists (Adv. Funct. Mater. 9/2006)

      T. A. Pham, D.-P. Kim, T.-W. Lim, S.-H. Park, D.-Y. Yang and K.-S. Lee

      Version of Record online: 26 MAY 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200690032

      The smallest SiCN ceramic objects, such as the twisted microtube shown in the figure (see also cover), are fabricated using an inorganic polymer photoresist containing 40 wt % of nanoparticles. The resulting structures are stable and have good mechanical strength and chemical stability, which will lead to the fabrication of a variety of new 2D and 3D structures.

    2. Nanostructured Vanadium Oxide Electrodes for Enhanced Lithium-Ion Intercalation (pages 1133–1144)

      Y. Wang, K. Takahashi, K. H. Lee and G. Z. Cao

      Version of Record online: 24 APR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500662

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      New developments and improved Li+-ion-intercalation properties in vanadium oxides obtained by engineering their nanostructure and interlayer structure are presented. Intercalation capacity and rate are enhanced by two orders of magnitude using nanostructures including nanorod, nanotube, and nanocable arrays (see figure).

    3. Fibrillar Growth in Polyaniline (pages 1145–1152)

      X. Zhang, H. S. Kolla, X. Wang, K. Raja and S. K. Manohar

      Version of Record online: 26 MAY 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500478

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      Fibrillar polymer growth in aniline polymerization can be attributed to the intermediacy of rodlike aggregates formed during the induction period of the reaction. These aggregates are believed to be dianilinium/peroxydisulfate ion clusters (see figure) that spontaneously assume a rodlike shape and act as seeds that promote nanofiber formation.

    4. Smart Microfluidic Channels (pages 1153–1160)

      L. Ionov, N. Houbenov, A. Sidorenko, M. Stamm and S. Minko

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500562

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      Responsive mixed polymer brush coated smart microfluidic channels (see figure) switch between wetting and nonwetting behavior upon interaction with liquids. The channels can be open or shut depending on liquid properties (pH, solvent, nature, etc.). The walls of the channels probe the liquid and direct the flow into an appropriate channel. This approach allows for the fabrication of microfluidic devices that perform separation, sensing, selection, and dosing of microvolumes of liquids.

    5. Organo-metal Diodes Based on a Nanoparticulate Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Composite (pages 1161–1165)

      R. Zhang, A. Barnes, Y. Wang, B. Chambers and P. V. Wright

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500745

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      Diode devices consisting of nanoparticulate PEDOT and a Cu–Cu2+ redox couple in a polymer-electrolyte matrix sandwiched between a Ag and a Zr|ZrO2 electrode show rectification ratios in excess of 50 000 when an electric field in excess of 500 mV is applied (see figure). The switchable nature of the PEDOT nanoparticles allows larger rectification ratios than observed in other conducting-polymer diodes.

    6. A Highly Sensitive Hybrid Colorimetric and Fluorometric Molecular Probe for Cyanide Sensing Based on a Subphthalocyanine Dye (pages 1166–1170)

      E. Palomares, M. V. Martínez-Díaz, T. Torres and E. Coronado

      Version of Record online: 24 APR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500517

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      A highly sensitive, selective heterogeneous colorimetric probe for detecting cyanide and fluoride ions in water has been developed. The probe is based on the combination of a mesoporous nanocrystalline film and a subphthalocyanine dye (see figure). The presence of cyanide induces a dramatic decoloration of the film even in the presence of other anions.

    7. Fabrication and Characterization of Nanostructured and Thermosensitive Polymer Membranes for Wound Healing and Cell Grafting (pages 1171–1178)

      L.-S. Wang, P.-Y. Chow, T.-T. Phan, I. J. Lim and Y.-Y. Yang

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500408

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      Human dermal fibroblasts adhere well to a thermosensitive membrane surface at 37°C (figure, left) but detach at 25°C or below. The detached cells can be reattached for growth on a cell culture plate (figure, right). Such thermosensitive polymer membranes have great potential for the construction of a new generation of cell-delivery systems for wound healing and tissue grafting.

    8. Multivalent-Ion-Mediated Stabilization of Hydrogen-Bonded Multilayers (pages 1179–1186)

      J. F. Quinn and F. Caruso

      Version of Record online: 28 APR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500530

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      Multilayer thin films have been formed from poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) assembled in alternation with poly[(styrene sulfonic acid)-co-(maleic acid)]. By infiltrating a multivalent ion species such as Ce4+ or Fe3+, ionic crosslinks can be introduced into the assembly, thereby greatly improving stability at elevated pH. The Fe3+-stabilized films are responsive to reducing conditions, disassembling upon conversion of Fe3+ to Fe2+.

    9. Sacrificial-Layer Atomic Layer Deposition for Fabrication of Non-Close-Packed Inverse-Opal Photonic Crystals (pages 1187–1196)

      E. Graugnard, J. S. King, D. P. Gaillot and C. J. Summers

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500841

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      Sacrificial-layer atomic layer deposition (see schematic) is used to fabricate non-close-packed inverse opals with sub-nanometer structural and material control, such that the optical properties are precisely controlled over a large spectral range to allow optimization of the photonic bandgaps. This technique is robust and allows far greater control than techniques that involve high-temperature processing or template-etching pretreatments.

    10. Defects in GaN Nanowires (pages 1197–1202)

      D. Tham, C.-Y. Nam and J. E. Fischer

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500807

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      Stacking faults and rotational twins are especially common in wurtzite GaN nanowires (see figure) grown via a vapor–liquid–solid mechanism; this is determined using transmission electron microscopy. The implications of these defects for nanowire growth kinetics and device behavior are discussed.

    11. Highly Efficient Electroluminescence from Green-Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells Based on CuI Complexes (pages 1203–1208)

      Q. Zhang, Q. Zhou, Y. Cheng, L. Wang, D. Ma, X. Jing and F. Wang

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500691

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      Single-layer devices based on inexpensive, nontoxic CuIcomplexes (see figure) emit green light (523 nm) efficiently, with an external quantum yield of up to 16 %. The response time of the devices greatly depends on the counterion, driving voltage, and thickness of the emitting layer. Counterions with a larger volume result in enhanced turn-on time, but thinner emitting layers and higher driving voltage significantly reduce the response time. The devices are found to work in the mode of light-emitting electrochemical cells.

    12. Controlling the Edge Length of Gold Nanoprisms via a Seed-Mediated Approach (pages 1209–1214)

      J. E. Millstone, G. S. Métraux and C. A. Mirkin

      Version of Record online: 26 MAY 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600066

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      Growth of gold nanoprism edge length is controlled and reinitiated by a seeding methodology. This growth is demonstrated spectroscopically by shifts in the unique optical features of these materials (see figure), and is observed visually using detailed electron microscopy.

    13. Hydrothermally Robust Molecular Sieve Silica for Wet Gas Separation (pages 1215–1220)

      M. C. Duke, J. C. D. da Costa, D. D. Do, P. G. Gray and G. Q. Lu

      Version of Record online: 26 MAY 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500456

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      A new carbonized templating technique renders hydrophilic yet hydrothermally stable molecular sieve silica membranes, which are promising for hydrogen separation in clean-energy systems. Pore structure degradation via surface silica migration is uniquely inhibited by the carbon moieties (see figure) imparted by this production technique.

    14. Enhancement of Phosphorescence by Surface-Plasmon Resonances in Colloidal Metal Nanoparticles: The Role of Aggregates (pages 1221–1227)

      J. C. Ostrowski, A. Mikhailovsky, D. A. Bussian, M. A. Summers, S. K. Buratto and G. C. Bazan

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500293

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      An organometallic triplet emitter in the presence of gold nanoparticles (see figure) demonstrates an enhancement of the phosphorescence yield and rate, leading to a suppression of triplet–triplet annihilation. The latter effect is observed with unaggregated particles but the emission yield decreases due to the prevalence of non-radiative decay channels.

    15. Room-Temperature Synthesis of Porous Nanoparticulate TiO2 Films for Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 1228–1234)

      D. Zhang, T. Yoshida, T. Oekermann, K. Furuta and H. Minoura

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500700

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      A room temperature process (see figure) for fabricating porous TiO2 photoelectrodes based on UV–ozone treatment has been developed for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells. The positive effect of the UV–ozone treatment has been studied by XPS and intensity modulated photocurrent/voltage spectroscopies, and leads to energy-conversion efficiencies (η) reaching 4 % for glass cells and 3.27 % for coated poly (ethylene terephtalate) (PET) cells.

    16. Three-Dimensional SiCN Ceramic Microstructures via Nano-Stereolithography of Inorganic Polymer Photoresists (pages 1235–1241)

      T. A. Pham, D.-P. Kim, T.-W. Lim, S.-H. Park, D.-Y. Yang and K.-S. Lee

      Version of Record online: 26 MAY 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600009

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The smallest SiCN ceramic objects, such as the twisted microtube shown in the figure (see also cover), are fabricated using an inorganic polymer photoresist containing 40 wt % of nanoparticles. The resulting structures are stable and have good mechanical strength and chemical stability, which will lead to the fabrication of a variety of new 2D and 3D structures.

    17. Selective Immobilization of Protein Clusters on Polymeric Nanocraters (pages 1242–1246)

      A. Valsesia, P. Colpo, T. Meziani, F. Bretagnol, M. Lejeune, F. Rossi, A. Bouma and M. Garcia-Parajo

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500653

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      Chemically nanopatterned surfaces can be fabricated using a method based on colloidal lithography. Nanocraters of poly(acrylic acid) (carboxylic functionalized) surrounded by a matrix of poly(ethylene glycol) have been fabricated (see figure). The carboxylic groups of the craters are activated in order to induce covalent binding of fluorescent-labeled proteins.

    18. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Structure- and Shape-Controlled Manganese Oxide Octahedral Molecular Sieve Nanomaterials (pages 1247–1253)

      W.-N. Li, J. Yuan, X.-F. Shen, S. Gomez-Mower, L.-P. Xu, S. Sithambaram, M. Aindow and S. L. Suib

      Version of Record online: 28 APR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500504

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      Manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS) nanoarchitectures (see figure) with controlled crystal phases, shapes, and tunnel sizes have been prepared. The effects of reaction parameters on the growth of OMS nano-urchins and chromium-ion incorporation have been investigated. A mechanism of formation is proposed.

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