Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 17 Issue 13

September, 2007

Volume 17, Issue 13

Pages 1997–2240

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Full Papers
    5. Index
    1. Cover Picture: An Epoxy Photoresist Modified by Luminescent Nanocrystals for the Fabrication of 3D High-Aspect-Ratio Microstructures (Adv. Funct. Mater. 13/2007)

      C. Ingrosso, V. Fakhfouri, M. Striccoli, A. Agostiano, A. Voigt, G. Gruetzner, M. L. Curri and J. Brugger

      Version of Record online: 23 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200790044

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An epoxy-based negative-tone photoresist is functionalized with red-light-emitting CdSe@ZnS nanocrystals and patterned by UV lithography (see figure). The 3D high-aspect-ratio fabricated microstructures demonstrate that the emission properties of the nanocrystals can be conveyed into the resist, while retaining its lithographic properties.

  2. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Full Papers
    5. Index
  3. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Full Papers
    5. Index
    1. An Epoxy Photoresist Modified by Luminescent Nanocrystals for the Fabrication of 3D High-Aspect-Ratio Microstructures (pages 2009–2017)

      C. Ingrosso, V. Fakhfouri, M. Striccoli, A. Agostiano, A. Voigt, G. Gruetzner, M. L. Curri and J. Brugger

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700098

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An epoxy-based negative-tone photoresist is functionalized with red-light-emitting CdSe@ZnS nanocrystals and patterned by UV lithography (see figure). The 3D high-aspect-ratio fabricated microstructures demonstrate that the emission properties of the nanocrystals can be conveyed into the resist, while retaining its lithographic properties.

    2. Large-Size Bulk and Thin-Film Stilbazolium-Salt Single Crystals for Nonlinear Optics and THz Generation (pages 2018–2023)

      Z. Yang, L. Mutter, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, M. Jazbinsek, A. Schneider, V. Gramlich and P. Günter

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200601117

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A nonlinear optical stilbazolium salt DSTMS that yields very large-area bulk single crystals and single crystalline thin films with good optical quality and high second order susceptibility of 430 pm/V at 1.9 μm has been developed. Highly efficient generation of THz pulses with DSTMS crystals has been demonstrated (see figure).

    3. Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Using Microstructured Optical Fiber Substrates (pages 2024–2030)

      A. Amezcua-Correa, J. Yang, C. E. Finlayson, A. C. Peacock, J. R. Hayes, P. J. A. Sazio, J. J. Baumberg and S. M. Howdle

      Version of Record online: 24 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200601125

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Microstructured optical fibers (MOFs) represent a promising materials platform technology for next generation surface-enhanced Raman scattering sensors and plasmonic devices; robust, precisely controlled, lithography free, highly reproducible and manufacturable template structures that exhibit a large interaction area between waveguided radiation and the analyte are demonstrated.

    4. Influence of Engineered Peptides Cadmium Sulfide Nanocrystals (pages 2031–2037)

      E. D. Spoerke and J. A. Voigt

      Version of Record online: 26 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600163

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Engineered peptides, rich in cysteines and aspartic acids, are used to control the formation of fluorescent cadmium sulfide nanocrystals. Peptide composition and geometry are found to significantly influence cadmium sulfide nanocrystal size, optical properties, and aggregation behavior.

    5. The Development of a Generic Bioanalytical Matrix Using Polydiacetylenes (pages 2038–2044)

      S. W. Lee, C. D. Kang, D. H. Yang, J.-S. Lee, J. M. Kim, D. J. Ahn and S. J. Sim

      Version of Record online: 20 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600398

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A versatile sensor methodology that employs polydiacetylenes (PDAs) is presented. PDAs change color upon exposure to numerous external stimuli. By using a system where antibodies are conjugated to PDA liposomes, it is possible to modulate the colorimetric properties of PDA, by controlling the number of receptor molecules conjugated to the liposome (see figure), and the increase in membrane fluidity, by changing the composition of the liposomes.

    6. Selective Immobilization of Nanoparticles on Surfaces by Molecular Recognition using Simple Multiple H-bonding Functionalities (pages 2045–2052)

      C. R. van den Brom, I. Arfaoui, T. Cren, B. Hessen, T. T. M. Palstra, J. T. M. De Hosson and P. Rudolf

      Version of Record online: 26 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600497

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A pair of complementary hydrogen-bonding alkylthiolates was used to selectively deposit functionalized Au55 clusters onto self-assembled thiolate monolayers on gold. The process is controlled by the composition of the particle-containing medium and the density of the functionalities in the monolayers.

    7. Heat Treatment of Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Capsules: A Versatile Method for Encapsulation (pages 2053–2061)

      K. Köhler and G. B. Sukhorukov

      Version of Record online: 24 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600593

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An elegant way to fill polyelectrolyte multilayer capsules based on temperature- induced rearrangements within the shells is introduced (see figure). Upon heating, the capsules shrink whereas their walls densify providing the prerequisite to capture molecules inside.

    8. Mechanical Reinforcement of Polyethylene Using Polyethylene-Grafted Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes (pages 2062–2069)

      B.-X. Yang, K. P. Pramoda, G. Q. Xu and S. H. Goh

      Version of Record online: 24 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600599

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Polyethylene is grafted onto multiwalled carbon nanotubes by a reactive blending process. The stiffness, strength, ductility and toughness of polyethylene are all improved by the addition of PE-g-MWNTs.

    9. Magnetic and Transparent Composites by Linking Liquid Crystals to Ferrite Nanoparticles through Covalent Networks (pages 2070–2076)

      H. M. Song, J. C. Kim, J. H. Hong, Y. B. Lee, J. Choi, J. I. Lee, W. S. Kim, J.-H. Kim and N. H. Hur

      Version of Record online: 24 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600766

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Transparent magnetic liquid-crystalline elastomers (see figure) are made by incorporating allyl-functionalized ferrite nanoparticles into the siloxane backbones with nematic liquid crystals (LCs) as the side chain mesogenic units. The ferrite nanoparticles have an orientational ordering effect on the mesogenic liquid crystals, enabling the development of LC alignment surfaces on the basis of these nanomagnet–LC polymer composites.

    10. Tris(4-cyanophenyl)amine: Simple Synthesis via Self-assembly; Strong Fluorescence in Solution, Nano/microcrystals, and Solid (pages 2077–2084)

      A. Patra, S. P. Anthony and T. P. Radhakrishnan

      Version of Record online: 26 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600931

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Tris(4-cyanophenyl)amine is synthesized through a simple but intriguing protocol; it is fabricated as highly monodisperse molecular nano/microcrystals. Strong blue-light emission is observed in the different physical states—solution, colloid, and solid (see figure); crystal structure and computations on supramolecular clusters provide insight into the observations.

    11. Multifunctional Hydrogels that Promote Osteogenic Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation Through Stimulation and Sequestering of Bone Morphogenic Protein 2 (pages 2085–2093)

      D. S. W. Benoit, S. D. Collins and K. S. Anseth

      Version of Record online: 24 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700012

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels are functionalized with fluvastatin-releasing grafts and growth-factor-binding heparin domains to enable bidirectional signaling. By incorporating a fluvastatin-releasing graft and carefully controlling the dose and temporal release, materials are designed to promote bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2) and alkaline phosphatase production by human mesenchymal stem cells. BMP2 was detected by using immunohistochemistry through fluorescent labeling (see figure).

    12. Engineering of Self-Assembled Domain Architectures with Ultra-high Piezoelectric Response in Epitaxial Ferroelectric Films (pages 2094–2100)

      J. Ouyang, J. Slusker, I. Levin, D.-M. Kim, C.-B. Eom, R. Ramesh and A. L. Roytburd

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600823

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A dominant self-assembled 2-domain architecture in epitaxial PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 films grown on (101) SrTiO3 single crystal substrates (image size: 10μm×10μm; see figure). The formation of such a domain structure reduces the inter-domain pinning and therefore enhances electro-mechanical responses under an applied electric field.

    13. Versatile Supramolecular Nanovalves Reconfigured for Light Activation (pages 2101–2110)

      T. D. Nguyen, K. C.-F. Leung, M. Liong, Y. Liu, J. F. Stoddart and J. I. Zink

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600751

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A supramolecular nanovalve controls the 2 nm diameter openings to pores in silica particles. It traps and releases luminescent molecules in the pores on command (see figure). It is activated by chemical reducing agents and by illumination of built-in photo-reducing agents.

    14. Charge Transfer Excitons in Bulk Heterojunctions of a Polyfluorene Copolymer and a Fullerene Derivative (pages 2111–2116)

      M. A. Loi, S. Toffanin, M. Muccini, M. Forster, U. Scherf and M. Scharber

      Version of Record online: 20 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200601098

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The photophysical properties of blends of fluorene copolymer and PCBM are studied with particular attention to photovoltaic application. The appearance in the F8DTBT/PCBM blend of a new low energy photoluminescence peak is ascribed to the emission of a charge transfer excitons (see figure).

    15. Solution-Processed HafSOx and ZircSOx Inorganic Thin-Film Dielectrics and Nanolaminates (pages 2117–2124)

      J. T. Anderson, C. L. Munsee, C. M. Hung, T. M. Phung, G. S. Herman, D. C. Johnson, J. F. Wager and D. A. Keszler

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200601135

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      High-performance, thin-film oxide dielectrics have been produced via solution deposition by following the principle of prompt inorganic condensation. The smooth surfaces and consolidated morphologies of discrete layers facilitated the fabrication of amorphous nanolaminates, manifesting unsurpassed resolution for oxide films (see figure).

    16. Simple Patterning via Adhesion between a Buffered-Oxide Etchant-Treated PDMS Stamp and a SiO2 Substrate (pages 2125–2132)

      Y.-K. Kim, G. T. Kim and J. S. Ha

      Version of Record online: 26 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700217

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A simple technique of (PDMS) pattern transfer (PDMS = polydimethylsiloxane), called buffered-oxide etchant (BOE)-printing lithography, is introduced (see figure). The transferred PDMS patterns can be utilized as chemical as well as physical passivation layers. Various PDMS patterns and device structures are fabricated on SiO2 substrates, confirming the utility of the BOE-printing lithography.

    17. Photoemission Electron Microscopy of TiO2 Anatase Films Embedded with Rutile Nanocrystals (pages 2133–2138)

      G. Xiong, R. Shao, T. C. Droubay, A. G. Joly, K. M. Beck, S. A. Chambers and W. P. Hess

      Version of Record online: 20 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700146

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) image of a mixed-phase TiO2 thin film grown by oxygen-plasma- assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The bright rutile nanocrystals are embedded in the dark anatase film. Femtosecond laser pulses (3.1 eV) are used to induce photoemission.

    18. Cytocompatible Hydrogels Based on Photocrosslinkable Methacrylated O-Carboxymethylchitosan with Tunable Charge: Synthesis and Characterization (pages 2139–2150)

      Y. F. Poon, Y. B. Zhu, J. Y. Shen, M. B. Chan-Park and S. C. Ng

      Version of Record online: 20 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600420

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A series of photocrosslinked hydrogels, derived from novel methacrylated O-carboxymethylchitosan and polyethylene glycol, was prepared. The resultant anionic hydrogels display varying charge density, water- swellability and pore sizes (see figure). These UV-crosslinked hydrogels are cytocompatible and show adsorption ability for TGF-β1.

    19. Site-Selective Deposition of Nanostructured ZnO Thin Films from Solutions Containing Polyvinylpyrrolidone (pages 2151–2159)

      P. Lipowsky, R. C. Hoffmann, U. Welzel, J. Bill and F. Aldinger

      Version of Record online: 23 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600399

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Zinc oxide thin films are deposited with on sulfonate-modified self-assembled monolayers from methanolic solutions that contain polyvinylpyrrolidone. Site-selective deposition (see figure) is achieved after local decomposition of the self-assembled monolayer (SAM). The deposited films are nanocrystalline, textured, and show visible and UV fluorescence.

    20. Functionalization of Cubic Ia3d Mesoporous Silica for Immobilization of Penicillin G Acylase (pages 2160–2166)

      Y. Lü, G. Lu, Y. Wang, Y. Guo, Y. Guo, Z. Zhang, Y. Wang and X. Liu

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600505

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Functionalized cubic Ia3d mesoporous silica (CIMS) with γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxylsilane (GPTMS) containing epoxy groups was prepared and used as the support for the immobilization of PGA (IMP). PGA can be immobilized covalently on the FCIMS materials at mild condition. The operational stability of IMP has been improved obviously.

    21. Origin of the Reduced Fill Factor and Photocurrent in MDMO-PPV:PCNEPV All-Polymer Solar Cells (pages 2167–2173)

      M. M. Mandoc, W. Veurman, L. J. A. Koster, B. de Boer and P. W. M. Blom

      Version of Record online: 24 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200601110

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Solar cells made from all-polymer blends show lower efficiencies than their fullerene counterparts because of a low fill factor. It is demonstrated that in this type of blend the photogeneration mechanism is strongly reduced by the poor dissociation of geminate electron–hole pairs. The figure shows typical dark (solid symbols) and illuminated (open symbols) current-density–voltage characteristics of a MDMO-PPV:PCNEPV solar cell.

    22. Thin Films of Insoluble Poly(Oligothienylene vinylenes) Prepared by Chemical Vapor Deposition Polymerization (pages 2174–2179)

      S.-H. Joo, C.-Y. Lee, D. Park, J. Joo and J.-I. Jin

      Version of Record online: 7 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600404

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A chemical vapor deposition polymerization (CVDP) method is employed for the preparation of insoluble poly(oligothienylene vinylenes) (PTmVs) as thin films. CVDP is also used to deposit both an active layer of PTmV and an insulating poly(p-xylylene) layer in the fabrication of field-effect transistors (see figure).

    23. Biomimetic Hydroxyapatite–Drug Nanocrystals as Potential Bone Substitutes with Antitumor Drug Delivery Properties (pages 2180–2188)

      B. Palazzo, M. Iafisco, M. Laforgia, N. Margiotta, G. Natile, C. L. Bianchi, D. Walsh, S. Mann and N. Roveri

      Version of Record online: 24 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600361

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Biomimetic hydroxyapatite (HA)–drug nanocrystals for potential use in bone implantation are developed (see figure), which in addition function as a local targeted delivery system for anticancer and antimetastatic drugs with controlled release properties. The results demonstrate that HA nanocrystals and antitumor drugs can be selected in such a way that the bioactivity of the drug–HA conjugate could be tailored for specific therapeutic applications.

    24. Preparation and Gas Sensing Characteristics of Nanoparticulate p-Type Semiconducting LnFeO3 and LnCrO3 Materials (pages 2189–2197)

      M. Siemons, A. Leifert and U. Simon

      Version of Record online: 26 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600454

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The gas-sensing properties of nanoparticulate LnMO3 oxides are investigated. The perovskite-type materials are prepared by polyol-mediated synthesis, and their morphology is characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Thick films on comb-type Pt electrodes are electrically characterized by high-throughput impedance spectroscopy (see figure). The materials show interesting sensor behavior towards a range of test gases. A correlation between the Ln–O binding energy and the sensing properties is observed.

    25. Dual-Activity Controlled Asymmetric Synthesis of Superconducting Lead Hemispheres** (pages 2198–2202)

      X. L. Lu, W. Wang, G. Q. Zhang and X. G. Li

      Version of Record online: 20 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700011

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The asymmetric fabrication of Pb hemispheres with diameters of about 1 μm (see figure) is accomplished via a simple solvothermal reaction in an ethylene glycol solution containing lead acetate, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, and polyvinyl pyrrolidone. These Pb hemispheres could be used as sacrificial templates for producing PbS hemispheres or Pb@Ag half-ball shells.

    26. Fluorescent, Carrier-Trapping Dopants for Highly Efficient Single-Layer Polyfluorene LEDs (pages 2203–2210)

      Z. Zhao, J.-H. Li, P. Lu and Y. Yang

      Version of Record online: 24 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700195

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Single-layer polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) based on poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) blended with dopants exhibit excellent performance. A PLED that contains 0.2% of dopant 7 shows a high luminance efficiency of 10.7 ± 0.3 cd A–1 with a brightness of 1400 cd A–1. Carrier trapping by dopants might be responsible for the good performance of the devices.

    27. Self-Assembled Nanoparticles Based Fabrication of Gecko Foot-Hair-Inspired Polymer Nanofibers (pages 2211–2218)

      T. S. Kustandi, V. D. Samper, D. K. Yi, W. S. Ng, P. Neuzil and W. Sun

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600564

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A flexible membrane covered by high aspect-ratio of polymeric nanostructures has been fabricated to emulate the morphology of gecko's foot-pads. The nanostructured surface adheres firmly to a smooth surface and inherits the self-cleaning property of the setal nanostructures found in gecko lamellae.

    28. Shape Control of Platinum Nanoparticles (pages 2219–2228)

      E. Ramirez, L. Eradès, K. Philippot, P. Lecante and B. Chaudret

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600633

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Decomposition of Pt2(dba)3 under CO or H2 produces initially Pt nanoparticles of ca 1.6 nm mean size which transform in the presence of amine ligands into nanorods or nanowires according to the reaction conditions (temperature, solvent, gas atmosphere).

    29. Mechanical Properties of Robust Ultrathin Silk Fibroin Films (pages 2229–2237)

      C. Jiang, X. Wang, R. Gunawidjaja, Y.-H. Lin, M. K. Gupta, D. L. Kaplan, R. R. Naik and V. V. Tsukruk

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200601136

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Freely suspended multilayer films of silk fibroin fabricated by spin-assisted layer-by-layer assembly exhibit high elastic moduli of 6–8 GPa and ultimate tensile strengths reaching up to 100 MPa. The gradual development of a self-reinforcing microstructure of highly crystalline β-sheets, serving as reinforcing fillers and physical crosslinks (see figure) are suggested to be fundamental for these properties. Such regenerated silk fibroin films have great potential in various bio-related applications.

  4. Index

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Full Papers
    5. Index

SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION