Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 17 Issue 15

October, 2007

Volume 17, Issue 15

Pages 2617–3003

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Full Papers
    7. Index
    1. Cover Picture: High Definition Digital Fabrication of Active Organic Devices by Molecular Jet Printing (Adv. Funct. Mater. 15/2007)

      J. Chen, V. Leblanc, S. H. Kang, P. J. Benning, D. Schut, M. A. Baldo, M. A. Schmidt and V. Bulović

      Article first published online: 11 OCT 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200790050

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Micromachined silicon printhead with an integrated shutter has been incorporated into the patterning technique for organic semiconductors and metals. Here we show for the first time that active organic devices represented by OLED and OFET can be both directly fabricated at high definition by this novel printing method.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Full Papers
    7. Index
    1. Inside Front Cover: One-Pot Synthesis and Hierarchical Assembly of Hollow Cu2O Microspheres with Nanocrystals-Composed Porous Multishell and Their Gas-Sensing Properties (Adv. Funct. Mater. 15/2007)

      H. Zhang, Q. Zhu, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, L. Zhao and B. Yu

      Article first published online: 11 OCT 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200790051

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A facile and one-pot synthesis of Cu2O microspheres with nanocrystals- composed multilayered and porous shells was reported in this paper via a two-step organization process with hollow microspheres of Cu2(OH)3NO3 as the template.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Full Papers
    7. Index
    1. Contents: Adv. Funct. Mater. 15/2007 (pages 2617–2631)

      Article first published online: 11 OCT 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200790048

  4. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Full Papers
    7. Index
    1. You have free access to this content
      Green Light for the Future (pages 2633–2634)

      L. Wylie and K. Grieve

      Article first published online: 11 OCT 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200701094

      Materials science is a key research area for the development of technologies needed to address the energy and environmental challenges facing our society. Since it began, Advanced Functional Materials has been publishing key papers in materials for energy production and storage. Here, two of the editors highlight areas of special prominence and discuss the way the journal is improving its services.

  5. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Full Papers
    7. Index
    1. Novel Digital Nonvolatile Memory Devices Based on Semiconducting Polymer Thin Films (pages 2637–2644)

      S. Baek, D. Lee, J. Kim, S.-H. Hong, O. Kim and M. Ree

      Article first published online: 9 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600892

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      High-performance, digital nonvolatile memory devices based on semiconducting polymers were fabricated. These devices have novel current-voltage switching and memory characteristics, opening up the possibility of the mass production of high performance digital nonvolatile polymer memory devices with low cost.

    2. A Thermoplastic Gel Electrolyte for Stable Quasi-Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 2645–2652)

      J. H. Wu, S. C. Hao, Z. Lan, J. M. Lin, M. L. Huang, Y. F. Huang, L. Q. Fang, S. Yin and T. Sato

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600621

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      A thermoplastic gel electrolyte is developed for use in solar cells based on the incorporation of propylene carbonate in a poly(ethylene glycol) host, as illustrated in the figure. The electrolyte exhibits good thermoplastic behavior, high conductivity, and long-term stability. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on this electrolyte exhibit overall power efficiencies as high as 7.22 % under 100 mW cm–2 irradiation.

    3. Electro-Optical Study of Subphthalocyanine in a Bilayer Organic Solar Cell (pages 2653–2658)

      H. H. P. Gommans, D. Cheyns, T. Aernouts, C. Girotto, J. Poortmans and P. Heremans

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700398

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      The external and internal quantum efficiencies in small molecule solar cells based on a planar Chloro[Subphthalocyanine]boron(III) (SubPc) / buckminsterfullerene heterojunction yield a maximum of 46% and 55%. The morphology and the complex index of refraction of SubPc films are discussed.

    4. Ortho-Nitrostilbenes in Polycarbonate for Holographic Data Storage (pages 2659–2666)

      C. Erben, E. P. Boden, K. L. Longley, X. Shi and B. L. Lawrence

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600943

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      Holographic data storage materials based on o-nitrostilbene doped polycarbonate are produced and characterized. These could find application in archival and consumer applications. Polycarbonate blends are injection molded into the standard DVD format and used for holographic data storage (see figure).

    5. Re-endothelialization of Human Umbilical Arteries Treated with Polyelectrolyte Multilayers: A Tool for Damaged Vessel Replacement (pages 2667–2673)

      H. Kerdjoudj, C. Boura, V. Moby, K. Montagne, P. Schaaf, J.-C. Voegel, J.-F. Stoltz and P. Menu

      Article first published online: 15 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600795

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      Polyelectrolyte multilayer films deposited onto cryopreserved inner blood vessels (see figure) restore their mechanical properties and allow a perfect adhesion and spreading of human endothelial cells. This strategy of luminal coating could enhance the biocompatibility and long-term functionality of vascular substitutes.

    6. Tough, Semiconducting Polyethylene-poly(3-hexylthiophene) Diblock Copolymers (pages 2674–2679)

      C. Müller, S. Goffri, D. W. Breiby, J. W. Andreasen, H. D. Chanzy, R. A. J. Janssen, M. M. Nielsen, C. P. Radano, H. Sirringhaus, P. Smith and N. Stingelin-Stutzmann

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200601248

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      Diblock copolymers of polyethylene and regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) show saturated charge-carrier mobilities μFET as high as 2\.10-2 cm2/Vs, ON-OFF ratios Ion/Ioff ∼105, elongations at break >600 % and true tensile strengths ∼70 MPa at contents of the insulating PE moiety as high as 90 wt%.

    7. Addressable Protein Patterning via Switchable Superhydrophobic Microarrays (pages 2680–2686)

      J.-Y. Shiu and P. L. Chen

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700122

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      A multi-component protein-patterning technique has been developed using novel switchable superhydrophobic surfaces. Up to 100 × 100 protein spots could be created within one second. Each element on the switchable superhydrophobic microarray can be addressed individually (see figure) and as such different proteins may be adsorbed. The protein functionality meanwhile is retained.

    8. Orders-of-Magnitude Reduction of the Contact Resistance in Short-Channel Hot Embossed Organic Thin Film Transistors by Oxidative Treatment of Au-Electrodes (pages 2687–2692)

      B. Stadlober, U. Haas, H. Gold, A. Haase, G. Jakopic, G. Leising, N. Koch, S. Rentenberger and E. Zojer

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700294

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      Short-channel hot embossed pentacene OTFTs were subdued to a UV/ozone treatment, which induced the formation of an ultra-thin AuOx layer and an upright orientation of pentacene molecules on top of the electrodes thus resulting in a dramatic reduction of the contact resistance.

    9. Mineral Deposition and Crystal Growth in the Continuously Forming Teeth of Sea Urchins (pages 2693–2700)

      Y. R. Ma, S. Weiner and L. Addadi

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700234

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      The sea urchin tooth contains highly convoluted structural elements composed of high Mg calcite. These form via an amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) phase into a sophisticated functional material. The flat plate and the needle complexes that subsequently grow off the edge of the plate, all have the same crystallographic orientations.

    10. Polyelectrolyte-Clay-Protein Layer Films on Microfluidic PDMS Bioreactor Surfaces for Primary Murine Bone Marrow Culture (pages 2701–2709)

      G. Mehta, M. J. Kiel, J. W. Lee, N. Kotov, J. J. Linderman and S. Takayama

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700016

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      Polyelectrolyte multilayer nanocomposite coatings are deposited inside poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microbioreactors by an automated perfusion system. These coatings are screened for ability to support growth and spreading of primary bone marrow stromal cells inside PDMS microbioreactors.

    11. Facile Synthesis of Nanostructured Carbon through Self-Assembly between Block Copolymers and Carbohydrates (pages 2710–2716)

      A. T. Rodriguez, X. Li, J. Wang, W. A. Steen and H. Fan

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600952

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      A simple and direct wet chemistry method to simultaneously synthesize nanostructured carbon films and particles (see figure) is developed by combining hydrogen bonding assisted self-assembly of poly(styrene)-poly(4-vinylpyridine) and carbohydrate precursors (e.g., turanose, raffinose, glucose, etc.) in two fabrication processes – spin-coating and aerosol processing.

    12. Towards an Understanding of Nanoparticle–Chiral Nematic Liquid Crystal Co-Assembly (pages 2717–2721)

      J. C. Payne and E. L. Thomas

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200601083

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      Defect texture in a nanoparticle–liquid crystal composite. A potential system for creating 1D photonic crystals without time and space inversion symmetries is explored using a cholesteric liquid crystal with silica nanoparticles.

    13. High Definition Digital Fabrication of Active Organic Devices by Molecular Jet Printing (pages 2722–2727)

      J. Chen, V. Leblanc, S. H. Kang, P. J. Benning, D. Schut, M. A. Baldo, M. A. Schmidt and V. Bulović

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200601144

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Micromachined silicon printhead with an integrated shutter has been incorporated into the patterning technique for organic semiconductors and metals. Here we show for the first time that active organic devices represented by OLED and OFET can be both directly fabricated at high definition by this novel printing method.

    14. Tunable Synthesis of Various Wurtzite ZnS Architectural Structures and Their Photocatalytic Properties (pages 2728–2738)

      S. Xiong, B. Xi, C. Wang, D. Xu, X. Feng, Z. Zhu and Y. Qian

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600891

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      Various wurtzite ZnS architectural structures (see figure) are successfully prepared by means of an L-cysteine- assisted solvothermal method in a binary solution by controlling reaction conditions such as the volume ratio of the mixed solvents and the reaction temperature.

    15. A Novel Ultra-hydrophobic Surface: Statically Non-wetting but Dynamically Non-sliding (pages 2739–2745)

      N. Zhao, Q. Xie, X. Kuang, S. Wang, Y. Li, X. Lu, S. Tan, J. Shen, X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, J. Xu and C. C. Han

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200601012

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      A polymer blend surface with microscale roughness and amphiphilic composition is prepared by solution casting. The resultant surface shows a high water contact angle of about 160° but stick the drop (see figure). By tuning the blend ratio, non-wettable surfaces varying gradually from sticky to slippery are formed.

    16. Fluorescence Quenching upon Binding of Copper Ions in Dye-Doped and Ligand-Capped Polymer Nanoparticles: A Simple Way to Probe the Dye Accessibility in Nano-Sized Templates (pages 2746–2756)

      F. Gouanvé, T. Schuster, E. Allard, R. Méallet-Renault and C. Larpent

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200601056

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      Cyclam-capped fluorescent polymer nanoparticles doped with diphenyl- anthracene act as selective sensors for Cu2+ in aqueous medium. Fluorescence quenching upon copper binding shows that 65 % of fluorophores are accessible for energy transfer.

    17. Synthesis of NaYF4 Nanocrystals with Predictable Phase and Shape (pages 2757–2765)

      X. Liang, X. Wang, J. Zhuang, Q. Peng and Y. Li

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600807

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      The structural and kinetic factors that govern the phase and shape evolution (see figure) of NaYF4 nanocrystals is carefully studied, and the influence of NaF to Y3+ ratio, reaction time, and temperature on the phase and shape evolution of the as-prepared NaYF4 samples is systematically investigated and discussed.

    18. One-Pot Synthesis and Hierarchical Assembly of Hollow Cu2O Microspheres with Nanocrystals-Composed Porous Multishell and Their Gas-Sensing Properties (pages 2766–2771)

      H. Zhang, Q. Zhu, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, L. Zhao and B. Yu

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200601146

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      A facile and one-pot synthesis of Cu2O microspheres with nanocrystals- composed multilayered and porous shells was reported in this paper via a two-step organization process with hollow microspheres of Cu2(OH)3NO3 as the template.

    19. In Situ Growth of Mesoporous SnO2 on Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes: A Novel Composite with Porous-Tube Structure as Anode for Lithium Batteries (pages 2772–2778)

      Z. Wen, Q. Wang, Q. Zhang and J. Li

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600739

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      A hybrid composite with mesoporous-tube structure was formed through in situ organization of mesoporous SnO2 on the surface of the MWCNTs, which presented excellent cycle performance and higher capacity in comparison with the mesoporous SnO2 as anode for lithium batteries.

    20. Colloidal Photonic Crystals Doped with Gold Nanoparticles: Spectroscopy and Optical Switching Properties (pages 2779–2786)

      V. Morandi, F. Marabelli, V. Amendola, M. Meneghetti and D. Comoretto

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600764

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      Opals doped with gold nanoparticles are grown and characterized by electron microscopy and optical spectroscopy. Their optical switching properties are investigated in the ns time domain. A variation of transmission upon photoexcitation of about 150% at the stop-band is observed.

    21. Mechanical Properties and Flame-Retardant Behavior of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate/High-Density Polyethylene Coated Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites (pages 2787–2791)

      S. Peeterbroeck, F. Laoutid, J.-M. Taulemesse, F. Monteverde, J.-M. Lopez-Cuesta, J. B. Nagy, M. Alexandre and P. Dubois

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600936

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      Nanocomposites based on ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) containing well-dispersed HDPE-coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (c-MWNTs) present significantly enhanced mechanical and flame retardant properties. In fact, the incorporation of 3 wt % of c-MWNTs leads to an increase in Young's modulus, the cohesion of the combustion residue (see right figure), and a decrease of the peak heat-release rate as compared with using uncoated MWCNT as the filler (left figure).

    22. You have free access to this content
      α-Fe2O3 Nanoflakes as an Anode Material for Li-Ion Batteries (pages 2792–2799)

      M. V. Reddy, T. Yu, C. H. Sow, Z. X. Shen, C. T. Lim, G. V. Subba Rao and B. V. R. Chowdari

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200601186

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      Nanoflakes of α-Fe2O3exhibit a reversible and stable capacity of (680 ± 20) mA h g–1 for up to 80 cycles when cycled in the voltage range of 0.005–3.0 V (versus Li) at 65 mA g–1 (see figure). These results, combined with the fact that iron oxides are cheap, abundant, and environmentally compatible, make the Fe2O3 nanoflakes an alternative anode material to replace the presently used graphite in Li-ion batteries.

    23. Succinonitrile as a Versatile Additive for Polymer Electrolytes (pages 2800–2807)

      L.-Z. Fan, Y.-S. Hu, A. J. Bhattacharyya and J. Maier

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200601070

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      The introduction of succinonitrile (SN) into polymer electrolytes based on poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VDF-HFP)) highlights dual advantages: it not only increases ionic conductivity but also significantly improves mechanical properties. Such a composite electrolyte with enhanced performance (see figure) ought to have potential application in lithium batteries.

    24. Synthesis and Patterning of Prussian Blue Nanostructures on Silicon Wafer via Galvanic Displacement Reaction (pages 2808–2814)

      Y. Y. Song, W.-Z. Jia, Y. Li, X.-H. Xia, Q.-J. Wang, J.-W. Zhao and Y.-D. Yan

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600625

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      PB structures on a Si surface were fabricated by a galvanic displacement reaction, which were mapped by SECM based on the catalytic current for H2O2 oxidation. Such nanoscale interconnects between semiconductor and magnetic materials are important for application in many fields.

    25. Carbon Nanotube Coatings on Bioglass-Based Tissue Engineering Scaffolds (pages 2815–2822)

      A. R. Boccaccini, F. Chicatun, J. Cho, O. Bretcanu, J. A. Roether, S. Novak and Q. Z. Chen

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600887

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      Bioglass-based scaffolds are homogeneously coated with carbon nanotubes (CNT) by electrophoretic deposition. CNT induced a nanostructured internal surface of the pores, beneficial for cell attachment and proliferation. Bioactivity of the scaffolds is confirmed by immersion in simulated body fluid.

    26. Proton-Conducting Aromatic Polymers Carrying Hypersulfonated Side Chains for Fuel Cell Applications (pages 2823–2834)

      B. Lafitte and P. Jannasch

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700107

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      Membranes based on polysulfones with side chains having hypersulfonated moieties contain large and uniform ionic clusters which form efficient networks of water-filled nanopores upon hydration. These membranes thus show excellent levels of proton conductivity already at quite moderate water uptakes.

    27. Mesocellular Silica Foam as an Epoxy Polymer Reinforcing Agent (pages 2835–2841)

      I. Park and T. J. Pinnavaia

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700063

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      Mechanically improved rubbery epoxy polymer composite using mesocellular silica foam (MSU-F) as a reinforcing agent is demonstrated. The silica foam particles are well-dispersed without the need for an organic surface modifier and provide polymer reinforcement at relatively low silica loading (1–9 wt %) without sacrifice in thermal or optical transparency of the polymer.

    28. Photoelectrical Characteristics of a C/CNx Multiwalled Nanotube (pages 2842–2846)

      K. Xiao, Y. Fu, Y. Q. Liu, G. Yu, J. Zhai, L. Jiang, W. P. Hu, Z. G. Shuai, Y. Luo and D. B. Zhu

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600830

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      An optically gated transistor is fabricated using a single multiwalled nanotube composed of a straight carbon and a bamboo-like CNx segment, as schematically depicted in the figure. The large electric field at the molecular junction between the two segments generates a large photocurrent and photovoltage under external radiation.

    29. Enhanced Ionic Conductivity in Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9: Unique Effect of Calcium Co-doping (pages 2847–2854)

      S. Banerjee, P. S. Devi, D. Topwal, S. Mandal and K. Menon

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600890

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      Calcium Co-doping in the Ca0.8Sm0.2O1.9 system enhances its ionic conductivity considerably: Co-doping gives rise to a new series of cost- effective oxide ion-conducting materials (see figure) with enhanced ionic conductivity (σ = 1.22 × 10–1 S cm–1 at 700 °C) and chemical stability against reduction, making this material attractive for technological applications.

    30. Nanophase ZnCo2O4 as a High Performance Anode Material for Li-Ion Batteries (pages 2855–2861)

      Y. Sharma, N. Sharma, G. V. Subba Rao and B. V. R. Chowdari

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600997

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      Nanophase ZnCo2O4 has been synthesized, characterized and tested for Li-recyclability. It exhibited reversible capacities of 900 mAh/g (8.3 moles of Li) in the voltage range 0.005–3.0V vs Li at 60 mA/g up to 60 cycles with excellent rate capability.

    31. Energy-Modulated Heterostructures Made with Conjugated Polymers for Directional Energy Transfer and Carrier Confinement (pages 2862–2868)

      H. R. Favarim, D. Spadacio, A. D. Faceto, V. Zucolotto, O. N. Oliveira Jr. and F. E. G. Guimarães

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600819

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      Three-dimensional polymeric arrays with graded energy layers are used to promote efficient directional migration of the excited state over distances significantly larger than a single molecular unit inside multilayered devices.

    32. A Molecular Glass for Deep-Blue Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Comprising a 9,9′-Spirobifluorene Core and Peripheral Carbazole Groups (pages 2869–2877)

      S. Tang, M. R. Liu, P. Lu, H. Xia, M. Li, Z. Q. Xie, F. Z. Shen, C. Gu, H. P. Wang, B. Yang and Y. G. Ma

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700175

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      Two novel compounds are synthesized for use in deep-blue light-emitting diodes. The compounds have a rigid spirobifluorene core and peripheral carbazole substituents, as shown in the figure. The molecules (see figure) are cast into smooth and thermally stable amorphous films by spin-coating. Devices based on these films show high quantum efficiencies approaching 3.72 % because of balanced electron and hole injection.

    33. Saccharide Blocking Layers in Solid State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 2878–2883)

      S. Handa, S. A. Haque and J. R. Durrant

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600871

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      The adsorption of saccharides onto dye sensitized, nanocrystalline metal oxide films is shown to improve the efficiency of solid state dye sensitized solar cells. Kinetic studies demonstrate that this improved photovoltaic performance results from the saccharide layer acting as a barrier layer to interfacial charge recombination.

    34. Forming Antifouling Organic Multilayers on Porous Silicon Rugate Filters Towards In Vivo/Ex Vivo Biophotonic Devices (pages 2884–2890)

      K. A. Kilian, T. Böcking, S. Ilyas, K. Gaus, W. Jessup, M. Gal and J. J. Gooding

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600790

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      Mesoporous rugate filter photonic crystals that exhibit a resonance in the near infrared towards optical monitoring of implantable devices are described (see figure). Surface passivation with oligo(ethylene oxide) layers affords resistance to nonspecific protein adsorption with increased stability to human blood plasma.

    35. Selective Crystallization of Organic Semiconductors on Patterned Templates of Carbon Nanotubes (pages 2891–2896)

      S. Liu, A. L. Briseno, S. C. B. Mannsfeld, W. You, J. Locklin, H. W. Lee, Y. Xia and Z. Bao

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700484

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      Using single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) bundles as templates, organic semiconductor materials can be successfully patterned (see figure). The selective growth of crystals onto patterned carbon nanotubes is most likely due to the coarse topography of the SWNT bundles. The crystal growth can be directly applied to transistor source–drain electrodes, and arrays of organic single-crystal field effect transistors are demonstrated.

    36. Sulfur-Functionalized Mesoporous Carbon (pages 2897–2901)

      Y. Shin, G. E. Fryxell, W. Um, K. Parker, S. V. Mattigod and R. Skaggs

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200601230

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      The simple synthesis of mesoporous carbons that contain heteroaromatic functionality is described. The superior performance of these mesoporous heterocarbons (see figure) as heavy-metal sorbent materials is demonstrated. These materials are shown to be stable at elevated temperatures and extreme pHs.

    37. Nanostructure-Dependent Vertical Charge Transport in MEH-PPV Films (pages 2902–2910)

      Y.-F. Huang, A. R. Inigo, C.-C. Chang, K.-C. Li, C.-F. Liang, C.-W. Chang, T.-S. Lim, S.-H. Chen, J. D. White, U-S. Jeng, A.-C. Su, Y.-S. Huang, K.-Y. Peng, S.-A. Chen, W.-W. Pai, C.-H. Lin, A. R. Tameev, S. V. Novikov, A. V. Vannikov and W.-S. Fann

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600825

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      Hole mobility in MEH-PPV films increases as layers of ordered high electron density within the amorphous low electron density polymer matrix are broken up and disappear (see figure). This indicates that while hole transport in ordered regions may be efficient, charge transport is controlled by the interfaces.

      Corrected by:

      Correction: Nanostructure-Dependent Vertical Charge Transport in MEH-PPV Films

      Vol. 18, Issue 22, Article first published online: 17 NOV 2008

    38. Polypyrrole Microtubule Actuators for Seizing and Transferring Microparticles (pages 2911–2917)

      X. M. He, C. Li, F. E. Chen and G. Q. Shi

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600869

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      Actuators with a bilayer configuration combining a polypyrrole film and microtubules have been fabricated. These actuators can capture polystyrene microparticles from a dilute solution (see figure), and then transfer and release them into a new medium by electrochemical actuation or sonication.

    39. Arbitrarily Shaped Fiber Assemblies from Spun Carbon Nanotube Gel Fibers (pages 2918–2924)

      J. M. Razal, J. N. Coleman, E. Muñoz, B. Lund, Y. Gogotsi, H. Ye, S. Collins, A. B. Dalton and R. H. Baughman

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700210

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      We provide experimental methods, apparatus, and practically useful theoretical analysis for the coagulation-based spinning of effectively unlimited lengths of carbon nanotube gel fibers having exceptional toughness and reasonably high strength. Assemblies of these gel fibers can be used as intermediates for making nanotube sheets, large diameter fibers, and conformal coatings.

    40. Solution-Processible Multi-component Cyclometalated Iridium Phosphors for High-Efficiency Orange-Emitting OLEDs and Their Potential Use as White Light Sources (pages 2925–2936)

      C.-L. Ho, W.-Y. Wong, G.-J. Zhou, B. Yao, Z. Xie and L. Wang

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200601205

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      New homoleptic and heteroleptic cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes of (9,9-diethyl-7-pyridinylfluoren-2-yl)-9-carbazole and -3-(9-phenylcarbazole) (see Figure) are shown to be highly efficient orange-emitting electrophosphors. The combined features of improved hole transport and short triplet state lifetimes render the resulting organic light-emitting diodes to achieve efficiencies as high as 10 % photons/electron and 30 cd A–1. Utilization of these orange phosphors in the realization of white light sources is also proposed.

    41. Organic Solar Cells by Annealing Stacked Amorphous and Microcrystalline Layers (pages 2937–2942)

      T. Osasa, S. Yamamoto and M. Matsumura

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200601172

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      By annealing stacked organic layers made of C60 in the microcrystalline state and an aromatic amine layer in the amorphous state, the amine compound was infiltrated into the grain boundaries of the C60 layer. This “bulk-heterojunction” was found to be effective for charge separation and carrier transport.

    42. Highly Stable Nickel Hexacyanoferrate Nanotubes for Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (pages 2943–2948)

      W. Chen and X. H. Xia

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700015

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      NiHCF nanotubes with excellent stability and high cesium-selectivity are used as electrically switched ion exchangers because of their distinct nanostructure and composition (see figure). These nanotubes can easily be prepared by a porous anodic alumina template-directed electrokinetic method and obtain the sole structure of K2NiII[FeII(CN)6].

    43. Non-Hydrothermal Synthesis of 1D Nanostructured Manganese-Based Oxides: Effect of Cation Substitution on the Electrochemical Performance of Nanowires (pages 2949–2956)

      D. H. Park, S.-H. Lee, T. W. Kim, S. T. Lim, S.-J. Hwang, Y. S. Yoon, Y.-H. Lee and J.-H. Choy

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200601126

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Cation-substituted manganese oxide nanowires are synthesized in large quantities by the soft chemical oxidation of a solid-state precursor at ambient pressure and low temperatures, as illustrated in the figure. This novel non-hydrothermal approach enables careful control over the composition and crystal structure of the nanowires. Cation substitution is found to have a significant influence on the electrochemical properties of the nanowires.

    44. A Novel Mesoporous CaO-Loaded In2O3 Material for CO2 Sensing (pages 2957–2963)

      A. Prim, E. Pellicer, E. Rossinyol, F. Peiró, A. Cornet and J. R. Morante

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200601072

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A resistive gas sensor based on a novel mesoporous CaO-loaded In2O3 material is used to monitor CO2 gas. A detailed structural and electrical characterization of the synthesized material is shown. A great step towards the comprehension of the physicochemical interaction between the sensing element and the target-gas is achieved by DRIFTS.

    45. New Family of Ruthenium-Dye- Sensitized Nanocrystalline TiO2 Solar Cells with a High Solar-Energy-Conversion Efficiency (pages 2964–2974)

      K.-S. Chen, W.-H. Liu, Y.-H. Wang, C.-H. Lai, P.-T. Chou, G.-H. Lee, K. Chen, H.-Y. Chen, Y. Chi and F.-C. Tung

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600985

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Thinner dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) may be created using the new type of ruthenium complexes presented here that feature tridentate bipyridine–pyrazolate ancillary ligands (see figure). Improved dye uptake and photostability as well as an increase in optical extinction coefficient, may lead to more stable complexation, such that extended life spans of DSSCs may be expected.

    46. Wet Adsorption of a Luminescent EuIII complex on Carbon Nanotubes Sidewalls (pages 2975–2982)

      G. Accorsi, N. Armaroli, A. Parisini, M. Meneghetti, R. Marega, M. Prato and D. Bonifazi

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600696

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      Luminescent single-walled carbon nanotubes have been prepared by simple adsorption of a EuIII-complex from a MeOH solution onto the nanotube sidewall. A strong EuIII-complex-nanotube interaction has been evidenced by microscopic and Raman characterizations. Photoluminescence investigations revealed that the presence of the nanotube framework does not affect at all the EuIII-centered luminescence.

    47. Novel Heteroleptic CuI Complexes with Tunable Emission Color for Efficient Phosphorescent Light-Emitting Diodes (pages 2983–2990)

      Q. Zhang, J. Ding, Y. Cheng, L. Wang, Z. Xie, X. Jing and F. Wang

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200601053

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Mixed-ligand CuI complexes with efficient red emission could be prepared by extending the conjugation and increasing the rigidity of the α,α-diimine ligand. Efficient red phosphorescent OLEDs with a current efficiency of 6.4 cd/A and an external quantum efficiency of 4.5% have been realized.

    48. Organic Thin-Film Photovoltaic Cells Based on Oligothiophenes with Reduced Bandgap (pages 2991–2999)

      C. Uhrich, R. Schueppel, A. Petrich, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, E. Brier, P. Kilickiran and P. Baeuerle

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600917

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      A new terthiophene derivative DCV3T (see figure), end-capped with electron withdrawing dicyanovinylene groups, is used as acceptor material in organic thin film photovoltaic cells. Preparing blend-layers from this material and fullerene C60, an excitonic pin-pong effect can be observed, which is utilized in photovoltaic cells.

  6. Index

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Full Papers
    7. Index

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