Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 17 Issue 7

May, 2007

Volume 17, Issue 7

Pages 1043–1210

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Correction
    5. Feature Article
    6. Full Papers
    7. Index
    1. Cover Picture: A Route to Self-Organized Honeycomb Microstructured Polystyrene Films and Their Chemical Characterization by ToF-SIMS Imaging (Adv. Funct. Mater. 7/2007)

      S. Yunus, A. Delcorte, C. Poleunis, P. Bertrand, A. Bolognesi and C. Botta

      Version of Record online: 25 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200790024

      Breath-figure imprinted films of p-toluenesulfonate-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinium-oxyl polystyrene display a chemical patterning in addition to the regular ordering of cavities (see figure and cover). Time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) indicates that the polymer end groups are located on the cavities' surfaces.

  2. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Correction
    5. Feature Article
    6. Full Papers
    7. Index
  3. Correction

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Correction
    5. Feature Article
    6. Full Papers
    7. Index
    1. You have free access to this content
      Molecular Photochemionics (page 1050)

      R. Ballardini, P. Ceroni, A. Credi, M. T. Gandolfi, M. Maestri, M. Semeraro, M. Venturi and V. Balzani

      Version of Record online: 25 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200790022

      This article corrects:

      Molecular Photochemionics1

      Vol. 17, Issue 5, 740–750, Version of Record online: 1 FEB 2007

  4. Feature Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Correction
    5. Feature Article
    6. Full Papers
    7. Index
    1. Supramolecular Nanostructuring of Silver Surfaces via Self-Assembly of [60]Fullerene and Porphyrin Modules (pages 1051–1062)

      D. Bonifazi, A. Kiebele, M. Stöhr, F. Cheng, T. Jung, F. Diederich and H. Spillmann

      Version of Record online: 3 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600586

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Monomeric and triply fused porphyrins can self-organize into ordered assemblies, the architectures of which are controlled by the porphyrin chemical structure, the metal substrate, and the surface coverage. Subsequent deposition of a C60 adsorbed layer results in the unprecedented formation of ordered hybrid bilayers, as shown for two silver substrates in the figure.

  5. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Correction
    5. Feature Article
    6. Full Papers
    7. Index
    1. A Solution-Processable High-Coloration-Efficiency Low-Switching-Voltage Electrochromic Polymer Based on Polycyclopentadithiophene (pages 1063–1070)

      C.-G. Wu, M.-I. Lu, S.-J. Chang and C.-S. Wei

      Version of Record online: 28 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600381

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Solution-processable poly(4,4-dioctyl-cyclopenta[2,1-b:3,4-b']-dithiophene) is prepared and its electrochromic properties are studied. The polymer film has a high coloration efficiency, fast response time, high optical density, low operating voltage, and high-level stability for long-term switching. The figure shows cyclic voltammetry measurements and the color of the film in the neutral (deep blue) and oxidized (transparent) states.

    2. Effects of Annealing on the Nanomorphology and Performance of Poly(alkylthiophene):Fullerene Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells (pages 1071–1078)

      L. H. Nguyen, H. Hoppe, T. Erb, S. Günes, G. Gobsch and N. S. Sariciftci

      Version of Record online: 12 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200601038

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The photovoltaic performance of solar cells based on thin solid-state films of poly(3-alkylthiophene) (P3AT):fullerene blends depends strongly on the length of the side chain of the P3AT unit (see figure). The development of nanomorphology within these blend films during film formation and subsequent thermal annealing is discussed.

    3. A Route to Self-Organized Honeycomb Microstructured Polystyrene Films and Their Chemical Characterization by ToF-SIMS Imaging (pages 1079–1084)

      S. Yunus, A. Delcorte, C. Poleunis, P. Bertrand, A. Bolognesi and C. Botta

      Version of Record online: 2 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600470

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Breath-figure imprinted films of p-toluenesulfonate-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinium-oxyl polystyrene display a chemical patterning in addition to the regular ordering of cavities (see figure and cover). Time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) indicates that the polymer end groups are located on the cavities' surfaces.

    4. Efficient White-Electrophosphorescent Devices Based on a Single Polyfluorene Copolymer (pages 1085–1092)

      F.-I. Wu, X.-H. Yang, D. Neher, R. Dodda, Y.-H. Tseng and C.-F. Shu

      Version of Record online: 8 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600697

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Chemical doping of a single polyfluorene copolymer with benzothiadiazole-based fluorophores and red-emitting phosphors leads to efficient white-electrophosphorescence (see figure) at voltages as low as 2.8 V. The devices feature only a single emissive layer and the maximum luminance and power conversion efficiencies are 8.2 cd A–1 and 7.2 lm W–1, respectively.

    5. Structural and Electronic Properties of the First Monolayers of Spin-Cast Poly(fluorene)-Based Conjugated- Polymer Films (pages 1093–1105)

      H. Plank, R. Güntner, U. Scherf and E. J. W. List

      Version of Record online: 8 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500905

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Poly(fluorene)-based polymers are prepared from solution via spin-cast preparation on defined substrates. The dependence on drying conditions by means of solvent selection, the influence of a subsequent heat treatment, and of the substrate polarity are investigated for ultrathin films as well as the transition from the first monolayers to the bulk polymer. The figure shows the height (above) and phase (below) of ultrathin triblock copolymer films.

    6. The Fabrication, Fluorescence Dynamics, and Whispering Gallery Modes of Aluminosilicate Microtube Resonators (pages 1106–1114)

      Y. P. Rakovich, S. Balakrishnan, J. F. Donegan, T. S. Perova, R. A. Moore and Y. K. Gun'ko

      Version of Record online: 15 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600918

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      New aluminosilicate microtubular optical resonators are fabricated using vacuum-assisted wetting and filtration of silica gel through a microchannel glass matrix. The emission spectra of the microresonators (see figure) demonstrate very narrow periodic peaks corresponding to the whispering gallery modes of two orthogonal polarizations with quality factors up to 3200.

    7. Strain Accommodation during Phase Transformations in Olivine-Based Cathodes as a Materials Selection Criterion for High-Power Rechargeable Batteries (pages 1115–1123)

      N. Meethong, H.-Y. S. Huang, S. A. Speakman, W. C. Carter and Y.-M. Chiang

      Version of Record online: 21 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600938

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Doped nanoscale olivines of high rate capability possess extended nonstoichiometry and reduced lattice misfit between coexisting phases compared to conventional materials. A reduced elastic energy barrier and the maintenance of coherent interfaces facilitates rapid first-order phase transformation during cycling (see figure).

    8. Concentric Sub-micrometer-Sized Cables Composed of Ni Nanowires and Sub-micrometer-Sized Fullerene Tubes (pages 1124–1130)

      F. Tao, Y. Liang, G. Yin, D. Xu, Z. Jiang, H. Li, M. Han, Y. Song, Z. Xie, Z. Xue, J. Zhu, Z. Xu, L. Zheng, X. Wei and Y. Ni

      Version of Record online: 8 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600177

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Highly ordered arrays of sub-micrometer-sized coaxial cables consisting of fullerene tube sheaths and Ni nanowire cores, such as shown in the figure, are fabricated by combining a sol–gel technique with an electrodeposition process. The wall thickness of the tubular sheaths can be adjusted by varying the fullerene concentration and the immersion time. These composite nanostructures exhibit enhanced ferromagnetic behavior as compared to bulk nickel.

    9. Soft Lithography of Ceramic Patterns (pages 1131–1136)

      O. F. Göbel, M. Nedelcu and U. Steiner

      Version of Record online: 8 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600783

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Patterned metal oxide ceramic films are obtained from polymer–metal-nitrate precursor solutions by using a soft- lithography technique involving micromolding and subsequent annealing. As shown in the figure, defect-free films are obtained over large areas with sub-micrometer-scale resolution. Epitaxially oriented films of PbTiO3 can be fabricated on SrTiO3(100) surfaces by using this method, as depicted in the inset of the figure (column diameter 400 nm).

    10. Reversible Hydrogen Storage by a Li–Al–N–H Complex (pages 1137–1142)

      Z. Xiong, G. Wu, J. Hu, Y. Liu, P. Chen, W. Luo and J. Wang

      Version of Record online: 15 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600759

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Approximately four hydrogen atoms are evolved from a mixture of LiNH2–LiAlH4 (2:1) after mechanical ball milling. Solid-state 27Al NMR measurements (see figure) reveal the transformation of tetrahedral [AlH4] in LiAlH4 to the octahedral [AlH6]3– in Li3AlH6 during the milling process. The formation of Al–N bonding between LiNH2 and LiAlH4 is also discussed.

    11. Depolarization Effects in Self-Assembled Monolayers: A Quantum-Chemical Insight (pages 1143–1148)

      D. Cornil, Y. Olivier, V. Geskin and J. Cornil

      Version of Record online: 15 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200601116

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Quantum-chemical calculations are used to study depolarization effects in self-assembled monolayers (SAMs; see figure). We use one- and two-dimensional model systems to simulate a SAM. A decrease of the dipole moment appears going from an isolated state to the SAM.

    12. Highly Branched Phosphorescent Dendrimers for Efficient Solution-Processed Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (pages 1149–1152)

      R. N. Bera, N. Cumpstey, P. L. Burn and I. D. W. Samuel

      Version of Record online: 15 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600118

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A light-emitting dendrimer with a fac-tris(2-phenylpyridyl)iridium(III) core, highly branched dendrons, and fluorenyl surface groups (see figure) is reported. The fluorenyl groups improve the solubility and film-forming properties of the dendrimer. Highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes are made with external quantum efficiencies of more than 10%.

    13. Confinement of Thermoresponsive Hydrogels in Nanostructured Porous Silicon Dioxide Templates (pages 1153–1162)

      E. Segal, L. A. Perelman, F. Cunin, F. Di Renzo, J.-M. Devoisselle, Y. Y. Li and M. J. Sailor

      Version of Record online: 3 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200601077

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogel is synthesized in situ within a nanostructured porous silicon dioxide template. Optical interferometry is used to monitor the temperature-dependent volume phase transition of the hydrogel composite (see figure) as a function of pore size. Nanoscale confinement in the host matrix is found to exert a profound influence on the rate and extent of the phase transition of the hydrogel.

    14. 3D π-Conjugated Oligothiophenes Based on Sterically Twisted Bithiophene Nodes (pages 1163–1171)

      S. Karpe, A. Cravino, P. Frère, M. Allain, G. Mabon and J. Roncali

      Version of Record online: 12 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600680

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Organic semiconductors with isotropic electronic properties are a potential application of the 3D conjugated oligothiophenes based on twisted bithiophene cores (see figure) that have been synthesized in this work. A preliminary evaluation of their use as donors in bulk heterojunction solar cells is presented.

    15. Nanowire Structural Evolution from Fe3O4 to ϵ-Fe2O3 (pages 1172–1178)

      Y. Ding, J. R. Morber, R. L. Snyder and Z. L. Wang

      Version of Record online: 15 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200601024

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      ϵ-Fe2O3 nanowires are synthesized for the first time. A detailed transmission electron microscopy study reveals the phase transition from Fe3O4 to ϵ-Fe2O3, then to α-Fe2O3 (see figure). The observed ϵ-Fe2O3 is fundamentally important for understanding the magnetic properties of the nanowires.

    16. Solid-State Pyrolysis of Polyphenylene–Metal Complexes: A Facile Approach Toward Carbon Nanoparticles (pages 1179–1187)

      B. El Hamaoui, L. Zhi, J. Wu, J. Li, N. T. Lucas, Ž. Tomović, U. Kolb and K. Müllen

      Version of Record online: 8 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600826

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Graphitic carbon nanotubes, carbon rods, and carbon/metal hybrid particles are obtained from the solid-state pyrolysis of novel polyphenylene–metal complexes with discotic, linear, and dendritic geometries. The ultimate structures of the carbon nanoparticles (CNPs; see figure) are found to depend on the structure and composition of the starting compounds (see scheme). These results provide further opportunities toward understanding the mechanism of CNP formation.

    17. Second Generation Nanostructured Metal Oxide Matrices to Increase the Thermal Stability of CO and NO2 Sensing Layers Based on Iron(II) Phthalocyanine (pages 1188–1198)

      J. F. Fernández-Sánchez, I. Fernández, R. Steiger, R. Beer, R. Cannas and U. E. Spichiger-Keller

      Version of Record online: 12 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600428

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Second-generation optical gas sensors based on iron(II) phthalocyanine incorporated within nanostructured metal oxide matrices have been developed. The figure shows the structure of the active complex overlaid on NMR spectra used to determine the mechanism of its activity. Modification of the nanostructured support with amines, alumina oligomers, and anti-gas-fading agents leads to enhanced thermal stability while retaining sensitivity to CO and NO2.

    18. Enhanced Dielectric and Crystalline Properties in Ferroelectric Barium Titanate Thin Films (pages 1199–1203)

      J. F. Ihlefeld, W. J. Borland and J.-P. Maria

      Version of Record online: 15 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200601159

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Permittivities in excess of 3000 are achieved in polycrystalline barium titanate thin films using a barium borate liquid phase (see figure) to enhance diffusion and subsequently improve film crystallinity. The results are discussed in the context of scaling effects in thin films and demonstrate that no intrinsic size effect is present for films of 600 nm in thickness.

    19. Structural Transformations during Formation of Quasi-Amorphous BaTiO3 (pages 1204–1208)

      D. Ehre, H. Cohen, V. Lyahovitskaya, A. Tagantsev and I. Lubomirsky

      Version of Record online: 27 FEB 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600190

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A model of structural transformations of amorphous into quasi-amorphous BaTiO3 is suggested (see figure). The model, based on previously published data and on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data presented in the current report, predicts the existence of other quasi-amorphous pyro- and piezoelectric phases.

  6. Index

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Correction
    5. Feature Article
    6. Full Papers
    7. Index

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