Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 18 Issue 2

January, 2008

Volume 18, Issue 2

Pages 159–376

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Full Papers
    7. Index
    1. Cover Picture: Self-Organization of Ink-jet-Printed Triisopropylsilylethynyl Pentacene via Evaporation-Induced Flows in a Drying Droplet (Adv. Funct. Mater. 2/2008)

      J. A. Lim, W. H. Lee, H. S. Lee, J. H. Lee, Y. D. Park and K. Cho

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200890010

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Self-organization of ink-jet printed organic semiconductor with highly ordered crystalline structures can be produced by the evaporation-induced recirculation flow in a drying droplet (see figure). The influence of the evaporation-induced flow in a single droplet on the crystalline microstructure and film morphology of ink-jet-printed triisopropylsilylethynyl pentacene (TIPS_PEN) by varying the composition of the solvent mixture is systematically investigated and discussed.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Full Papers
    7. Index
    1. Inside Front Cover: Unprecedented Dual Alignment Mode and Freedericksz Transition in Planar Nematic Liquid Crystal Cells Doped with Gold Nanoclusters (Adv. Funct. Mater. 2/2008)

      H. Qi, B. Kinkead and T. Hegmann

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200890011

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An unprecedented dual alignment and Freedericksz transition mode in nematic liquid crystals (N-LCs) is presented. By fine-tuning experimental conditions, such as the temperature and electric field, N-LCs doped with gold nanoclusters can be electrically reoriented and aligned either like N-LCs with a positive dielectric anisotropy in a planar cell or, alternatively, like N-LCs with a negative dielectric anisotropy in a homeotropic cell.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Full Papers
    7. Index
    1. Contents: Adv. Funct. Mater. 2/2008 (pages 159–167)

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200890008

  4. Feature Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Full Papers
    7. Index
    1. Organic Tandem and Multi-Junction Solar Cells (pages 169–181)

      A. Hadipour, B. de Boer and P. W. M. Blom

      Article first published online: 3 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700517

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The emerging field of tandem and multi-junction organic photovoltaic cells is discussed. Recent developments in both small-molecule and polymeric photovoltaic cells are highlighted, and examples of photovoltaic architectures, geometries, and materials combinations that result in tandem and multi-junction solar cells are presented.

  5. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Full Papers
    7. Index
    1. Rational Design of Chelating Phosphine Functionalized Os(II) Emitters and Fabrication of Orange Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes Using Solution Process (pages 183–194)

      Y. M. Cheng, G. H. Lee, P. T. Chou, L. S. Chen, Y. Chi, C. H. Yang, Y. H. Song, S. Y. Chang, P. I. Shih and C. F. Shu

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700831

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Rational designs of charge-neutral osmium complexes are reported, among which [Os(fppz)2(dppee)] (5a) and [Os(fptz)2(dppee)] (6a) were utilized as dopant emitters for orange PLEDs, showing maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) as high as 13.3% for 6a.

    2. Synthesis of Microscale Raft-shaped Zinc(II)–Phenylalanine Complexes and Zinc(II)–Phenylalanine/dye Hybrid Bundles with New Optical Properties (pages 195–202)

      H.-P. Cong and S. H. Yu

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700717

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Raft-like zinc(II)–phenylalanine complexes and zinc(II)–phenylalanine/acid green 27 radial bundles have been architecturally fabricated under mild refluxing conditions. This approach can be used as a novel and effective tool for the synthesis of other organic–organic hybrid materials with unique structures and unusual optical properties.

    3. Biological Functionalization of a Sol–Gel Coating for the Mitigation of Microbial-induced Corrosion (pages 203–211)

      R. Akid, H. Wang, T. J. Smith, D. Greenfield and J. C. Earthman

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600493

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      As an alternative non-toxic approach to counter the effects of microbial-induced corrosion, a biologically active reagent has been localized close to a metal substrate by synthesizing a hybrid functional sol–gel coating and encapsulating a suitable non-pathogenic biological component within the sol–gel matrix. Various microscopic and electrochemical techniques, and long-term field trials, confirm an improvement in corrosion resistance.

    4. Unprecedented Dual Alignment Mode and Freedericksz Transition in Planar Nematic Liquid Crystal Cells Doped with Gold Nanoclusters (pages 212–221)

      H. Qi, B. Kinkead and T. Hegmann

      Article first published online: 3 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200701327

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An unprecedented dual alignment and Freedericksz transition mode in nematic liquid crystals (N-LCs) is presented. By fine-tuning experimental conditions, such as the temperature and electric field, N-LCs doped with gold nanoclusters can be electrically reoriented and aligned either like N-LCs with a positive dielectric anisotropy in a planar cell or, alternatively, like N-LCs with a negative dielectric anisotropy in a homeotropic cell.

    5. Synthesis of Porous Microparticles with Aligned Porosity (pages 222–228)

      H. Zhang, D. Edgar, P. Murray, A. Rak-Raszewska, L. Glennon-Alty and A. I. Cooper

      Article first published online: 3 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200701309

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Aligned porous microparticles are formed in aligned porous scaffolds by a new method of freezing and then freeze-drying an oil-in-water emulsion. The aligned porous microparticles can be released simply by dissolving the supporting scaffold in water. This method is generic for the preparation of porous microparticles with controllable sizes and pore structures.

    6. Self-Organization of Ink-jet-Printed Triisopropylsilylethynyl Pentacene via Evaporation-Induced Flows in a Drying Droplet (pages 229–234)

      J. A. Lim, W. H. Lee, H. S. Lee, J. H. Lee, Y. D. Park and K. Cho

      Article first published online: 3 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700859

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Self-organization of ink-jet printed organic semiconductor with highly ordered crystalline structures can be produced by the evaporation-induced recirculation flow in a drying droplet (see figure). The influence of the evaporation-induced flow in a single droplet on the crystalline microstructure and film morphology of ink-jet-printed triisopropylsilylethynyl pentacene (TIPS_PEN) by varying the composition of the solvent mixture is systematically investigated and discussed.

    7. Silicone–Poly(hexylthiophene) Blends as Elastomers with Enhanced Electromechanical Transduction Properties (pages 235–241)

      F. Carpi, G. Gallone, F. Galantini and D. De Rossi

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700757

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Dielectric elastomers are emerging as the best performing electroactive polymers for electromechanical transduction. However, their required high driving electric fields currently limit some applications, so that new improved elastomers are demanded. This work describes a poly(dimethylsiloxane) elastomer blended with low amounts of a poly(3-hexylthiophene). An increase of the dielectric permittivity and an unexpected reduction of the elastic modulus synergetically contributed to an increase of the material electromechanical response.

    8. Giant Chromatic Lipid/Polydiacetylene Vesicles for Detection and Visualization of Membrane Interactions (pages 242–247)

      A. Pevzner, S. Kolusheva, Z. Orynbayeva and R. Jelinek

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700726

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Giant lipid/polydiacetylene vesicles exhibiting unique chromatic properties are prepared and characterized. The polymerized vesicles undergo visible color transformations (from blue to red) and fluorescence emission, both induced by binding of biological molecules and larger particles, such as viruses.

    9. Influence of Molecular Dipoles on the Photoluminescence and Electroluminescence of Dipolar Spirobifluorenes (pages 248–257)

      C.-L. Chiang, S.-M. Tseng, C.-T. Chen, C.-P. Hsu and C.-F. Shu

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700154

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The molecular dipole is found critical for fluorescent materials in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Donor–acceptor-substituted 2DCV has a large molecular dipole moment of 14.5 Debye and small solution fluorescence quantum yield of 7 %, contrasting with 10.6 Debye and 49 % of DCV. Efficiency and intensity of electroluminescence highly depend on the molecular dipole moments.

    10. Multifunctional Magnetic Gold Nanocomposites: Human Epithelial Cancer Detection via Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Localized Synchronous Therapy (pages 258–264)

      J. Lee, J. Yang, H. Ko, S. Oh, J. Kang, J. Son, K. Lee, S.-W. Lee, H.-G. Yoon, J.-S. Suh, Y.-M. Huh and S. Haam

      Article first published online: 3 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700482

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Multifunctional magnetic gold nanocomposites (MGNCs) were synthesized from aggregates of magnetic nanoparticles wrapped in a polymer as the magnetic resonance contrast agent and a silica–gold nanocomposite shell (see figure) as an effective hyperthermal therapeutic agent. Therapeutic antibody-conjugated MGNCs have an excellent synchronous therapeutic efficacy stemming from the antibodies and NIR-laser-induced hyperthermia, which implies the potential of the MGNCs for simultaneous diagnosis and treatment of cancer.

    11. Kinked Star-Shaped Fluorene/ Triazatruxene Co-oligomer Hybrids with Enhanced Functional Properties for High-Performance, Solution-Processed, Blue Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (pages 265–276)

      W.-Y. Lai, Q-Y. He, R. Zhu, Q.-Q. Chen and W. Huang

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700224

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A novel series of kinked star-shaped oligofluorene/triazatruxene hybrids are designed and conveniently synthesized via a powerful microwave-enhanced multiple coupling methodology. The resulting materials are endowed with enhanced functional properties and are extremely attractive in achieving high-performance, solution-processed, blue OLEDs.

    12. Hydrothermal Syntheses of Gold Nanocrystals: From Icosahedral to Its Truncated Form (pages 277–284)

      J. Xu, S. Li, J. Weng, X. Wang, Z. Zhou, K. Yang, M. Liu, X. Chen, Q. Cui, M. Cao and Q. Zhang

      Article first published online: 3 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700123

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Gold icosahedra and its truncated form are synthesized in high yields through a simple and low-cost hydrothermal method based on the polyol process. The shape evolution is depicted in the figure, and can be summarized as formation of multiply twinned seeds, growth and shape and size focusing, followed by oxidative etching preferential growth on the {100} face to yield the football-shaped gold nanoparticles.

    13. Influence of Electric Field on Microstructures of Pentacene Thin-Films in Field-Effect Transistors (pages 285–293)

      H. L. Cheng, W. Y. Chou, C. W. Kuo, Y. W. Wang, Y. S. Mai, F. C. Tang and S. W. Chu

      Article first published online: 3 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700912

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Electric field-induced microstructural modifications of pentacene films in the active channel of organic transistors during and after device operation are studied using micro-Raman spectroscopy. After long-term operation, we first suggest that increased intermolecular coupling enhances the charge transport between pentacene molecules and, thus, improves transistor performance.

    14. Primary Neuron/Astrocyte Co-Culture on Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Films: A Template for Studying Astrocyte-Mediated Oxidative Stress in Neurons (pages 294–301)

      S. Kidambi, I. Lee and C. Chan

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200601237

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Patterned co-cultures of primary neurons and astrocytes are engineered on polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) films without the aid of adhesive proteins/ligands and further used to study the oxidative stress mediated by astrocytes on neuronal cells by measuring the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS).

    15. A Smart Light-Controlled Carrier Switch in an Organic Light Emitting Device (pages 302–307)

      Z. Zhang, X. Liu, Z. Li, Z. Chen, F. Zhao, F. Zhang and C.-H. Tung

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700414

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A carrier switch as the light-sensitive and photoswitching layer in an organic light-emitting device (OLED) has been prepared from a diarylethene compound (DTE-FC). The uncolored open-ring form of DTE-FC corresponds to the OFF state of luminescence, while the colored photostationary state corresponds to the ON state. The two states can be interconverted by control of the UV and visible light (> 500 nm) irradiation (see figure).

    16. Formulation of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxides by Nanoparticles of Biodegradable Polymers for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (pages 308–318)

      Y. Wang, Y. W. Ng, Y. Chen, B. Shuter, J. Yi, J. Ding, S.-c. Wang and S. S. Feng

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700456

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Nanoparticles (NPs) of iron oxide loaded in a biodegradable copolymer are developed for more effective—greater contrast, fewer side effects—magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The enhanced superparamagnetic properties are caused by the polymeric nanoparticle formulation, not by the polymeric material itself. Ex vivo MRI of rat liver 5 min after in vitro injection of such NPs is shown in figure; control: left part.

    17. Red-Light-Emitting Iridium Complexes with Hole-Transporting 9-Arylcarbazole Moieties for Electrophosphorescence Efficiency/Color Purity Trade-off Optimization (pages 319–331)

      C.-L. Ho, W.-Y. Wong, Z.-Q. Gao, C.-H. Chen, K.-W. Cheah, B. Yao, Z.-Y. Xie, Q. Wang, D.-G. Ma, L.-X. Wang, X.-M. Yu, H.-S. Kwok and Z.-Y. Lin

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700665

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Highly efficient saturated red organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with peak efficiencies of up to 12 % are reported using bifunctional iridium cyclometalates derived from hole-transporting 2-[3-(N-arylcarbazolyl)]isoquinoline (see figure). The present work can provide an easy route to red- emitting iridium-based electrophosphors with improved charge- transporting properties for optimizing the OLED efficiency/color purity trade-off problem.

    18. Modeling Electron and Hole Transport in Fluoroarene-Oligothiopene Semiconductors: Investigation of Geometric and Electronic Structure Properties (pages 332–340)

      S. E. Koh, C. Risko, D. A. da Silva Filho, O. Kwon, A. Facchetti, J.-L. Brédas, T. J. Marks and M. A. Ratner

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700713

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A theoretical study of three fluoroarene-oligothiophene semiconductors is undertaken to understand the preferred propensity for electron versus hole transport. Combined analyses of ionization processes and electron- transfer properties suggest possible ambipolar behavior in organic field- effect transistors fabricated with these materials.

    19. The 2,2,6,6-Tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy Radical: An Efficient, Iodine- Free Redox Mediator for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 341–346)

      Z. Zhang, P. Chen, T. N. Murakami, S. M. Zakeeruddin and M. Grätzel

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200701041

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An alternative to the widely used iodide/triiodide redox system for dye-sensitized solar cells is presented in this work. The photovoltaic performance of this new redox couple has been evaluated by employing nanocrystalline TiO2 films. For the first time, devices (see schematic) with an iodine-free mediator system give greater than 5 % light-to-power conversion efficiency under AM 1.5 illumination at 100 mW cm–2.

    20. Nanocomposite Films of a Polyfluorene Copolymer and Carbazole– Thiol-Capped Gold Nanoparticles: Electrochemical Crosslinking and Energy-Transfer Properties (pages 347–354)

      P. Taranekar, C. Huang, T. M. Fulghum, A. Baba, G. Jiang, J.-Y. Park and R. C. Advincula

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700972

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An insoluble conjugated polymer network ultrathin film was generated for efficient excimer quenching. The electrochemically crosslinked, nanocomposite film, containing carbozole–thiol-capped gold nanoparticles with carbazole pendant polyfluorene (PFCVK) and polyvinylcarbazole (PVK) polymers (see figure), was formed on indium tin oxide substrates.

    21. Monodispersed Gold Nanorod-Embedded Silica Particles as Novel Raman Labels for Biosensing (pages 355–361)

      C. Wang, Y. Chen, T. Wang, Z. Ma and Z. Su

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700503

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An ultrasensitive protein analysis assay with 0.01 ng mL–1 detection limit has been developed by using a sandwich assay of gold-nanorod-embedded silica particles as novel Raman tags (left figure: original SiO2@GNRs after treatment of Raman-label molecules, right: further coating with a 20 nm silica shell). This method allows the incorporation of various organic Raman labels to generate intense surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra.

    22. Photorefractive Performance of Hyperstructured Cyclotriphosphazene Molecular Glasses containing Carbazole Moieties (pages 362–368)

      L. Zhang, J. Shi, Z. W. Jiang, M. M. Huang, Z. J. Chen, Q. H. Gong and S. K. Cao

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700257

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Two new hyperstructured molecular glasses M1 and M2 (see figure) are designed and synthesized for photorefractive (PR) applications. These molecules exhibit good solubility and a complete amorphous state. With no external electric field, these molecules show excellent PR properties: an optical gain coefficient of 214 cm–1 and diffraction efficiency of 31 % are obtained in the composite made from M2.

    23. Exploitation of Diatom Frustules for Nanotechnology: Tethering Active Biomolecules (pages 369–374)

      H. E. Townley, A. R. Parker and H. White-Cooper

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700609

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The rigid biosilica cell walls of diatoms provides an innovative material for nanotechnological assemblies. The modified surface (see figure) can be used for the attachment of active biomolecules, such as antibodies, which may be used in techniques such as immunoprecipitation.

  6. Index

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Full Papers
    7. Index
    1. Author Index and Subject Index Adv. Funct. Mater. 2/2008 (pages 375–376)

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200890009

SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION