Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 18 Issue 20

October 23, 2008

Volume 18, Issue 20

Pages 3099–3342

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Full Papers
    7. Index
    1. Cover Picture: Spatially Graded Nanostructured Chiral Films as Tunable Circular Polarizers (Adv. Funct. Mater. 20/2008)

      Kathleen M. Krause and Michael J. Brett

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200890080

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      On p. 3111, Katie Krause and Michael Brett report the creation of a spatially graded nanohelix array, fabricated from transparent titanium dixode (TiO2), with optical properties that vary across its surface. This graded film interacts with circularly polarized light, reflecting back a rainbow of polarized light across the span of the structure. Applications for this structure include photonic devices, position sensors, and scaffolding to support liquid crystals.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Full Papers
    7. Index
    1. Inside Front Cover: Organic Phenolic Configurationally Locked Polyene Single Crystals for Electro-optic and Terahertz Wave Applications (Adv. Funct. Mater. 20/2008)

      O-Pil Kwon, Seong-Ji Kwon, Mojca Jazbinsek, Fabian D. J. Brunner, Jung-In Seo, Christoph Hunziker, Arno Schneider, Hoseop Yun, Yoon-Sup Lee and Peter Günter

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200890081

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Configurationally locked polyene OH1 crystals exhibit large second-order nonlinear optical figures of merit, high thermal stability, and very favorable crystal growth characteristics. A considerable improvement in the efficiency of broadband THz radiation as compared to the benchmark material DAST has been achieved and is reported by O-Pil Kwon et al. on p. 3242.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Full Papers
    7. Index
    1. Contents: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 20/2008) (pages 3099–3108)

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200890082

  4. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Full Papers
    7. Index
    1. I'll Take Materials Science for $100 (pages 3109–3110)

      David Flanagan

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200801459

      What's the question? Join your host, the Editor-in-Chief, as he takes a brief look at what's in store for the upcoming Materials Research Society Fall Meeting, and how Advanced Functional Materials will continue to improve its service to authors and readers in 2009.

  5. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Full Papers
    7. Index
    1. Spatially Graded Nanostructured Chiral Films as Tunable Circular Polarizers (pages 3111–3118)

      Kathleen M. Krause and Michael J. Brett

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200800685

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A spatially graded helical nanostructured thin film, shown at the bottom of the figure, has been fabricated using the glancing angle deposition technique which has a strong polarization selectivity and spatially determined frequency response, making it useful for polarizing optical filters, liquid crystal scaffolding, position sensors, and microfluidic applications.

    2. Synthesis of Polymerizable Superoxide Dismutase Mimetics to Reduce Reactive Oxygen Species Damage in Transplanted Biomedical Devices (pages 3119–3126)

      Charles Y. Cheung, Suzanne J. McCartney and Kristi S. Anseth

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200800566

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Solid-phase immobilization of superoxide dismutase mimetic (SODm) macromers in photopolymerized hydrogel constructs. SODm macromers are covalently crosslinked to mitigate reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated tissue damage accompanying inflammation during biomaterial implantation.

    3. Hemoglobin-CdTe-CaCO3@Polyelectrolytes 3D Architecture: Fabrication, Characterization, and Application in Biosensing (pages 3127–3136)

      Wen-Yi Cai, Liang-Dong Feng, Shan-Hu Liu and Jun-Jie Zhu

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200800531

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      A hemoglobin-CdTe-CaCO3@Polyelectrolyte layer 3D architecture is synthesized by a layer-by-layer method and is further used to fabricate an electrochemical biosensor. Due to the synergic effect of the CaCO3 microspheres and the polyelectrolyte layers, a quantum-dot “shell” is formed. This shell, which tethers into the protein redox centers and connects the electrode at the same time contributes to an effective direct electron-transfer process.

    4. Sol-Gel/Polyelectrolyte Active Corrosion Protection System (pages 3137–3147)

      Svetlana V. Lamaka, Dmitry G. Shchukin, Daria V. Andreeva, Mikhail L. Zheludkevich, Helmuth Möhwald and Mario G. S. Ferreira

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200800630

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The branched net of stratified polyelectrolytes with entrapped organic corrosion inhibitor is deposited atop the protective coating. The corrosion process starting in the microdefect changes local pH that leads to increased permeability of the polyelectrolyte reservoir and controllable release of entrapped inhibitor, which suppresses the propagation of corrosion process.

    5. Self-assembly of Protein Nanoarrays on Block Copolymer Templates (pages 3148–3157)

      K. H. Aaron Lau, Joona Bang, Dong Ha Kim and Wolfgang Knoll

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200800487

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The self-assembly of Protein nanoarrays on block-copolymer templates is demonstrated for immunoassays, as well as for DNA sensing (see figure). The protein-patterning mechanism is shown to be a nanoscale effect, and is predicted to enable formation of nanopatterns with feature sizes 1 ∼ 3 times the size of the patterned protein.

    6. Micro Solid Oxide Fuel Cells on Glass Ceramic Substrates (pages 3158–3168)

      Ulrich P. Muecke, Daniel Beckel, André Bernard, Anja Bieberle-Hütter, Silvio Graf, Anna Infortuna, Patrik Müller, Jennifer L. M. Rupp, Julian Schneider and Ludwig J. Gauckler

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700505

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Thin film fuel cells operating at up to 600°C are prepared and electrochemically characterized. Free-standing metal/ceramic membranes with a total thickness of less than 1 µm (see picture) and diameters up to 200 µm form the fuel cell. Different cathode materials and electrolyte preparation methods are evaluated to minimize internal cell resistance. A maximum power density of 150 mW cm−2 at 550 °C is reached.

    7. The Remarkable Thermal Stability of Amorphous In-Zn-O Transparent Conductors (pages 3169–3178)

      Matthew P. Taylor, Dennis W. Readey, Maikel F. A. M. van Hest, Charles W. Teplin, Jeff L. Alleman, Matthew S. Dabney, Lynn M. Gedvilas, Brian M. Keyes, Bobby To, John D. Perkins and David S. Ginley

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700604

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Amorphous mixed metal oxide transparent conductors such as In-Zn-O (IZO) can be very resistant to crystallization depending on their metal composition. The left frame shows the 2D XRD detector image for IZO that remained amorphous after heating in air (83% In) while the center frame shows the onset of crystallization (85% In) and the IZO in the right frame (85% In) is crystalline after the same anneal.

    8. Versatile Nanocomposite Coatings with Tunable Cell Adhesion and Bactericidity (pages 3179–3188)

      Martha Es-Souni, Helge Fischer-Brandies and Mohammed Es-Souni

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200800354

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      As processed, non-irradiated TiO2-Ag nanocomposite microstructures exhibit high bactericidal effects and high biotoxicity. After irradiation, the nanocomposites show moderate bactericidity and higher biocompatibility. When the nanocomposites are selectively irradiated, e.g., using mechanical masks, fibroblast cell cultures adhere to the irradiated areas with a sharp confinement.

    9. Intermolecular Interactions of Perylene diimides in Photovoltaic Blends of Fluorene Copolymers: Disorder Effects on Photophysical Properties, Film Morphology and Device Efficiency (pages 3189–3202)

      Panagiotis E. Keivanidis, Ian A. Howard and Richard H. Friend

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200800356

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The photovoltaic device performance of fluorene-copolymers when blended with a tetracarboxylic diimide derivative (PDI) strongly depends on the specificity of the polymer matrix to form PDI-rich domains close to the hole-collecting (PEDOT:PSS) electrode of the device. Comparing to F8BT:PDI, the TFB:PDI and PFB:PDI systems exhibit much lower device EQEs due to unfavorable film morphologies that prevent balanced carrier extraction.

    10. Fabrication and Size-Selective Bioseparation of Magnetic Silica Nanospheres with Highly Ordered Periodic Mesostructure (pages 3203–3212)

      Lei Zhang, Shizhang Qiao, Yonggang Jin, Huagui Yang, Sandy Budihartono, Frances Stahr, Zifeng Yan, Xiaolin Wang, Zhengping Hao and Gao Qing Lu

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200800363

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Highly ordered mesoporous magnetic silica nanospheres (MSNs) with strong superparamagnetic properties are synthesized by packing and self-assembly of composite nanocrystal–surfactant micelles and surfactant–silica complexes. Pore size and magnetization value can be tuned using cationic surfactants with different chain lengths and by changing the number of nanocrystals, respectively. Binary cyt c and BSA sorption on MSNs shows high separation selectivity with good recovery rates.

    11. Hierarchical Self-Organization of Nanomaterials into Two-Dimensional Arrays Using Functional Polymer Scaffold (pages 3213–3218)

      Muhammad Hanafiah Nurmawati, Parayil Kumaran Ajikumar, Ravindranath Renu and Suresh Valiyaveettil

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200800396

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We describe the development of a method facile directed self-assembly of nanomaterials into periodic micro- and nanostructures. The organization of nanomaterials into spatially well-defined honeycomb arrays was achieved using an amphiphilic conjugated polymer-aided, self-organization process, without environmentally controlled chambers or complicated instruments.

    12. Tunable Adhesive Superhydrophobic Surfaces for Superparamagnetic Microdroplets (pages 3219–3225)

      Zhongjun Cheng, Lin Feng and Lei Jiang

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200800481

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      A new superhydrophobic iron surface that has a tunable adhesive force with the superparamagnetic microdroplet as a function of the magnetic field is reported. Reversible transition between the high-adhesive pinning state and low-adhesive rolling state can be achieved by simply magnetizing and demagnetizing the superhydrophobic surface alternately.

    13. High-Conductivity Polymer Nanocomposites Obtained by Tailoring the Characteristics of Carbon Nanotube Fillers (pages 3226–3234)

      Nadia Grossiord, Joachim Loos, Lucas van Laake, Maryse Maugey, Cécile Zakri, Cor E. Koning and A. John Hart

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200800528

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      CNT/polystyrene nanocomposite films having percolation threshold of 0.15% and electrical conductivity of 103 S m−1 (at 2 wt% loading) are prepared, using CNTs from vertically-aligned films. Compared to identical composites made using industrially-produced CNT powder, the long length and high structural quality of vertically-aligned CNTs enables a significant improvement in electrical characteristics of CNT/polymer nanocomposites.

    14. Vesicle-Assisted Assembly of Mesoporous Ce-Doped Pd Nanospheres with a Hollow Chamber and Enhanced Catalytic Efficiency (pages 3235–3241)

      Hui Li, Jun Liu, Songhai Xie, Minghua Qiao, Weilin Dai, Yunfeng Lu and Hexing Li

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200800667

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Ce-doped Pd hollow spheres are fabricated. They are easier to handle in liquid-phase reactions than their dense counterparts. These materials have enhanced catalytic performances during phenol hydrogenation due to the nanoparticle nature of the mesoporous shells, the unique spherical chamber, and the promotional effect of the Ce dopant.

    15. Organic Phenolic Configurationally Locked Polyene Single Crystals for Electro-optic and Terahertz Wave Applications (pages 3242–3250)

      O-Pil Kwon, Seong-Ji Kwon, Mojca Jazbinsek, Fabian D. J. Brunner, Jung-In Seo, Christoph Hunziker, Arno Schneider, Hoseop Yun, Yoon-Sup Lee and Peter Günter

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200800633

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Configurationally locked polyene OH1 crystals containing a phenolic electron donor exhibit large second-order nonlinear optical figures of merit, high thermal stability, and very favorable crystal-growth characteristics. A very high potential of OH1 crystals for broadband THz wave emitters in the full frequency range of 0.1–3 THz by optical rectification of 160 fs pulses has been demonstrated.

    16. Surface-Dominated Transport Properties of Silicon Nanowires (pages 3251–3257)

      Jiansheng Jie, Wenjun Zhang, Kuiqing Peng, Guodong Yuan, Chun Sing Lee and Shuit-Tong Lee

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200800399

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Surface-related contributions to transport properties in nanostructures are quantitatively evaluated by using Si nanowires as a paradigm. The nanowires are prepared by chemical etching of Si wafers of known properties. Owing to the surface effects, the conductivity of p-type Si nanowires is higher than that of the original Si wafer, and increases with decreasing wire diameter (see figure).

    17. Superoleophilic and Superhydrophobic Inverse Opals for Oil Sensors (pages 3258–3264)

      Huiling Li, Jingxia Wang, Lianming Yang and Yanlin Song

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200800507

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An optical oil-sensing superoleophilic and superhydrophobic inverse opal is fabricated. Its stopband changes reversibly and distinctly upon adsorption of various oils. The material represents a promising economical alternative for the detection of petroleum oils.

    18. Amplified Spontaneous Emission of Poly(ladder-type phenylene)s – The Influence of Photophysical Properties on ASE Thresholds (pages 3265–3275)

      Frédéric Laquai, Ashok K. Mishra, Klaus Müllen and Richard H. Friend

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200800299

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) from a series of poly(ladder-type phenylene)s has been observed and the ASE thresholds, loss and gain coefficients have been determined by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy studies on the excited state absorption originating from singlet states and polarons helped to explain the different ASE properties of the investigated materials.

    19. Novel Rewritable, Non-volatile Memory Devices Based on Thermally and Dimensionally Stable Polyimide Thin Films (pages 3276–3282)

      Suk Gyu Hahm, Seungchel Choi, Sang-Hyun Hong, Taek Joon Lee, Samdae Park, Dong Min Kim, Won-Sang Kwon, Kyungtae Kim, Ohyun Kim and Moonhor Ree

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200800758

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Novel digital memory devices are fabricated with thermally and dimensionally stable polyimide containing carbazole moieties in its side groups using a simple and conventional solution coating process. The devices have programmable, rewritable, non-volatile memory characteristics with a high ON/OFF current ratio (103–1011) and high electrical stability, so their fabrication opens up the possibility of the low-cost mass production of high-performance, rewritable, non-volatile polymer memory devices.

    20. Synthesis and Characterization of Positive-Charge Functionalized Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles for Oral Drug Delivery of an Anti-Inflammatory Drug (pages 3283–3292)

      Chia-Hung Lee, Leu-Wei Lo, Chung-Yuan Mou and Chung-Shi Yang

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200800521

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Trimethylammonium-modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles as a nanovehicle for pH-dependent loading and controllable release of anionic drug molecules can be used as an oral delivery drug system for targeting the intestine. These drugs remain trapped in the nanovehicle when passing through the stomach's acidic environment and are released in theintestine where the environmental pH is close to neutral.

    21. Cold Consolidation of Metal–Ceramic Nanocomposite Powders with Large Ceramic Fractions (pages 3293–3298)

      Enric Menéndez, German Salazar-Alvarez, Alexander P. Zhilyaev, Santiago Suriñach, Maria Dolors Baró, Josep Nogués and Jordi Sort

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200800456

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Co/α-Al2O3 powders (with up to 50 mass% of α-Al2O3) are ball-milled and consolidated at room temperature by means of a high pressure torsion procedure. The consolidation grade and structural properties of the as-compacted samples are correlated with their mechanical behavior assessed by microhardness testing. The figure shows the evolution of densities and microhardness values of the produced composites as a function of the α-Al2O3 mass%.

    22. Binaphthyl-Containing Green- and Red-Emitting Molecules for Solution-Processable Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (pages 3299–3306)

      Yi Zhou, Qingguo He, Yi Yang, Haizheng Zhong, Chang He, Guangyi Sang, Wei Liu, Chunhe Yang, Fenglian Bai and Yongfang Li

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200800375

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Four green- or red-emitting binaphthyl-containing molecules are designed and synthesized. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) fabricated by spin-coating of emitting layers straight from solutions of these molecules have low turn-on voltages, high maximum luminances, and high maximum luminescence efficiencies. Doping of a blue-emitting host, poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-2,7-diyl) (PFO), using the green- and red-emitting molecules results in the fabrication of two white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs)

    23. Microtexture and Chitin/Calcite Orientation Relationship in the Mineralized Exoskeleton of the American Lobster (pages 3307–3314)

      Ali Al-Sawalmih, Chenghao Li, Stefan Siegel, Helge Fabritius, Sangbong Yi, Dierk Raabe, Peter Fratzl and Oskar Paris

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200800520

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Local orientation analysis using X-ray microdiffraction reveals that the crystalline calcium carbonate fraction in lobster cuticle is associated with the chitin/protein fibers oriented perpendicular to the surface. The calcite crystallites show a fiber texture with the crystallographic c-axis pointing perpendicular to the cuticle surface, suggesting an orientation relationship between calcite and the organic chitin/protein fibers.

    24. Fabrication of Reversibly Crosslinkable, 3-Dimensionally Conformal Polymeric Microstructures (pages 3315–3322)

      Luke A. Connal, Robert Vestberg, Craig J. Hawker and Greg G. Qiao

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200800333

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Poly(methyl acrylate)-based and anthracene end-functionalized star polymers with a low glass transition temperature (Tg) are utilized to prepare honeycomb structures. The properties of the low Tg polymer allow for the formation of porous films on non-planar substrates without cracking (P and G in figure) and subsequent photocrosslinking allows the creation of stabilized honeycomb films as well as a secondary level of patterning on the film, using photo-lithographic techniques (S in figure). These multifaceted porous polymer films represent a new generation of well-defined, 3D microstructures.

    25. Solution-Processed Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells Based on Monodisperse Dendritic Oligothiophenes (pages 3323–3331)

      Chang-Qi Ma, Marta Fonrodona, Martin C. Schikora, Martijn M. Wienk, René A. J. Janssen and Peter Bäuerle

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200800584

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Solution-processed bulk-heterojunction solar cells using novel monodisperse dendritic oligothiophenes (DOTs) as the donor and a fullerene derivative (PCBM) as the acceptor are prepared and investigated. Devices show high open-circuit voltages of 1.0 V and reach power-conversion efficiencies up to 1.7%. Based on the monodispersity of the DOTs, an analysis of the molar ratio between donor and acceptor in the blended film is performed leading to an optimal value of five to six thiophene units per PCBM.

    26. Nanoporous Organosilicate Films Prepared in Acidic Conditions Using Tetraalkylammonium Bromide Porogens (pages 3332–3339)

      Salvador Eslava, Mikhail R. Baklanov, Jone Urrutia, Christine E. A. Kirschhock, Karen Maex and Johan A. Martens

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200800556

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Organosilicate films with narrow pore size distribution tunable in the range of 1–3.4 nm are synthesized by spin-coating of silicon wafers with sols prepared in acidic conditions using tetraethyl orthosilicate, methyltrimethoxysilane and tetraalkylammonium bromide (TAABr) porogen. The alkyl chain length of the quaternary ammonium molecule and the porogen concentration define the pore network. Further structural and physicochemical properties are also described.

  6. Index

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Full Papers
    7. Index

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