Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Advanced Functional Materials

April 25, 2008

Volume 18, Issue 8

Pages 1145–1350

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Full Papers
    7. Index
    1. Cover Picture: Controlling the Optical Properties of Inorganic Nanoparticles (Adv. Funct. Mater. 8/2008) (page 1145)

      Gregory D. Scholes

      Version of Record online: 24 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200890030

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The size tunability and close relationship of inorganic nanoparticles to bulk semiconductors have inspired intense study of these materials. Applications, such as diodes and lasers, can take advantage of the light-emitting properties of nanoscale systems, as pictured on the cover. A growing and important area of application for these materials is renewable energy. A challenge for researchers is to elucidate how to design and control the desirable optical properties of nanoparticles by manipulating electronic structure using chemical design, as reported by Greg Scholes on p. 1157.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Full Papers
    7. Index
    1. Inside Front Cover: Effects of Laminate Architecture on Fracture Resistance of Sponge Biosilica: Lessons from Nature (Adv. Funct. Mater. 8/2008) (page 1146)

      Ali Miserez, James C. Weaver, Philipp J. Thurner, Joanna Aizenberg, Yannicke Dauphin, Peter Fratzl, Daniel E. Morse and Frank W. Zok

      Version of Record online: 24 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200890031

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Flexible anchor spicules of Monorhaphis chuni (foreground) consist of thin concentric layers of hydrated silica and proteinaceous material (background). Indentation fracture tests demonstrate that the laminate architecture is responsible for significant enhancements in resistance to crack initiation and subsequent propagation, in work reported by Frank Zok, Dan Morse, and co-workers on p. 1241.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Full Papers
    7. Index
  4. Feature Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Full Papers
    7. Index
    1. Controlling the Optical Properties of Inorganic Nanoparticles (pages 1157–1172)

      Gregory D. Scholes

      Version of Record online: 15 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200800151

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Inorganic nanoparticles exhibit unique optical properties. It is well known that they can be tuned by size, but what other factors influence the electronic states, optical properties, and excited state dynamics? What is the exciton fine structure? How does shape make a difference? How are the properties of two components transformed in a heterostructure?.

  5. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Full Papers
    7. Index
    1. Fabrication of a Memory Chip by a Complete Self-Assembly Process Using State-of-the-Art Multilevel Cell (MLC) Technology (pages 1173–1177)

      Anirban Bandyopadhyay and Kazushi Miki

      Version of Record online: 9 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700937

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      A simple and easy one-step fabrication of a memory chip by a complete self-assembly process has been demonstrated, beginning with atomic-scale fabrication of a Au substract and continuing to the assembly of single 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-1,4-benzoquinone molecules which act as four-level (tetranary) switches. By using higher-level switches while maintaining an identical physical memory density, it is possible to increase the effective memory density beyond current predictions and break Moore's limit.

    2. Influence of Laser-Induced Topography Changes on the Activity of Catalyst Coatings as Examined by Infrared Thermography (pages 1178–1185)

      Michael Seyler, Christian Selzner, Christian Holzapfel, Frank Mücklich and Wilhelm F. Maier

      Version of Record online: 9 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700770

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      The surface of catalytically active mixed-metal oxide )coatings is modified by means of laser irradiation, and the influence )of this modification on catalytic activity is examined by means of )emissivity-corrected infrared thermography (ecIRT). Changes in the )activity found by ecIRT are correlated to the different surface topographies )obtained by various laser settings.

    3. Poly(vinyl alcohol) Rehydratable Photonic Crystal Sensor Materials (pages 1186–1193)

      Michelle M. Ward Muscatello and Sanford A. Asher

      Version of Record online: 9 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200701210

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      A new photonic crystal hydrogel material based on the biocompatible polymer poly(vinyl alcohol) is developed. This material can be reversibly dehydrated and rehydrated, without additional fillers, while retaining the diffraction and sensing properties of polymerized crystalline colloidal arrays (see figure).

    4. Topotactic Transformation of Single-Crystalline Precursor Discs into Disc-Like Bi2S3 Nanorod Networks (pages 1194–1201)

      Lianshan Li, Nijuan Sun, Youyuan Huang, Yao Qin, Nana Zhao, Jining Gao, Meixian Li, Henghui Zhou and Limin Qi

      Version of Record online: 21 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200701467

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      Hierarchical disc-like networks consisting of a layer of crossed single-crystalline Bi2S3 nanorods are synthesized via a novel 2D-template-engaged topotactic transformation process, which involves the formation of intermediate BiOCl single-crystalline discs and their subsequent chemical transformation into disc-like Bi2S3 nanofabrics (see figure).

    5. Controlled Topology of Block Copolymer Gate Insulators by Selective Etching of Cylindrical Microdomains in Pentacene Organic Thin Film Transistors (pages 1202–1211)

      Pil Sung Jo, Jinwoo Sung, Cheolmin Park, Eunhye Kim, Du Yeol Ryu, Seungmoon Pyo, Ho-Cheol Kim and Jae Min Hong

      Version of Record online: 21 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200701034

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      The effect of topologically periodic nanostructures on gate dielectrics was investigated for pentacene OTFT performance, using self-assembly of block copolymers combined with selective etching of one block. The device performance is significantly influenced by defective pentacene active layers in such nanostructured gate dielectrics.

    6. Polymer Photovoltaic Devices Employing a Chemically Fixed pin Junction (pages 1212–1219)

      Janelle M. Leger, Dinesh G. Patel, Deanna B. Rodovsky and Glenn P. Bartholomew

      Version of Record online: 17 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700824

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Chemically fixed polymer homojunction photovoltaic devices are described (see figure). Changes in current characteristics during charging are consistent with the formation of a p-i-n junction in the active material. Results suggest possible approaches for improving the state-of-the-art in polymer photovoltaic technologies.

    7. Temperature-Induced Hydrogels Through Self-Assembly of Cholesterol-Substituted Star PEG-b-PLLA Copolymers: An Injectable Scaffold for Tissue Engineering (pages 1220–1231)

      Koji Nagahama, Tatsuro Ouchi and Yuichi Ohya

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700587

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      An ECM-like micrometer-scale network structure is fabricated inside temperature-induced biodegradable hydrogels through hierarchical self-assembly of cholesterol-substituted star copolymers. Cells encapsulated into the hydrogel proliferated three-dimensionally, probably as a result of the ECM-like network structure.

    8. Swelling Behavior of Multiresponsive Poly(methacrylic acid)-block--poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Brushes Synthesized Using Surface-Initiated Photoiniferter-Mediated Photopolymerization (pages 1232–1240)

      Santosh B. Rahane, J. Alaina Floyd, Andrew T. Metters and S. Michael Kilbey II

      Version of Record online: 9 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200701411

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      Bi-level poly(methacrylic acid)-block-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PMAA-b-PNIPAM) brushes are synthesized using surface-initiated photoiniferter-mediated photopolymerization. Each component in the bi-level PMAA-b-PNIPAM brush layer retains its customary response characteristics to changes in temperature and pH, but both blocks respond to changes in ionic strength (see figure). The multiresponsive nature allows the blocks to be actuated separately or in concert.

    9. Effects of Laminate Architecture on Fracture Resistance of Sponge Biosilica: Lessons from Nature (pages 1241–1248)

      Ali Miserez, James C. Weaver, Philipp J. Thurner, Joanna Aizenberg, Yannicke Dauphin, Peter Fratzl, Daniel E. Morse and Frank W. Zok

      Version of Record online: 9 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200701135

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Fracture of anchor spicules of Monorhaphis chuni involves cracking of constituent silica and crack deflection through intervening proteinaceous layers, leading to the stair-step pattern in the image. Deflection mitigates the high stress concentration that would otherwise be present at the crack tip, resulting in high spicule strength and toughness.

    10. Controlled Synthesis of Ag2S, Ag2Se, and Ag Nanofibers by Using a General Sacrificial Template and Their Application in Electronic Device Fabrication (pages 1249–1256)

      Hailiang Wang and Limin Qi

      Version of Record online: 9 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700953

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      Ag2S, Ag2Se, and Ag nanofiber bundles are synthesized as 1D nanoparticle assemblies by making use of Ag2C2O4 template nanofiber bundles, utilizing both anion exchange and redox reactions. An electrical transfer and switching device is built with the obtained Ag2S and Ag nanofiber bundles.

    11. The Gas-Detection Properties of Light-Emitting Diatoms (pages 1257–1264)

      Stefano Lettieri, Antonio Setaro, Luca De Stefano, Mario De Stefano and Pasqualino Maddalena

      Version of Record online: 11 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200701124

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      The luminescence properties of themesoporous silica skeleton of differentdiatoms are employed to achievesensing of gas at a low concentrationlevel. Sub-ppm detection of adsorbedNO2 with a detection limit of the orderof 50 ppb for Thalassiosira Rotula isdemonstrated; this effect is interpretedas the result of a local interactionbetween gas molecules and surfaceoxygen vacancies leading to staticsuppression of light-emission centres.

    12. Silver Nanoparticle Impregnated Polycarbonate Substrates for Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (pages 1265–1271)

      T. Hasell, L. Lagonigro, A. C. Peacock, S. Yoda, P. D. Brown, P. J. A. Sazio and S. M. Howdle

      Version of Record online: 15 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200701429

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      Robust, simple and highly effective polymeric SERS probes are prepared by a supercritical carbon dioxide route to impregnating metallic silver nanoparticles. The nanoparticles are located in the first few microns and are protected from environmental degradation. The devices can be etched by plasma to fabricate structured optical waveguides.

    13. Organosilica Materials with Bridging Phenyl Derivatives Incorporated into the Surfaces of Mesoporous Solids (pages 1272–1280)

      Andreas Kuschel and Sebastian Polarz

      Version of Record online: 17 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200701252

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      Mesoporous organosilicas containing a bridging bromobenzene entity embedded inside the pore walls are prepared from a new sol-gel precursor. The derivatization chemistry known for halogenated aromatic compounds can now be applied in the field of mesoporous materials leading to surfaces with variable properties.

    14. Third-Order Nonlinear Optical Response of Gold-Island Films (pages 1281–1289)

      Evangelia Xenogiannopoulou, Kostas Iliopoulos, Stelios Couris, Tanya Karakouz, Alexander Vaskevich and Israel Rubinstein

      Version of Record online: 17 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200701084

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      The influence of film morphology on the third-order nonlinear optical response of ultrathin Au films of nanoscaled island structures is studied. Controlling the substrate treatment and film-growth parameters (leftmost images are of annealed films vs. unannealed on the right) enables tuning of both the linear and nonlinear optical properties of the films. The sign of the real and imaginary parts of the third-order susceptibility can be controlled by choosing the appropriate excitation wavelength.

    15. A Biomimetic Actuator Based on an Ionic Networking Membrane of Poly(styrene-alt-maleimide)-Incorporated Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (pages 1290–1298)

      Jun Lu, Sang-Gyun Kim, Sunwoo Lee and Il-Kwon Oh

      Version of Record online: 17 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200701133

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      A novel electro-active polymer actuator is developed by employing an ionic networking membrane of poly(styrene-alt-maleimide)-poly(vinyl„idene fluoride). The actuator shows much larger tip displacement than that of a Nafion-based counterpart under the applied electrical stimulus, and overcomes the relaxation of the ionic polymer–metal composite actuator under the constant voltage (see figure).

    16. Enhancement of Electrical Properties of Ferroelectric Polymers by Polyaniline Nanofibers with Controllable Conductivities (pages 1299–1306)

      Chang-Chun Wang, Jiao-Fan Song, Hui-Min Bao, Qun-Dong Shen and Chang-Zheng Yang

      Version of Record online: 17 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200701100

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      A drastic enhancement of the dielectric constant of ferroelectric copolymers is demonstrated by addition of a low content of conductive polyaniline nanofibers. The high dispersion stability of the fibers in the vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene copolymers (P(VDF-TrFE)) leads to a percolative composite with highly desirable properties for high-performance electromechanical devices. A 50-fold rise in the dielectric response of the polymer matrix is observed.

    17. Polymorph Switching of Calcium Carbonate Crystals by Polymer-Controlled Crystallization (pages 1307–1313)

      An-Wu Xu, Wen-Fei Dong, Markus Antonietti and Helmut Cölfen

      Version of Record online: 15 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700895

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      The present study demonstrates for the first time that a crystallization reaction can be switched between all three anhydrous CaCO3 polymorphs (see picture), using similar conditions and polymer control. A single mechanistic framework employing particle mediated as well as ion-mediated crystallization for polymorph control is proposed.

    18. Spheres of Microporous Titanosilicate Umbite with Hierarchical Pore Systems (pages 1314–1320)

      Víctor Sebastián, Isabel Díaz, Carlos Téllez, Joaquín Coronas and Jesús Santamaría

      Version of Record online: 15 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200701067

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      Polycrystalline spheres of microporoustitanosilicate umbite with hierarchical pore systems are prepared by hydrothermal synthesis without the use of organic structuring agents.

    19. Effect of Charge Density on Energy-Transfer Properties of Cationic Conjugated Polymers (pages 1321–1328)

      Kan-Yi Pu, Zhen Fang and Bin Liu

      Version of Record online: 17 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200701018

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      A reduction in the charge density of cationic conjugated polymers (CCPs, see figure), synthesized via Suzuki coupling polymerization, results in a significant enhancement in the signal output of dye-labeled single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). The difference in quantum yields of CCP/ssDNA complexes highlights the importance of polymer side-chain structures and charge density.

    20. Effects of Arylene Diimide Thin Film Growth Conditions on n-Channel OFET Performance (pages 1329–1339)

      Brooks A. Jones, Antonio Facchetti, Michael R. Wasielewski and Tobin J. Marks

      Version of Record online: 9 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200701045

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      Organic thin film microstructural effects on carrier mobility, threshold voltage, and current on-off ratio are elucidated by varying the substrate temperature during semiconductor deposition and the gate dielectric functionalization. Smooth surface morphologies and hydrophobic treatment of the SiO2 dielectric result in high-mobility, air-stable transistors with excellent current modulation.

    21. The Directional Peeling Effect of Nanostructured Rigiflex Molds on Liquid-Crystal Devices: Liquid-Crystal Alignment and Optical Properties (pages 1340–1347)

      Jong Bok Kim, Ju Ri Lim, Jin Seol Park, Han Jin Ahn, Min Jung Lee, Sung Jin Jo, Mihee Kim, Daeseung Kang, Se Jong Lee, Youn Sang Kim and Hong Koo Baik

      Version of Record online: 11 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700747

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      Directional peeling effect of rigiflex mold on LC alignment. Directional peeling results in orientation of the free end chains in the alignment layer and determines the LC rising-up direction in the opposite direction to that of the peeling.

  6. Index

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Full Papers
    7. Index

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