Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 19 Issue 1

January 9, 2009

Volume 19, Issue 1

Pages 3–174

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Feature Article
    7. Full Papers
    8. Index
    1. Cover Picture: Tailored Mesoporosity Development in Zeolite Crystals by Partial Detemplation and Desilication (Adv. Funct. Mater. 1/2009)

      Javier Pérez-Ramírez, Sònia Abelló, Adriana Bonilla and Johan C. Groen

      Article first published online: 30 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200890107

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      On page 164, Pérez-Ramírez et al. demonstrate that partial detemplation followed by desilication in alkaline media is a powerful and elegant approach for the design of hierarchical zeolites with a tailored degree of mesoporosity. This achievement, illustrated for large beta crystals, is based on the distinct capability of NaOH to extract silicon in template-containing or template-free regions of the zeolite. The introduced mesoporosity enhances the effectiveness of the materials in catalysis due to shorter diffusion lengths.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Feature Article
    7. Full Papers
    8. Index
    1. Inside Front Cover: A Unique Microcracking Process Associated with the Inelastic Deformation of Haversian Bone (Adv. Funct. Mater. 1/2009)

      Vincent Ebacher and Rizhi Wang

      Article first published online: 30 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200890109

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      Human cortical bone is capable of adapting to the mechanical environment through dynamic remodeling of the Haversian systems. The presence of Haversian canals, however, also introduces stress concentration and could have detrimental effects on the fracture resistance of bone. How is the hierarchical structure in bone designed to alleviate such stress concentrations? On page 57, Vincent Ebacher and Rizhi Wang report a unique and stable microcracking process accompanying the inelastic deformation of Haversian bone. The results lead to the critical role of the well-organized bone lamellae surrounding each Haversian canal.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Feature Article
    7. Full Papers
    8. Index
    1. Contents: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 1/2009) (pages 3–9)

      Article first published online: 30 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200890110

  4. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Feature Article
    7. Full Papers
    8. Index
    1. You have free access to this content
      A New Look to Ring in the New Year (page 13)

      Dave Flanagan

      Article first published online: 30 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200801749

      With a clean new design for 2009, the editor looks forward to bringing you the most interesting, highest-quality—and maybe even surprising—full papers in materials science.

  5. Feature Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Feature Article
    7. Full Papers
    8. Index
    1. Electrodeposition of Inorganic/Organic Hybrid Thin Films (pages 17–43)

      Tsukasa Yoshida, Jingbo Zhang, Daisuke Komatsu, Seiichi Sawatani, Hideki Minoura, Thierry Pauporté, Daniel Lincot, Torsten Oekermann, Derck Schlettwein, Hirokazu Tada, Dieter Wöhrle, Kazumasa Funabiki, Masaki Matsui, Hidetoshi Miura and Hisao Yanagi

      Article first published online: 4 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700188

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      The state of the art in hybrid thin-film technology is discussed, with emphasis on the electrodeposition and self-assembly from mixed solutions, and use of inorganic/organic thin films. To be widely applicable on an industrial level and to compete with Si-based systems, a full understanding of the chemical processes at play between all ionic and molecular species present in solution must be established. Significant inroads to this end have been made by the authors, but challenges yet remain for researchers in the field.

  6. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Feature Article
    7. Full Papers
    8. Index
    1. Enhanced Light-Harvesting and Photocatalytic Properties in Morph-TiO2 from Green-Leaf Biotemplates (pages 45–56)

      Xufan Li, Tongxiang Fan, Han Zhou, Suk-Kwun Chow, Wang Zhang, Di Zhang, Qixin Guo and Hiroshi Ogawa

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200800519

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      The inspiration of transplanting green leaves into TiO2 came from the light harvesting ability of the leaves in nature, which comes from their micro- and nanostructuring. Morph-TiO2, derived from five kinds of green leaf, retaining the structural features of the original leaves, shows self-doping of N from the biotemplates, enhanced visible-light harvesting, and photocatalytic activity.

    2. A Unique Microcracking Process Associated with the Inelastic Deformation of Haversian Bone (pages 57–66)

      Vincent Ebacher and Rizhi Wang

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200801234

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Haversian bone adopts a unique microcracking mechanism to relax stress concentration and achieve high inelastic deformation. The microcracking process is well controlled by the concentric lamellar structure of the Haversian systems. It happens through stable and progressive development of multiple radial microcracks and circumferential arc-shaped microcracks intralamellarly.

    3. The Influence of Alkyl-Chain Length on Beta-Phase Formation in Polyfluorenes (pages 67–73)

      Daniel W. Bright, Fernando B. Dias, Frank Galbrecht, Ulli Scherf and Andrew P. Monkman

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200800313

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      Polyfluorenes with different linear alkyl-chain lengths from 6 to 10 carbon atoms are studied using optical spectroscopy to observe the beta-phase transition. This occurs in the 7–9 alkyl-chain-length samples in film and solution. From the different extent of beta-phase formation in each sample, and their relative stabilities, an aggregate-based scheme of beta-phase formation is proposed.

    4. Self-Assembling Peptide as a Potential Carrier for Hydrophobic Anticancer Drug Ellipticine: Complexation, Release and In Vitro Delivery (pages 74–83)

      Shan Yu Fung, Hong Yang, Priya T. Bhola, Parisa Sadatmousavi, Edward Muzar, Mingyao Liu and P. Chen

      Article first published online: 4 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200800860

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      The self-assembling peptide EAK16-II can stabilize hydrophobic anticancer agent ellipticine in aqueous solution. Depending on the concentration combination of the peptide and ellipticine, either crystalline or protonated ellipticine can be stabilized. The two different states of stabilized ellipticine have different release kinetics and cellular toxicity.

    5. Harvesting Excitons Via Two Parallel Channels for Efficient White Organic LEDs with Nearly 100% Internal Quantum Efficiency: Fabrication and Emission-Mechanism Analysis (pages 84–95)

      Qi Wang, Junqiao Ding, Dongge Ma, Yanxiang Cheng, Lixiang Wang, Xiabin Jing and Fosong Wang

      Article first published online: 4 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200800918

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      Two phosphorescent dyes co-doped into a energy-well-like emissive region are exploited for realizing a highly efficient white organic LED with excellent color stability. The emission nature of the two dopants is completely different: direct exciton formation following charge trapping for the orange one and host–guest energy transfer for the blue (see figure). This unique device forms two parallel channels to harvest excitons for white emission, which greatly reduces energy losses, exhibiting nearly 100% internal quantum efficiency.

    6. Comprehensive Modeling of Ion Conduction of Nanosized CaF2/BaF2 Multilayer Heterostructures (pages 96–101)

      Xiangxin Guo and Joachim Maier

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200800805

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      Molecular-beam-epitaxy-grown CaF2/BaF2 heterolayers represent a system that can be used to demonstrate size effects in nanoionics. From the view of thermodynamic equilibrium, a redistribution of the mobile F carriers is necessary. By assuming a F transfer from BaF2 to CaF2, the ion conductions both parallel and perpendicular to the interface over the entire temperature range for all interfacial spacings are satisfactorily interpreted.

    7. One-Step Process for Creating Triple-Shape Capability of AB Polymer Networks (pages 102–108)

      Marc Behl, Ingo Bellin, Steffen Kelch, Wolfgang Wagermaier and Andreas Lendlein

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200800850

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      The three alternative molecular mechanisms of one-step dual-shape programming for AB polymer networks containing crystalline poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and amorphous cyclohexylmethacrylate (PCHMA) phases are explored (see image). Depending on the temperature range selected either the PCHMA (a) or the PCL phases (b), or in fact both (c), determine solidity. In the latter case, (c), reheating results in a two-step recovery process demonstrating a triple-shape behavior.

    8. Supported Lipid Bilayer on Nanocrystalline Diamond: Dual Optical and Field-Effect Sensor for Membrane Disruption (pages 109–116)

      Priscilla Kailian Ang, Kian Ping Loh, Thorsten Wohland, Milos Nesladek and Emile Van Hove

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200800770

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      A dual mode electrical and optical sensor based on biomimetic membrane supported on optically transparent diamond is demonstrated for the sensing of membrane disrupting agents. The use of intrinsic nanocrystalline diamond offers several advantages such as high optical transparency, good biocompatibility and also a highly sensitive surface channel that can be implemented as solution-gate field-effect transistor.

    9. Two-Dye Core/Shell Zeolite Nanoparticles: A New Tool for Ratiometric pH Measurements (pages 117–122)

      Tristan Doussineau, Monique Smaïhi and Gerhard J. Mohr

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200800718

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      Fluorescent zeolite-β nanoparticles containing 3-hydroxyflavone dye molecules are successfully used to prepare pH ratiometric sensors. Coating of a silica sensing layer around zeolite cores results in compartmented two-dyed nanoparticles capable to monitor pH in real-time (see image). With a calculated apparent pKa between 6.4 and 6.9, these sensors appear as a potential new tool for bioanalytical applications.

    10. Sensing of Damage Mechanisms in Fiber-Reinforced Composites under Cyclic Loading using Carbon Nanotubes (pages 123–130)

      Limin Gao, Erik T. Thostenson, Zuoguang Zhang and Tsu-Wei Chou

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200800865

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      Health monitoring of fiber composites can be achieved by forming electrically conductive networks of carbon nanotubes throughout the polymer matrix. Through combined electrical measurements and microscopy under cyclic tensile loading, the initiation and propagation of microscale damage are established. The linear relationship between damaged resistance and crack density indicates electrical resistance measurements can be utilized as a quantitative measure of damage.

    11. Solvothermal Synthesis, Cathodoluminescence, and Field-Emission Properties of Pure and N-Doped ZnO Nanobullets (pages 131–140)

      Ujjal K. Gautam, L. S. Panchakarla, Benjamin Dierre, Xiaosheng Fang, Yoshio Bando, Takashi Sekiguchi, A. Govindaraj, Dmitri Golberg and C. N. R. Rao

      Article first published online: 27 NOV 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200801259

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      ZnO nanostructures with a unique morphology of flat base and sharp tip (see figure) are obtained by a template-free solvothermal technique. This is the first solution synthesis to obtain nitrogen-doped ZnO. Cathodoluminescence properties of individual ZnO nanobullets reveal interesting variations within a single N-doped structure, unlike the pure ZnO ones. Field-emission measurements show that, analogous to cation doping, anion doping in ZnO also induces manifold enhancement of the emission current.

    12. Distinct Nanostructures from a Molecular Shuttle: Effects of Shuttling Movement on Nanostructural Morphologies (pages 141–149)

      Weidong Zhou, Jialiang Xu, Haiyan Zheng, Xiaodong Yin, Zicheng Zuo, Huibiao Liu and Yuliang Li

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200801149

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      A solvent driven molecular shuttle that contains a TCBD chromophore is prepared, which forms several distinct nanostructures through control of the shuttling movement of the macrocycle: ranging from nanofibers in CHCl3/n-C6H14 (1/1) and nanocapsules in CHCl3/MeOH (1/1) to nanoparticles in dimethyl sulfoxide. This system confirms that aggregation behaviors can be controlled by the shuttling movement of the macrocycle.

    13. Preparation of Protamine–Titania Microcapsules Through Synergy Between Layer-by-Layer Assembly and Biomimetic Mineralization (pages 150–156)

      Yanjun Jiang, Dong Yang, Lei Zhang, Qianyun Sun, Xiaohui Sun, Jian Li and Zhongyi Jiang

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200800974

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      Protamine–titania hybrid microcapsules are prepared by combining layer-by-layer assembly with biomimetic mineralization. The protamine layer has a dual role in the formation of the microcapsules; its positive charge electrostatically attracts the Ti-BALDH layer with negative charge and the biocatalyst induces the in situ conversion of Ti-BALDH to titania.

    14. The Impact of Interfacial Mixing on Förster Transfer at Conjugated Polymer Heterojunctions (pages 157–163)

      Anthony M. Higgins, Ashley Cadby, David G. Lidzey, Robert M. Dalgliesh, Mark Geoghegan, Richard A. L. Jones, Simon J. Martin and Sasha Y. Heriot

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200800887

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      Neutron reflectivity measurements demonstrate that thermal processing allows systematic control of the width of polyflourene-based (F8/F8BT) heterojunctions. Broader interfaces lead to greatly enhanced Förster transfer from F8 to F8BT molecules, which can only be adequately explained if mixing of the polymers at a molecular level dominates over the interfacial roughness due to thermally excited capillary waves.

    15. Tailored Mesoporosity Development in Zeolite Crystals by Partial Detemplation and Desilication (pages 164–172)

      Javier Pérez-Ramírez, Sònia Abelló, Adriana Bonilla and Johan C. Groen

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200800871

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Template-free regions in zeolite crystals are susceptible to mesopore formation by desilication in alkaline medium while template-containing regions are inert to silicon leaching. This concept enables the design of hierarchical zeolites with tailored degrees of mesoporosity (see figure), enhancing the tuning options of this demetallation treatment.

  7. Index

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Feature Article
    7. Full Papers
    8. Index

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