Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Advanced Functional Materials

June 23, 2009

Volume 19, Issue 12

Pages 1839–2012

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Full Papers
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    10. Index
    1. Fluorescent Nanoprobes: Fluorescent Gold Nanoprobe Sensitive to Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species (Adv. Funct. Mater. 12/2009)

      Hyukjin Lee, Kyuri Lee, In-Kyung Kim and Tae Gwan Park

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200990049

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      On page 1884, H. Lee and co-workers report fluorescent gold nanoprobes sensitive to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Using nanoparticle surface energy transfer between gold nanoparticles and end-dopamine modified fluorescein-hyaluronic acid conjugates, gold nanoprobes are created with extreme sensitivity to intracellular ROS. The cover image shows real time monitoring of intracellular ROS generation within macrophage cells via fluorescence recovery of the nanoprobes.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Full Papers
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    10. Index
    1. Boron Nanotube–Polymer Composites: Towards Thermoconductive, Electrically Insulating Polymeric Composites with Boron Nitride Nanotubes as Fillers (Adv. Funct. Mater. 12/2009)

      Chunyi Zhi, Yoshio Bando, Takeshi Terao, Chengchun Tang, Hiroaki Kuwahara and Dimitri Golberg

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200990050

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      Composites formed through embedding of high-concentration boron nitride nanotubes in polymers are reported by C. Y. Zhi et al. on page 1857. The composites possess high thermal conductivity, high break-over voltage, low coefficient of thermal expansion, and other favorable properties. These polymeric composites are promising highly thermoconductive electrically insulating materials for a range of applications.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Full Papers
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    10. Index
    1. Contents: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 12/2009) (pages 1839–1846)

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200990051

  4. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Full Papers
    6. Frontispiece
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    10. Index
    1. Photoelectrochemical Study of Nanostructured ZnO Thin Films for Hydrogen Generation from Water Splitting (pages 1849–1856)

      Abraham Wolcott, Wilson A. Smith, Tevye R. Kuykendall, Yiping Zhao and Jin Z. Zhang

      Article first published online: 7 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200801363

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      Three types of ZnO photoelectrochemical cell are examined and utilized for water splitting. Pulsed laser deposition, oblique angle deposition and glancing angle deposition techniques are found to drastically affect crystal growth, morphology and photoelectrochemical properties. Hydrogen generation efficiencies are 0.1, 0.2 and 0.6% for pulsed laser deposition, oblique angle deposition and glancing angle deposition photoelectrochemical cells, respectively.

    2. Towards Thermoconductive, Electrically Insulating Polymeric Composites with Boron Nitride Nanotubes as Fillers (pages 1857–1862)

      Chunyi Zhi, Yoshio Bando, Takeshi Terao, Chengchun Tang, Hiroaki Kuwahara and Dimitri Golberg

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200801435

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      A thermal conductivity improvement of more than 20-fold is achieved by filling polymers with BN nanotubes. This study indicates that BN nanotubes (crystal structure given in figure) are very promising nanofillers for polymeric composites, which simultaneously achieve high thermal conductivity, low coefficient of thermal expansion, high electrical resistance, and decent mechanical properties, as required for novel and efficient heat-releasing materials.

    3. Designing a Stable Cathode with Multiple Layers to Improve the Operational Lifetime of Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes (pages 1863–1868)

      Tae-Woo Lee, Mu-Gyeom Kim, Sang Hun Park, Sang Yeol Kim, Ohyun Kwon, Taeyong Noh, Jong-Jin Park, Tae-Lim Choi, Jong Hyeok Park and Byung Doo Chin

      Article first published online: 4 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200801620

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      The operational lifetime of blue PLEDs can be greatly improved by designing a three-layer cathode (BaF2/Ca/Al) systematically. The roles of the BaF2 and Ca layers in terms of electron injection, luminous efficiency, and device lifetime are investigated.

    4. A Stimuli-Responsive, Photoluminescent, Anthracene-Based Liquid Crystal: Emission Color Determined by Thermal and Mechanical Processes (pages 1869–1875)

      Yoshimitsu Sagara, Shogo Yamane, Toshiki Mutai, Koji Araki and Takashi Kato

      Article first published online: 5 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200801726

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      An anthracene derivative containing dendritic side chains and amide groups shows cubic or columnar phases depending on the cooling procedure used. While the compound in the cubic phase has yellow photoluminescence, blue emission is observed for the columnar phase. The yellow photoluminescence is ascribed to excimer formation of the anthracene moieties.

  5. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Full Papers
    6. Frontispiece
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    10. Index
    1. Zeolite Nanocrystals: Quantum Yield Measurement of Fluorescent Zeolite Nanopigments (Adv. Funct. Mater. 12/2009)

      Olivier Nicolet, Stefan Huber, Caroline Lovey, Sabrina Chappellet, Juliette Perrenoud, Marc Pauchard, Rolando Ferrini and Libero Zuppiroli

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200990052

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      Organic fluorescent molecules are infiltrated in the channels of zeolite L nanocrystals, thus obtaining organic-inorganic fluorescent nanoparticles. O. Nicolet et al. present the optical measurement of the quantum yield of fluorescent zeolites by means of a precise and reliable diffuse reflectance technique. Several possible factors that may affect the fluorescence quantum yield are also investigated.

  6. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Full Papers
    6. Frontispiece
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    10. Index
    1. Quantum Yield Measurement of Fluorescent Zeolite Nanopigments (pages 1877–1883)

      Olivier Nicolet, Stefan Huber, Caroline Lovey, Sabrina Chappellet, Juliette Perrenoud, Marc Pauchard, Rolando Ferrini and Libero Zuppiroli

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200801421

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      Organic fluorescent molecules are infiltrated in the channels of zeolite L nanocrystals, thus creating organic–inorganic fluorescent nanoparticles. Their optical properties and their quantum yield are measured. Several possible factors that may affect the fluorescence quantum yield are investigated.

    2. Fluorescent Gold Nanoprobe Sensitive to Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species (pages 1884–1890)

      Hyukjin Lee, Kyuri Lee, In-Kyung Kim and Tae Gwan Park

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200801838

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Hyaluronic acid (HA)-immobilized fluorescent gold nanoprobes (HFAuNPs) are synthesized to detect intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) via nanoparticle surface-energy transfer (NSET). A bio-inspired adhesive molecule, dopamine, is utilized to end-immobilize fluorescein-HA conjugates via Au-catechol bonds. The gold nanoprobes can effectively detect intracellular ROS generation in macrophage cells upon external stimulus.

    3. Metal-Free Click Polymerization: Synthesis and Photonic Properties of Poly(aroyltriazole)s (pages 1891–1900)

      Anjun Qin, Li Tang, Jacky W. Y. Lam, Cathy K. W. Jim, Yong Yu, Hui Zhao, Jingzhi Sun and Ben Zhong Tang

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200801933

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      Click polymerizations of diyne and diazides are activated by simple heating to afford soluble poly(triazole)s with high regioregularities in high yields. The polymers exhibit high optical transparency, tunable light refractivity, low chromatic aberration, and fast photonic response. Their solutions are nonluminescent but their aggregates are emissive showing a novel effect of aggregation-induced emission. Their applications as explosive chemosensors and photoresist materials (see figure) are demonstrated.

    4. Controllable Molecular Doping and Charge Transport in Solution-Processed Polymer Semiconducting Layers (pages 1901–1905)

      Yuan Zhang, Bert de Boer and Paul W. M. Blom

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200801761

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      The electronic band structure of poly(2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene) (MEH-PPV) and 2,3,5,6-Tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4-TCNQ) shows an alignment of the HOMO of MEH-PPV and LUMO of F4-TCNQ. As a result, mobile holes can be introduced by the charge transfer process as depicted, leading to a linear I-V at low voltages. Aggregation of the solution can be prevented by adding a small amount of polar solvent.

    5. Doping of Conjugated Polythiophenes with Alkyl Silanes (pages 1906–1911)

      Chi Yueh Kao, Bumsu Lee, Leszek S. Wielunski, Martin Heeney, Iain McCulloch, Eric Garfunkel, Leonard C. Feldman and Vitaly Podzorov

      Article first published online: 4 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900120

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      Doping conjugated polythiophenes with silane-based molecules capable of forming self-assembled monolayers results in an increase in the electrical conductivity by up to six orders of magnitude. Additionally, the interband optical absorption becomes significantly reduced, making the polymer films transparent in the visible range. These results point to a new attractive route for doping conjugated polymers with potential applications in transparent conductors and molecular sensors.

  7. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Full Papers
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    10. Index
    1. Photovoltaic Cells: Organic Photovoltaic Cells Based On Solvent-Annealed, Textured Titanyl Phthalocyanine/C60 Heterojunctions (Adv. Funct. Mater. 12/2009)

      Diogenes Placencia, Weining Wang, R. Clayton Shallcross, Kenneth W. Nebesny, Michael Brumbach and Neal R. Armstrong

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200990053

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      D. Placencia et al. report on the creation of organic photovoltaic cells from textured titanyl phthalocyanine (TiOPc) heterojunctions. The foreground of this frontispiece shows the crystal structures of the two polymorphs of TiOPc used, along with FE-SEM images of TiOPc on an ITO electrode before (left), and after (right) phase transformation of the TiOPc film. The background shows AFM phase images of the two TiOPc polymorph films, showing the dewetting of the surface and the nanotexturing which occurs during the solvent annealing/phase transformation process.

  8. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Full Papers
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
    8. Frontispiece
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    10. Index
    1. Organic Photovoltaic Cells Based On Solvent-Annealed, Textured Titanyl Phthalocyanine/C60 Heterojunctions (pages 1913–1921)

      Diogenes Placencia, Weining Wang, R. Clayton Shallcross, Kenneth W. Nebesny, Michael Brumbach and Neal R. Armstrong

      Article first published online: 30 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200801723

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      Organic photovoltaic devices are produced from heterojunctions of titanyl phthalocyanine (TiOPc) and C60. Solvent annealing of the vacuum deposited TiOPc films causes a Phase I → Phase II transformation which i) greatly enhances photoelectrical activity in the near-IR, ii) textures the Pc layer, increasing the Pc/C60 interfacial contact area, and iii) nearly doubles the OPV power conversion efficiency.

    2. Block-Copolymer-Templated Synthesis of Electroactive RuO2-Based Mesoporous Thin Films (pages 1922–1929)

      Capucine Sassoye, Christel Laberty, Hung Le Khanh, Sophie Cassaignon, Cédric Boissière, Markus Antonietti and Clément Sanchez

      Article first published online: 7 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200801831

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      Facile synthesis of RuO2·xH2O mesoporous thin films with controlled pore and particle size is achieved using ruthenium-peroxo-based sols and amphiphilic polystyrene-polyethylene oxide block copolymers. Capacitances of 1000 ± 100 F g−1 were reached by tuning both the mesoporosity and nanocrystallinity of the thin films, demonstrating the potential of such films as electrode materials.

    3. Microstructured Arrays of TiO2 Nanotubes for Improved Photo-Electrocatalysis and Mechanical Stability (pages 1930–1938)

      Daoai Wang, Tianchang Hu, Litian Hu, Bo Yu, Yanqiu Xia, Feng Zhou and Weimin Liu

      Article first published online: 7 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200801703

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      Perfectly aligned, high-aspect-ratio TiO2 nanotubes are prepared in microstructured patterns (see figure) by laser micromachining technology together with an anodization strategy, which imparts improved photocurrent and photo-electrocatalytic properties. The micropattern can be easily designed and fabricated to meet various applications and can also dramatically improve upon the mechanical properties of the TiO2 NTs, which otherwise are liable to peel off from surface.

    4. The Energy of Charge-Transfer States in Electron Donor–Acceptor Blends: Insight into the Energy Losses in Organic Solar Cells (pages 1939–1948)

      Dirk Veldman, Stefan C. J. Meskers and René A. J. Janssen

      Article first published online: 4 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900090

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      CT states at the electron donor–acceptor interface are key intermediates in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells. A new general method allows determining their energy and provides insight into energetic losses in these cells. CT states may form with only 0.1 eV loss from the singlet excited state, but a major loss of 0.5 eV occurs when going to open-circuit, limiting the ultimate power conversion efficiency.

    5. Self-Assembled Robust Dipeptide Nanotubes and Fabrication of Dipeptide-Capped Gold Nanoparticles on the Surface of these Nanotubes (pages 1949–1961)

      Samit Guha and Arindam Banerjee

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200800955

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      Three water-soluble dipeptides containing N-terminally located β-alanine residue and C-terminally located α-amino acid residues (β-Ala-L-Xaa, Xaa = Val/Ile/Phe) form robust crystalline nanotubes which are stable against heat, a wide range of pH, and proteolytic degradation. These robust dipeptide nanotubes are used as a template for fabricating dipeptide-capped gold nanoparticles on their outer surfaces.

    6. The Role of OTS Density on Pentacene and C60 Nucleation, Thin Film Growth, and Transistor Performance (pages 1962–1970)

      Ajay Virkar, Stefan Mannsfeld, Joon Hak Oh, Michael F. Toney, Yih Horng Tan, Gang-yu Liu, J. Campbell Scott, Robert Miller and Zhenan Bao

      Article first published online: 7 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200801727

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      A crystalline dielectric modification layer provides the ideal surface for two-dimensional organic semiconductor thin film growth leading to very high performance OTFTs with hole mobilities higher than 2.0 cm2 V−1s−1 and electron mobilities over 4.5 cm2 V−1s−1.

    7. Kinetically Controlled Synthesis of Hexagonally Close-Packed Cobalt Nanorods with High Magnetic Coercivity (pages 1971–1977)

      Yaghoub Soumare, Cécile Garcia, Thomas Maurer, Grégory Chaboussant, Frédéric Ott, Fernand Fiévet, Jean-Yves Piquemal and Guillaume Viau

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200800822

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      Ferromagnetic cobalt nanorods are easily prepared within 15 minutes using cobalt carboxylate precursors in basic solutions of 1,2-butanediol. Nanoparticle morphology depends on the metal precursor, basicity, and temperature ramp. The nanorods can be aligned using an external magnetic field and display a very high magnetic coercivity of 9.0 kOe at 140 K.

    8. Synthesis and Processing of Monodisperse Oligo(fluorene-co-bithiophene)s into Oriented Films by Thermal and Solvent Annealing (pages 1978–1986)

      Lichang Zeng, Feng Yan, Simon K.-H. Wei, Sean W. Culligan and Shaw H. Chen

      Article first published online: 5 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900101

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      Monodisperse oligo(fluorene-co-bithiophene)s are used to elucidate the effects of structural parameters on thermotropic properties. Monodomain glassy-nematic films are prepared by spin coating from a high-boiling solvent or through exposure to a solvent-vapor at room temperature, emulating the orientational order achieved with thermal annealing. While amenable to thermal annealing, the polymer analogue is not responsive to solvent annealing.

    9. Efficient Reduction of Graphite Oxide by Sodium Borohydride and Its Effect on Electrical Conductance (pages 1987–1992)

      Hyeon-Jin Shin, Ki Kang Kim, Anass Benayad, Seon-Mi Yoon, Hyeon Ki Park, In-Sun Jung, Mei Hua Jin, Hae-Kyung Jeong, Jong Min Kim, Jae-Young Choi and Young Hee Lee

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900167

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      Reduced graphite oxide films obtained using NaBH4 exhibit much lower sheet resistance than films obtained using N2H4 because the latter results in the formation of C–N groups, which may act as donors compensating the hole carriers in the film and increasing resistivity. A transparent conducting film prepared using optimized NaBH4 reduction reveals a sheet resistance comparable to that observed in dispersed graphene.

    10. Porous Polymer Coatings: a Versatile Approach to Superhydrophobic Surfaces (pages 1993–1998)

      Pavel A. Levkin, Frantisek Svec and Jean M. J. Fréchet

      Article first published online: 14 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200801916

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      Superhydrophobic polymer coatings on surfaces are prepared using photopolymerization of a mixture containing monomers, porogenic solvents and UV initiator. This method is applicable to a variety of substrates. Independent control of structure and surface chemistry of the porous polymers can be used to modulate both transparency and superhydrophobicity of the materials.

    11. Silicon Inverse-Opal-Based Macroporous Materials as Negative Electrodes for Lithium Ion Batteries (pages 1999–2010)

      Alexei Esmanski and Geoffrey A. Ozin

      Article first published online: 7 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900306

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      Several types of silicon-based inverse-opal films are synthesized and characterized, and their performance as anode materials for Li ion batteries is studied. Carbon–silicon composites, synthesized by depositing amorphous silicon onto the glassy carbon inverse-opal backbone structure, demonstrate very good cycling behavior both in terms of capacity retentions and rate capabilities. Such composites remain macroporous even at the highest degrees of lithiation.

  9. Index

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Full Papers
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    10. Index

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