Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 19 Issue 14

July 24, 2009

Volume 19, Issue 14

Pages 2179–2346

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
    8. Index
    1. Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles: Facile Fabrication and Superparamagnetism of Silica-Shielded Magnetite Nanoparticles on Carbon Nitride Nanotubes (Adv. Funct. Mater. 14/2009)

      Jung Woo Lee, Ravindranath Viswan, Yoon Jeong Choi, Yeob Lee, Se Yun Kim, Jaehun Cho, Younghun Jo and Jeung Ku Kang

      Version of Record online: 16 JUL 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200990060

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      The superparamagnetic response of silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles on carbon nitride nanotubes in water is depicted in this cover image. The silica shell helps maintain the superparamagnetic fluid while magnetite nanoparticles on carbon nitride nanotubes without silica layers show a significant degradation of magnetic performance in water. On page 2213, Jeung Ku Kang and co-workers report a facile fabrication of these silica-shielded magnetite nanoparticles on carbon nitride nanotubes via the liquid polyol process.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
    8. Index
    1. Self-Healing Materials: A Facile Strategy for Preparing Self-Healing Polymer Composites by Incorporation of Cationic Catalyst-Loaded Vegetable Fibers (Adv. Funct. Mater. 14/2009)

      Ding Shu Xiao, Yan Chao Yuan, Min Zhi Rong and Ming Qiu Zhang

      Version of Record online: 16 JUL 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200990061

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      Discontinuous sisal fibers carrying extremely active (C2H5)2O·BF3 are embedded in epoxy matrix together with epoxy monomer-loaded microcapsules to fabricate self-healing composite based on the healing mechanism of cationic chain polymerization. This approach, described by D. S. Xiao et al. on page 2289, skips the encapsulation of high activity chemicals, reducing the risk of their deactivation during handling. It provides a facile strategy for making extrinsic self-healing polymeric materials.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
    8. Index
  4. Feature Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
    8. Index
    1. Solvent-Free Ionic Liquid Electrolytes for Mesoscopic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 2187–2202)

      Shaik M. Zakeeruddin and Michael Grätzel

      Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900390

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      Recent developments in the field of high performance dye-sensitized solar cells (OSCs) with ionic liquid-based electrolytes are discussed. Their characterization by electrochemical impedance analysis is described. The high viscosity of ionic liquids leads to mass transport limitations on the photocurrents in the DSC at full sunlight intensity. However, the contribution of Grotthous-type exchange mechanisms in these viscous electrolytes helps to alleviate these diffusion problems.

  5. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
    8. Index
    1. Phosphorescent OLEDs: Synthesis and Characterization of Red-Emitting Iridium(III) Complexes for Solution-Processable Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (Adv. Funct. Mater. 14/2009)

      Seung-Joon Lee, Jin-Su Park, Myungkwan Song, In Ae Shin, Young-Inn Kim, Jae Wook Lee, Jae-Wook Kang, Yeong-Soon Gal, Sunwoo Kang, Jin Yong Lee, Sung-Hyun Jung, Hyung-Sun Kim, Mi-Young Chae and Sung-Ho Jin

      Version of Record online: 16 JUL 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200990063

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      On page 2205, S.H. Jin and co-workers report on the development of red-emitting iridium(III) complexes for solution-processable phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs). This frontispiece image shows the fabrication of full-color PhOLEDs by an inkjet printing method. The combination of good efficiency and color purity identifies this material as a promising candidate for red phosphorescent doping of PhOLEDs. Structure-property relationships for improving the performance of such devices are also investigated.

  6. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
    8. Index
    1. Synthesis and Characterization of Red-Emitting Iridium(III) Complexes for Solution-Processable Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (pages 2205–2212)

      Seung-Joon Lee, Jin-Su Park, Myungkwan Song, In Ae Shin, Young-Inn Kim, Jae Wook Lee, Jae-Wook Kang, Yeong-Soon Gal, Sunwoo Kang, Jin Yong Lee, Sung-Hyun Jung, Hyung-Sun Kim, Mi-Young Chae and Sung-Ho Jin

      Version of Record online: 8 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900322

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      A new series of highly efficient red-emitting phosphorescent Ir(III) complexes are synthesized for phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs) and their electroluminescent properties are investigated. High-performance solution-processable PhOLEDs are fabricated using Ir(III) complexes with a picolinic acid N-oxide ancillary ligand with a maximum external quantum efficiency (5.53%) and luminance efficiency (8.89 cd A−1).

    2. Facile Fabrication and Superparamagnetism of Silica-Shielded Magnetite Nanoparticles on Carbon Nitride Nanotubes (pages 2213–2218)

      Jung Woo Lee, Ravindranath Viswan, Yoon Jeong Choi, Yeob Lee, Se Yun Kim, Jaehun Cho, Younghun Jo and Jeung Ku Kang

      Version of Record online: 18 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200801498

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) of uniform size are anchored onto the outer surface of carbon nitride nanotubes (CNNTs) because the CNNT nitrogen atoms provide selective nucleation sites. Shielding the NP–CNNT hybrid materials with silica (see image on left) helps maintain the magnetic properties of the NPs; without a silica layer, the magnetic performance in water of the NP–CNNT materials significantly degrade over time (see plot on right).

    3. Transmission Electron Microscopy and UV–vis–IR Spectroscopy Analysis of the Diameter Sorting of Carbon Nanotubes by Gradient Density Ultracentrifugation (pages 2219–2223)

      Romain Fleurier, Jean-Sébastien Lauret, Ugo Lopez and Annick Loiseau

      Version of Record online: 28 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200801778

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      Diameter sorting of single-walled carbon nanotubes dispersed in aqueous solutions containing sodium cholate is achieved using gradient density ultracentrifugation. Analyses of the 11 different fractions (see right figure) are accomplished using optical absorption spectroscopy (red diamonds, upper figure) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, lower figure).

    4. Synthesis, Electrochemical and Photophysical Properties, and Electroluminescent Performance of the Octa- and Deca(aryl)[60]fullerene Derivatives (pages 2224–2229)

      Yutaka Matsuo, Yoshiharu Sato, Masahiko Hashiguchi, Keiko Matsuo and Eiichi Nakamura

      Version of Record online: 4 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900021

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      Light-emitting deca(aryl)[60]fullerene derivatives possessing hoop-shaped cyclophenacene and bowl-shaped corannulene type π-electron conjugated systems are synthesized through two-step organocopper-mediated addition reactions to [60]fullerene and investigated for electrochemistry, photoluminescence, and electroluminescence.

    5. Supramolecular Assembly of Perylene Bisimide with β-Cyclodextrin Grafts as a Solid-State Fluorescence Sensor for Vapor Detection (pages 2230–2235)

      Yu Liu, Ke-Rang Wang, Dong-Sheng Guo and Bang-Ping Jiang

      Version of Record online: 21 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900221

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      Solid-state fluorescence sensor: A supramolecular nanorod aggregate is constructed from perylene bisimide-bridged bis-(permethyl-β-cyclodextrins) via π–π stacking interactions and exhibits robust solid-state fluorescence. In virtue of the binding property of cyclodextrin, the aggregate is employed as a novel fluorescence sensory material that can probe the vapors of volatile organic compounds.

    6. Formation of Hierarchically Structured Thin Films (pages 2236–2243)

      Ming Wang, Jean E. Comrie, Yunpeng Bai, Ximin He, Shaoyun Guo and Wilhelm T. S. Huck

      Version of Record online: 12 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200801867

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      Hierarchically structured polymer brushes grown from gold surfaces patterned by multistep microcontact printing (MS-µCP) exhibit different etch-resistant properties. After lift-off the freestanding films were transferred to PDMS substrates to study their complex wrinkling behavior.

    7. PEI–PEG–Chitosan-Copolymer-Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Safe Gene Delivery: Synthesis, Complexation, and Transfection (pages 2244–2251)

      Forrest M. Kievit, Omid Veiseh, Narayan Bhattarai, Chen Fang, Jonathan W. Gunn, Donghoon Lee, Richard G. Ellenbogen, James M. Olson and Miqin Zhang

      Version of Record online: 21 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200801844

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      A gene transfection nanovector made from an iron oxide nanoparticle coated with a copolymer consisting of poly(ethylene glycol), chitosan, and poly(ethylenimine) demonstrates stable binding and effective transfection of DNA in C6 glioma cells both in vitro and in vivo. Significantly, this gene delivery vehicle demonstrates an innocuous toxic profile.

    8. Producing Supramolecular Functional Materials Based on Fiber Network Reconstruction (pages 2252–2259)

      Shaokun Tang, Xiang Yang Liu and Christina S. Strom

      Version of Record online: 8 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200801590

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      A topology creation and transition of a gel fiber network from spherulite-like to comb-like to spherulite-like is performed with the introduction of a surfactant, the so-called topological modifier. The elastic performance of this soft functional material is either weakened or strengthened (up to 300% for the current system) by reconstructing the topology of the fiber network.

    9. Liquid Crystal Emulsions as the Basis of Biological Sensors for the Optical Detection of Bacteria and Viruses (pages 2260–2265)

      Sri Sivakumar, Kim L. Wark, Jugal K. Gupta, Nicholas L. Abbott and Frank Caruso

      Version of Record online: 8 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900399

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      Monodisperse liquid crystal (LC) emulsion droplets are used to detect and distinguish between different types of bacteria (Gram +ve and −ve) and viruses (enveloped and non-enveloped) based on their cell wall/envelope structure (see Figure). This new approach paves the way for the development of a new class of LC microdroplet-based biological sensors.

    10. Electrochemically Tuned Properties for Electrolyte-Free Carbon Nanotube Sheets (pages 2266–2272)

      Alexander A. Zakhidov, Dong-Seok Suh, Alexander A. Kuznetsov, Joseph N. Barisci, Edgar Muñoz, Alan B. Dalton, Steve Collins, Von H. Ebron, Mei Zhang, John P. Ferraris, Anvar A. Zakhidov and Ray H. Baughman

      Version of Record online: 22 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900253

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      Tunable electrochemical charge injection and charge retention, in which neither volumetric ion intercalation nor maintained electrolyte contact is needed, are demonstrated for carbon nanotube sheets in the absence of an applied field (see figure). The tunability of electrical conductivity and electron field emission in the subsequent material is presented, along with how these sheets may be used in supercapacitors.

    11. Photocrosslinkable Polythiophenes for Efficient, Thermally Stable, Organic Photovoltaics (pages 2273–2281)

      Bumjoon J. Kim, Yoshikazu Miyamoto, Biwu Ma and Jean M. J. Fréchet

      Version of Record online: 22 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900043

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      Photocrosslinkable copolymers of 3-hexylthiophene and 3-(6-bromohexyl)thiophene are shown to be effective electron donors in organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Photocrosslinking provides access to highly performing bilayer photovoltaic devices with PCBM as the electron conducting layer. In addition, crosslinking stabilizes the morphology of P3HTBr-PCBM blends without disturbing π–π stacking and prevents macro phase separation between two components leading to OPVs with remarkably enhanced thermal stability.

    12. High-Pressure Synthesis of Tantalum Nitride Having Orthorhombic U2S3 Structure (pages 2282–2288)

      Andreas Zerr, Gerhard Miehe, Jinwang Li, Dmytro A. Dzivenko, Vadim K. Bulatov, Heidi Höfer, Nathalie Bolfan-Casanova, Michel Fialin, Gerhard Brey, Tomoaki Watanabe and Masahiro Yoshimura

      Version of Record online: 22 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200801923

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      A novel tantalum nitride having U2S3 structure, η-Ta2N3 is synthesized at high pressure and temperature. The stoichiometry of Ta2N3 is supported independently by two different experimental methods, confirming for the first time the existence of a thermodynamically stable transition metal (M) nitride with N:M > 4:3. Due to its high hardness and peculiar texture, η-Ta2N3 can find applications as a hard fracture resistant material.

    13. A Facile Strategy for Preparing Self-Healing Polymer Composites by Incorporation of Cationic Catalyst-Loaded Vegetable Fibers (pages 2289–2296)

      Ding Shu Xiao, Yan Chao Yuan, Min Zhi Rong and Ming Qiu Zhang

      Version of Record online: 14 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200801827

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      A facile strategy for preparing self-healing epoxy composites is proposed by embedding epoxy-loaded capsules and (C2H5)2O· BF3-loaded sisal in the matrix (see figure). The highly active hardener for epoxy is eventually dispersed in the composites through gradual diffusion from the carriers. The exact stoichiometric ratio and even distribution of the reaction components required by other healing chemistries becomes unnecessary.

    14. Molecular-Level Dispersion of Graphene into Poly(vinyl alcohol) and Effective Reinforcement of their Nanocomposites (pages 2297–2302)

      Jiajie Liang, Yi Huang, Long Zhang, Yan Wang, Yanfeng Ma, Tianyin Guo and Yongsheng Chen

      Version of Record online: 12 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200801776

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      PVA/graphene nanocomposites are fabricated using a simple and environmentally friendly method with water as the processing solvent. Significant enhancement of the mechanical properties of these nanocomposites is obtained at fairly low concentrations of graphene oxide due to molecular-level dispersion and hydrogen bonding.

    15. Protein-Enabled Synthesis of Monodisperse Titania Nanoparticles On and Within Polyelectrolyte Matrices (pages 2303–2311)

      Eugenia Kharlampieva, Joseph M. Slocik, Srikanth Singamaneni, Nicole Poulsen, Nils Kröger, Rajesh R. Naik and Vladimir V. Tsukruk

      Version of Record online: 14 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200801825

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      The structural confirmation of a rSilC-silaffin protein upon its adsorption on a polyelectrolyte surface and encapsulation in a polyelectrolyte is investigated. Binding to the polyelectrolyte surface results in a conformational transition from random-coil to a random-coil/β-sheet mixture, and titania formation activity is retained when in the matrix. This surface-mediated bio-enabled synthesis of nanostructured materials might be useful for the controlled growth of nanomaterials on organic surfaces.

    16. Conductive Core–Sheath Nanofibers and Their Potential Application in Neural Tissue Engineering (pages 2312–2318)

      Jingwei Xie, Matthew R. MacEwan, Stephanie M. Willerth, Xiaoran Li, Daniel W. Moran, Shelly E. Sakiyama-Elbert and Younan Xia

      Version of Record online: 21 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200801904

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      Conductive core–sheath nanofibers are fabricated using in-situ polymerization of pyrrole on the surface of electrospun, biodegradable nanofibers. The conductive core–sheath nanofibers are used to examine the synergistic effect of different cues on the guidance and extension of neurites as a way of exploring their potential application in neural tissue engineering.

    17. Supercritical-Fluid-Assisted One-Pot Synthesis of Biocompatible Core(γ-Fe2O3)/Shell(SiO2) Nanoparticles as High Relaxivity T2-Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (pages 2319–2324)

      Elena Taboada, Raul Solanas, Elisenda Rodríguez, Ralph Weissleder and Anna Roig

      Version of Record online: 9 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200801681

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      A supercritical-fluid-assisted sol–gel processing method is used to fabricate monodisperse magnetic core/shell nanoparticles (NPs). The initial sol containing the γ-Fe2O3 NPs at ambient conditions (left) is combined with a silica source. After treatment at supercritical conditions, the expanded sol contains gel composite particles (middle). TEM images of the magnetic composite material clearly reveal nuclei surrounded by silica shells (right).

    18. Controlling Affinity Binding with Peptide-Functionalized Poly(ethylene glycol) Hydrogels (pages 2325–2331)

      Chien-Chi Lin and Kristi S. Anseth

      Version of Record online: 14 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900107

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      Affinity hydrogels based on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and affinity peptide are designed to enhance affinity binding within permissive hydrogel environments. This affinity hydrogel platform is useful in sustained growth factor delivery or retention of growth factor within the permissible PEG hydrogel.

    19. Tuning Conversion Efficiency in Metallo Endohedral Fullerene-Based Organic Photovoltaic Devices (pages 2332–2337)

      Russel B. Ross, Claudia M. Cardona, Francis B. Swain, Dirk M. Guldi, Shankara G. Sankaranarayanan, Edward Van Keuren, Brian C. Holloway and Martin Drees

      Version of Record online: 28 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900214

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      The use of 1-(3-hexoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl-[6,6]-Lu3N@C81, Lu3N@C80–PCBH leads to significant improvements in the open circuit voltage of poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT, based OPV devices. This open circuit voltage enhancement is due to an improved molecular orbital offset between fullerene acceptor and polymer donor. Through properly matching the film processing and the donor to acceptor ratio, P3HT/Lu3N@C80–PCBH devices with power conversion efficiency greater than 4% are demonstrated.

    20. Identification of Nucleation Center Sites in Thermally Annealed Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon (pages 2338–2344)

      A. Harv Mahan, Tining Su, Don L. Williamson, Lynn M. Gedvilas, S. Phil Ahrenkiel, Phillip A. Parilla, Yueqin Xu and David A. Ginley

      Version of Record online: 21 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200801709

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      Nucleation in thermally annealed hydrogenated amorphous silicon occurs in the more well-ordered spatial regions in the network, which are defined by the initial inhomogeneous H distributions in the as-grown films. The sizes of these regions relative to a critical crystallite size determine the film incubation times, or the anneal times before the onset of crystallization.

  7. Index

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
    8. Index

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