Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 19 Issue 17

September 9, 2009

Volume 19, Issue 17

Pages 2693–2850

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
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    7. Full Papers
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    9. Full Papers
    1. Aligned Nanofibers: Epitaxial Growth of Highly Oriented Fibers of Semiconducting Polymers with a Shish-Kebab-Like Superstructure (Adv. Funct. Mater. 17/2009)

      Martin Brinkmann, Frédéric Chandezon, Robert B. Pansu and Carine Julien-Rabant

      Article first published online: 1 SEP 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200990076

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      Highly oriented fibers of regioregular poly(3-alkylthiophene)s with a “shish-kebab” morphology are prepared by epitaxy on long needles of 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene grown in liquid pyridine, as described on page 2759 by Brinkmann et al. The superstructure of the fibers consists of a highly oriented thread-like core several hundreds of micrometers long, the “shish”, onto which lateral crystalline nanofibrils made of folded polymer chains, the “kebabs”, are connected in a periodic way.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
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    1. Cell–Material Interfaces: Capillary Force Lithography: A Versatile Tool for Structured Biomaterials Interface Towards Cell and Tissue Engineering (Adv. Funct. Mater. 17/2009)

      Kahp-Yang Suh, Min Cheol Park and Pilnam Kim

      Article first published online: 1 SEP 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200990077

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      An in-depth overview of the recently developed molding technology termed capillary force lithography (CFL) is presented by K.-Y. Suh et al. on page 2699, with particular emphasis on control of the properties of the cellular microenvironment, such as cell–protein, cell–cell, and cell–topography interactions. The cover image demonstrates that the adhesion and growth of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts is extremely sensitive to multi-scale, hierarchical structures, with the cells elongated along the nanoscale bridges.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
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    1. Contents: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 17/2009) (pages 2693–2698)

      Article first published online: 1 SEP 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200990078

  4. Feature Article

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    5. Feature Article
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    1. Capillary Force Lithography: A Versatile Tool for Structured Biomaterials Interface Towards Cell and Tissue Engineering (pages 2699–2712)

      Kahp-Yang Suh, Min Cheol Park and Pilnam Kim

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900771

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      An in-depth overview of the recently developed molding technology termed capillary force lithography (CFL) that can be used to control the cellular microenvironment is presented in this Feature Article. If physical forces such as capillary, hydrostatic, and dispersion forces are precisely controlled, polymer films can be molded into the features of a polymeric mold with high pattern fidelity and physical integrity. The molding methods presented here can be used to create a structured biomaterials interface as an experimental platform for better understanding cell–substrate interactions in cell biology and tissue-engineering applications.

  5. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
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    1. (Adv. Funct. Mater. 17/2009)

      Article first published online: 1 SEP 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200990079

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  6. Full Papers

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    1. Controlling Light Emission in Luminescent Solar Concentrators Through Use of Dye Molecules Aligned in a Planar Manner by Liquid Crystals (pages 2714–2719)

      Paul P. C. Verbunt, Anton Kaiser, Ko Hermans, Cees W. M. Bastiaansen, Dirk J. Broer and Michael G. Debije

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900542

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      Edge emission is enhanced in a luminescent solar concentrator using planar-aligned dyes as compared to similar waveguides using isotropic dyes. Emission from the edge parallel to the alignment direction can emit up to 60% more light than the perpendicular, and up to 30% more than from any single edge of an isotropic waveguide. The figure depicts the anisotropy (solid vs. dotted lines) of absorption (blue) and emission (green) of a planar sample.

    2. Molecular Design of Unsymmetrical Squaraine Dyes for High Efficiency Conversion of Low Energy Photons into Electrons Using TiO2 Nanocrystalline Films (pages 2720–2727)

      Thomas Geiger, Simon Kuster, Jun-Ho Yum, Soo-Jin Moon, Mohammad K. Nazeeruddin, Michael Grätzel and Frank Nüesch

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900231

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      An optimized unsymmetrical squaraine dye with carboxylic acid as anchoring group is synthesized for dye-sensitized solar cells. Photophysical measurements show that the new sensitizer has a high overall conversion efficiency η of 5.40% which is improved by 20% when compared to its antecessor. UV-Vis spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and time dependent density functional theory calculations are accomplished to rationalize this higher conversion efficiency.

    3. Dual-Tone Patterned Mesoporous Silicate Films Templated From Chemically Amplified Block Copolymers (pages 2728–2734)

      Sivakumar Nagarajan, Thomas P. Russell and James J. Watkins

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900127

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      A versatile and efficient approach to directly patterned mesoporous silicate films is presented. The geometry of these porous silicate films is controlled over device level and nanoscopic length scales by performing phase selective silica condensation within lithographically exposed, chemically amplified block copolymer templates. From a single photomask, both positive-tone (microposts) and negative-tone (microwells) replications with nanoscopic structures are obtained without etching.

    4. PbS and CdS Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solid-State Solar Cells: “Old Concepts, New Results” (pages 2735–2742)

      HyoJoong Lee, Henry C. Leventis, Soo-Jin Moon, Peter Chen, Seigo Ito, Saif A. Haque, Tomas Torres, Frank Nüesch, Thomas Geiger, Shaik M. Zakeeruddin, Michael Grätzel and Md. Khaja Nazeeruddin

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900081

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      High overall conversion efficiencies are obtained from solid-state solar cells sensitized with PbS and CdS quantum dots (QDs) using spiro-OMeTAD as a hole-conductor. Thorough optimization of important parameters leads to 1.46% efficiency at full-sun intensity. A second organic dye sensitizer can be added over the QDs-sensitized electrode and these cells have been tested as model systems of organic–inorganic hybrid sensitizer systems.

    5. High-Performance Photoresponsive Organic Nanotransistors with Single-Layer Graphenes as Two-Dimensional Electrodes (pages 2743–2748)

      Yang Cao, Song Liu, Qian Shen, Kai Yan, Pingjian Li, Jun Xu, Dapeng Yu, Michael L. Steigerwald, Colin Nuckolls, Zhongfan Liu and Xuefeng Guo

      Article first published online: 22 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900408

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      Graphene behaves as a robust semimetal with the high electrical conductivity stemming from its high-quality tight two-dimensional crystallographic lattice. Here, a general methodology for making stable photoresponsive field effect transistors, whose device geometries are comparable to traditional macroscopic semiconducting devices at the nanometer scale, using cut graphene sheets as 2D contacts is detailed. This study forms the basis for making new types of ultrasensitive molecular devices, thus initiating broad research interest in the field of nanoscale/molecular electronics.

    6. A Multiscale Description of the Electronic Transport within the Hierarchical Architecture of a Composite Electrode for Lithium Batteries (pages 2749–2758)

      Jean-Claude Badot, Éǹc Ligneel, Olivier Dubrunfaut, Dominigve Guyomard and Bernard Lestriez

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900379

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      A lithium battery electrode is characterized using the broadband dielectric spectros copy technique. From interatomic distances to macroscopic sizes, the technique is very sensitive to the structure and the morphology of the different scales of the electrode architecture involved in the electronic transport.

    7. Epitaxial Growth of Highly Oriented Fibers of Semiconducting Polymers with a Shish-Kebab-Like Superstructure (pages 2759–2766)

      Martin Brinkmann, Frédéric Chandezon, Robert B. Pansu and Carine Julien-Rabant

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900966

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      Highly oriented and nanostructured crystalline fibers of conjugated polymers, namely regioregular poly(3-alkylthiophene)s, are obtained by an epitaxial growth process. The P3AT fibers show a so-called “shish-kebab” superstructure (see figure). Such highly oriented and nanostructured P3AT fibers exhibit polarized light absorption and photoluminescence.

  7. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. (Adv. Funct. Mater. 17/2009)

      Article first published online: 1 SEP 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200990080

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract
  8. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. Layer-By-Layer Dendritic Growth of Hyperbranched Thin Films for Surface Sol–Gel Syntheses of Conformal, Functional, Nanocrystalline Oxide Coatings on Complex 3D (Bio)silica Templates (pages 2768–2776)

      Guojie Wang, Yunnan Fang, Philseok Kim, Ali Hayek, Michael R. Weatherspoon, Joseph W. Perry, Kenneth H. Sandhage, Seth R. Marder and Simon C. Jones

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900402

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      Rapid dendritic amplification of accessible surface hydroxyl groups on 3D biomineral surfaces by layer-by-layer build-up of hyperbranched polyamine/polyacrylate thin films facilitates conformal surface sol–gel deposition of iron oxide, which can be converted into a nanocrystalline magnetite coating. Specific adsorption of arsenic onto magnetite-coated diatom frustules is significantly higher than for commercial magnetite nanoparticles in a circulating filter system (see figure).

    2. Sample Target Substrates with Reduced Spot Size for MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry Based on Patterned Self-Assembled Monolayers (pages 2777–2781)

      Nicole Herzer, Rebecca Eckardt, Stephanie Hoeppener and Ulrich S. Schubert

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200801896

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      Microstructured self-assembled monolayers on silicon are utilized as sample support for MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry to improve the reproducibility and sensitivity of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry of low concentrated sample solutions. Concentration down to 1 fmol µL−1 is found to be measureable.

    3. Preparation, Structure, and Electrochemical Properties of Reduced Graphene Sheet Films (pages 2782–2789)

      Longhua Tang, Ying Wang, Yueming Li, Hongbing Feng, Jin Lu and Jinghong Li

      Article first published online: 22 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900377

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      Reduced graphene sheet films are shown to be advanced electrode materials that can easily be prepared by a chemical method. Their electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties amongst which are fast electron-transfer kinetics and excellent activity for a variety of electroactive species are revealed. These studies aid in understanding the relationship between the structure and electrochemical properties of graphene-based electrodes, suggesting promising applications in efficient biosensing, energy-conversion, biomedical, and other electronic systems.

    4. Crystallization and Grain Growth Kinetics for Precipitation-Based Ceramics: A Case Study on Amorphous Ceria Thin Films from Spray Pyrolysis (pages 2790–2799)

      Jennifer L. M. Rupp, Barbara Scherrer, Ashley S. Harvey and Ludwig J. Gauckler

      Article first published online: 27 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900255

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      Distinctive microstructure engineering of amorphous to nanocrystalline electroceramic thin films is of high relevance for integration in low to high temperature operating MEMS-devices. Up to now, kinetic rules of nucleation, crystallization and grain growth of precipitation-based ceramic thin films are unknown. In this article, first case-study experiments are presented for a pure single-phase metal oxide thin film, and general kinetic rules are discussed.

    5. Electric-Field-Assisted Nanostructuring of a Mott Insulator (pages 2800–2804)

      Vincent Dubost, Tristan Cren, Cristian Vaju, Laurent Cario, Benoit Corraze, Etienne Janod, François Debontridder and Dimitri Roditchev

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900208

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      Strong electromechanical coupling in the Mott insulator GaTa4Se8 is shown by experimental evidence for the first time; this behavior allows highly reproducible writing on the nanometer scale by means of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Above a threshold voltage, the surface inflates and comes in contact with the STM tip (see figure), resulting in nanometer-sized craters. These patterns can be indestructibly “read” by STM at lower voltage bias thus, allowing a 5 Tdots per square inch dense writing/reading at room temperature.

    6. Arrays of Inorganic Nanodots and Nanowires Using Nanotemplates Based on Switchable Block Copolymer Supramolecular Assemblies (pages 2805–2811)

      Bhanu Nandan, E. Bhoje Gowd, Nadja C. Bigall, Alexander Eychmüller, Petr Formanek, Paul Simon and Manfred Stamm

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900141

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      A simple route to fabricate highly dense one and two-dimensional nanopatterned arrays of palladium nanoparticles with sub-30nm periodicity using supramolecular assemblies (SMA) of a block copolymer and a low molecular weight additive as the nanoporous template with chemically responsive morphology is demonstrated..

    7. Printable Ferroelectric PVDF/PMMA Blend Films with Ultralow Roughness for Low Voltage Non-Volatile Polymer Memory (pages 2812–2818)

      Seok Ju Kang, Youn Jung Park, Insung Bae, Kap Jin Kim, Ho-Cheol Kim, Siegfried Bauer, Edwin L. Thomas and Cheolmin Park

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900589

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      The melt and ice-quenching of a thin PMMA/PVDF blend film spin-coated on a substrate is an effective way to form ferroelectric β-PVDF crystals. These thin blend films allow not only to fabricate a flexible transistor memory but also to develop ferroelectric micro-capacitor arrays based on the transfer printing technique.

    8. On the Synthesis of Carbon Nanofibers and Nanotubes by Microwave Irradiation: Parameters, Catalysts, and Substrates (pages 2819–2825)

      Tamara Druzhinina, Stephanie Hoeppener and Ulrich S. Schubert

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900731

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      The influence of different synthesis conditions on the microwave-assisted fabrication of carbon nanofibers and nanotubes is investigated. The analysis of temperature and pressure curves and the optimization of the synthesis conditions results in an improved quality of the one-dimensional carbon nanostructures, also expanding the range of accessible substrates to quartz glass and mica by an efficient compensation of higher energy dissipation on non-conducting substrates.

    9. Syntheses, Li Insertion, and Photoactivity of Mesoporous Crystalline TiO2 (pages 2826–2833)

      Wenbo Yue, Chamnan Randorn, Pierrot S. Attidekou, Zixue Su, John T. S. Irvine and Wuzong Zhou

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900658

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      Porous monocrystalline and polycrystalline TiO2 materials are fabricated using mesoporous silica SBA-15 as template and characterized using XRD, HRTEM, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption. A high level of Li insertion, 1.06 Li per TiO2 unit, is demonstrated in porous rutile TiO2. The photoactivity of silica-containing porous polycrystalline anatase is also investigated.

    10. A Bipolar Host Material Containing Triphenylamine and Diphenylphosphoryl-Substituted Fluorene Units for Highly Efficient Blue Electrophosphorescence (pages 2834–2843)

      Fang-Ming Hsu, Chen-Han Chien, Ching-Fong Shu, Chin-Hung Lai, Cheng-Chih Hsieh, Kang-Wei Wang and Pi-Tai Chou

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900703

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      Devices incorporating the novel host POAPF, which possesses a high value of ET, satisfactory thermal stability, and bipolar characteristics, display highly efficient blue electrophosphorescence. The 7 wt% FIrpic-doped device exhibits a very low turn-on voltage (2.5 V) and high electroluminescence efficiencies (20.6% and 36.7 lm W−1).

    11. Low-Threshold Distributed-Feedback Lasers Based on Pyrene-Cored Starburst Molecules with 1,3,6,8-Attached Oligo(9,9-Dialkylfluorene) Arms (pages 2844–2850)

      Ruidong Xia, Wen-Yong Lai, Peter A. Levermore, Wei Huang and Donal D. C. Bradley

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900503

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      Pyrene-cored 9,9-dialkylfluorene starbursts exhibit promising optical gain properties, including encouragingly low laser thresholds and relatively high thermal and environmental stability. 1D distributed feedback lasers with 75% fill factor and 320-nm period show optical pumping thresholds down to 38 W cm−2, laser slope efficiencies up to 3.9%, and wavelength tuning ranges of ∼40 nm in the 470 to 520 nm spectral window.

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