Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 19 Issue 20

October 23, 2009

Volume 19, Issue 20

Pages 3185–3341

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Comments
    6. Feature Article
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Full Papers
    1. Photolithography: Fabrication of Flexible Binary Amplitude Masks for Patterning on Highly Curved Surfaces (Adv. Funct. Mater. 20/2009)

      Audrey M. Bowen and Ralph G. Nuzzo

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200990090

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The front cover image shows a photolithographically defined gold pattern on the curved surface of a cylindrical glass lens (12.5-mm radius) using a photomask made by using the soft lithography protocols reported by Bowen and Nuzzo on page 3243. The described methods provide highly flexible photomasks, of both positive and negative image contrasts, that serve as amplitude masks for large area photolithographic patterning on a variety of curved (and planar) surfaces.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Comments
    6. Feature Article
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Full Papers
    1. Polystyrene Arrays: Non-Close-Packed Crystals from Self-Assembled Polystyrene Spheres by Isotropic Plasma Etching: Adding Flexibility to Colloid Lithography (Adv. Funct. Mater. 20/2009)

      Alfred Plettl, Fabian Enderle, Marc Saitner, Achim Manzke, Christian Pfahler, Stefan Wiedemann and Paul Ziemann

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200990091

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      Hexagonally ordered arrays of non-close-packed spherical polystyrene (PS) particles are prepared by A. Plettl et al. on page 3279, and exhibit precisely controlled diameters and interparticle distances. An isotropic low-temperature plasma-etching process is applied to extended monolayers of PS colloids deposited onto hydrophilic silicon. These non-close-packed PS arrays are used as masks for the fabrication of arrays of cylindrical nanopores by reactive ion etching.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Comments
    6. Feature Article
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Full Papers
    1. Contents: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 20/2009) (pages 3185–3190)

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200990092

  4. Comments

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Comments
    6. Feature Article
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Full Papers
  5. Feature Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Comments
    6. Feature Article
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Full Papers
    1. Photoluminescence-Based Sensing With Porous Silicon Films, Microparticles, and Nanoparticles (pages 3195–3208)

      Michael J. Sailor and Elizabeth C. Wu

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900535

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      The nanoscale features in porous silicon have interesting photoluminescence and related energy- and charge-transfer properties that can be harnessed to sense chemicals in the gas or liquid phases. This review discusses macro-, micro-, and nanosensor devices derived from porous silicon, providing examples of environmental and in vivo applications. The influence of surface chemistry is particularly highlighted.

  6. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Comments
    6. Feature Article
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Full Papers
    1. Responsive Coatings: Stimuli-Responsive Thin Coatings Using Elastin-Like Polymers for Biomedical Applications (Adv. Funct. Mater. 20/2009)

      Rui R. Costa, Catarina A. Custódio, Ana M. Testera, Francisco J. Arias, José C. Rodríguez-Cabello, Natália M. Alves and João F. Mano

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200990093

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      Costa et al. successfully apply a simple protein adsorption technique combining chitosan substrates and recombinant elastin-like polymers (ELPs) on page 3210. This process allows for coating of polysaccharide substrates with such biomimetic macromolecules, resulting in interesting properties such as smart behavior and improved cell adhesion. The figure illustrates symbolically the reversible structural changes that occur to the ELP simply by changing temperature.

  7. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Comments
    6. Feature Article
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Full Papers
    1. Stimuli-Responsive Thin Coatings Using Elastin-Like Polymers for Biomedical Applications (pages 3210–3218)

      Rui R. Costa, Catarina A. Custódio, Ana M. Testera, Francisco J. Arias, José C. Rodríguez-Cabello, Natália M. Alves and João F. Mano

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900568

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      The modification of surfaces to control cell and protein behavior has been a key aspect in many applications in biology and biotechnology. This Full Paper describes a novel “smart” and biomimetic thin coating for chitosan substrates using a recombinant elastin-like polymer containing the cell adhesion sequence RGD. The smart nature towards temperature and pH and cell attachment is demonstrated, showing enormous potential for biomedical applications.

    2. High Mechanical Performance Composite Conductor: Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Sheet/Bismaleimide Nanocomposites (pages 3219–3225)

      Qunfeng Cheng, Jianwen Bao, JinGyu Park, Zhiyong Liang, Chuck Zhang and Ben Wang

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900663

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      High concentration (∼60wt%) multi-walled carbon nanotube sheet/bismaleimide composites are fabricated using simple mechanical stretching and prepregging methods, resulting in unprecedentedly high electrical conductivity (5 500 S cm−1) and mechanical properties (strength of 2 088 MPa and modulus of 169 GPa) comparable to those of unidirectional carbon fiber-reinforced composites for high-performance structural and multifunctional applications.

    3. Functional Chromium Wheel-Based Hybrid Organic–Inorganic Materials for Dielectric Applications (pages 3226–3236)

      Vito Di Noto, Angelika B. Boeer, Sandra Lavina, Christopher A. Muryn, Matthias Bauer, Grigore A. Timco, Enrico Negro, Marzio Rancan, Richard E. P. Winpenny and Silvia Gross

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900600

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      Functional organic–inorganic hybrid materials based on the embedding of a chromium-nickel wheel cluster {[(n-C3H7)2NH2][Cr7NiF8(O2C4H5)16]} into poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) (see figure) is described. The electrical response of the hybrid material, in which the wheel clusters retain their integrity, evidences that the hybrid is an appealing starting material for the development of dielectric polymeric layers for the development of innovative capacitors, transistors, and other microelectronic devices.

    4. Spatial Patterning of the β-Phase in Poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene): A Metamaterials-Inspired Molecular Conformation Approach to the Fabrication of Polymer Semiconductor Optical Structures (pages 3237–3242)

      Gihan Ryu, Paul N. Stavrinou and Donal D. C. Bradley

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900788

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      Here, the potential of a metamaterials-inspired molecular conformation approach to conjugated polymer optical structure fabrication is demonstrated. In particular, results for masked solvent-vapor-induced spatial patterning (see figure) of the β-phase conformation in poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) films, leading, for example, to the ability to select lasing wavelength via scanning the spatial location of the excitation beam are reported.

    5. Fabrication of Flexible Binary Amplitude Masks for Patterning on Highly Curved Surfaces (pages 3243–3253)

      Audrey M. Bowen and Ralph G. Nuzzo

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900978

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      The fabrication of flexible poly(dimethylsiloxane) photomasks is demonstrated using vacuum-assisted microfluidic patterning, UV–ozone-mediated irreversible sealing, and chemical etching. These compliant photomasks enable direct contact lithography to be carried out on nonplanar surfaces, and thus allow fabrication of complex systems, such as the cylindrically curved microlens array shown (see figure).

    6. Modeling Polymer Dielectric/Pentacene Interfaces: On the Role of Electrostatic Energy Disorder on Charge Carrier Mobility (pages 3254–3261)

      Nicolas G. Martinelli, Matteo Savini, Luca Muccioli, Yoann Olivier, Frédéric Castet, Claudio Zannoni, David Beljonne and Jérôme Cornil

      Article first published online: 1 SEP 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901077

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      The influence of energetic disorder on charge carrier mobility is studied in a polymer dielectric/pentacene system modeled at the atomic level. A polar and a nonpolar polymer are studied.

    7. Copolymers of Cyclopentadithiophene and Electron-Deficient Aromatic Units Designed for Photovoltaic Applications (pages 3262–3270)

      Johan C. Bijleveld, Munazza Shahid, Jan Gilot, Martijn M. Wienk and René A. J. Janssen

      Article first published online: 3 SEP 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900412

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      Optimization of the energy levels of alternating CPDT-X copolymers is achieved by varying the electron-deficient aromatic segment and results in materials that feature minimal energy losses in bulk-heterojunction solar cells. For PCPDT-BO:PCBM, the offset between the band gap and open-circuit voltage cell is only ∼0.7 eV. This low offset contributes to its high power conversion efficiency (2.5%).

    8. Electric Field-Directed Convective Assembly of Ellipsoidal Colloidal Particles to Create Optically and Mechanically Anisotropic Thin Films (pages 3271–3278)

      Manish Mittal and Eric M. Furst

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900908

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      A method of simultaneous field- and flow-directed assembly of anisotropic titania (TiO2) nanoparticle films is presented. Colloidal suspensions of the particles are directed by an alternating (ac) electric field and simultaneously advect towards a drying front due to evaporation of the solvent. Field-directed assembly of particles provides a powerful means for tailoring nanoparticle film properties in situ during the deposition process.

    9. Non-Close-Packed Crystals from Self-Assembled Polystyrene Spheres by Isotropic Plasma Etching: Adding Flexibility to Colloid Lithography (pages 3279–3284)

      Alfred Plettl, Fabian Enderle, Marc Saitner, Achim Manzke, Christian Pfahler, Stefan Wiedemann and Paul Ziemann

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900907

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Hexagonally ordered arrays of non close-packed nanoscaled spherical polystyrene (PS) particles are prepared exhibiting precisely controlled diameters and interparticle distances. A newly developed isotropic plasma etching process is applied to extended monolayers of PS colloids deposited onto hydrophilic silicon. Accurate size, shape, and smoothness control of such particles is accomplished by etching at low temperatures (−150 °C) with small rates not usually available in standard RIE equipment. The applicability of such PS arrays as masks for subsequent pattern transfer is demonstrated by fabricating arrays of cylindrical nanopores into Si.

    10. Combined First-Principle Calculations and Experimental Study on Multi-Component Olivine Cathode for Lithium Rechargeable Batteries (pages 3285–3292)

      Hyeokjo Gwon, Dong-Hwa Seo, Sung-Wook Kim, Jongsoon Kim and Kisuk Kang

      Article first published online: 1 SEP 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900414

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      The complete solid solution among LiMnPO4, LiFePO4, and LiCoPO4 is confirmed. An ex situ XRD study of multi-component olivine reveals that the reversible one-phase reaction of Li extraction/insertion mechanism prevails, unexpectedly, for all lithium compositions of LixMn1/3Fe1/3Co1/3PO4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) at room temperature.

    11. Observation of a Charge Transfer State in Low-Bandgap Polymer/Fullerene Blend Systems by Photoluminescence and Electroluminescence Studies (pages 3293–3299)

      Yi Zhou, Kristofer Tvingstedt, Fengling Zhang, Chunxia Du, Wei-Xin Ni, Mats R. Andersson and Olle Inganäs

      Article first published online: 1 SEP 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900702

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      Charge transfer (CT) states generated by the interaction between fullerene and two alternating copolymers are observed using photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence measurements. The CT state plays an important role in photocurrent generation, especially in the donor/acceptor blend of APFO-Green 9/PCBM, which has a small driving force of 0.1 eV. Competition between PL and photocurrent generation is visible in the PL quenching experiments under reverse bias.

    12. Effect of Alkyl Side-Chain Length on Photovoltaic Properties of Poly(3-alkylthiophene)/PCBM Bulk Heterojunctions (pages 3300–3306)

      Abay Gadisa, Wibren D. Oosterbaan, Koen Vandewal, Jean-Christophe Bolsée, Sabine Bertho, Jan D'Haen, Laurence Lutsen, Dirk Vanderzande and Jean V. Manca

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900797

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      Solar cells with active layers of blends of poly(3-alkylthiophene) (alkyl side-chain length of 4, 5, and 6 carbon atoms) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester deliver similar order of photocurrent yield (exceeding 10 mA cm−2). Power conversion efficiencies of 3.2, 4.3, and 4.6% are within reach using solar cells with active layers of poly(butylthiophene):PCBM, poly(pentylthiophene):PCBM, and poly- (hexylthiophene):PCBM, respectively.

    13. Dye-Doped Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (POSS)-Modified Polymeric Matrices for Highly Efficient and Photostable Solid-State Lasers (pages 3307–3316)

      Roberto Sastre, Virginia Martín, Leoncio Garrido, José Luis Chiara, Beatriz Trastoy, Olga García, Angel Costela and Inmaculada García-Moreno

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900976

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      The fascinating properties of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) impel the synthesis and characterization of new hybrid nanomaterials with advanced optical applications. Here, composition–structure–properties relationships of dye-doped POSS-based materials are established and allow the demonstration of solid-state laser action (see figure) that is not only truly competitive but out-performs their liquid counterparts.

    14. Conjugated Polymers Combined with a Molecular Beacon for Label-Free and Self-Signal-Amplifying DNA Microarrays (pages 3317–3325)

      Kangwon Lee, Jean-Marie Rouillard, Bong-Gi Kim, Erdogan Gulari and Jinsang Kim

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901175

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      Label-free and signal-amplifying DNA microarrays are devised by combining the molecular beacon concept and a novel multifunctional conjugated poly(oxadiazole) derivative (POX-SH). Various molecular design parameters, such as the size of the stem and loop of the molecular beacon, the choice of dye, and the number of quencher molecules are systematically controlled, and their effects on the sensitivity and selectivity of the microarrays are investigated.

    15. Multiresponsive PEDOT–Ionic Liquid Materials for the Design of Surfaces with Switchable Wettability (pages 3326–3333)

      Markus Döbbelin, Ramon Tena-Zaera, Rebeca Marcilla, Jagoba Iturri, Sergio Moya, Jose A. Pomposo and David Mecerreyes

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900863

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      Multiresponsive, organic-soluble PEDOT derivatives with imidazolium ionic-liquid (IL) moieties (PEDOT-Im) are obtained by chemical oxidative polymerization. These polymers show responsiveness to different anions, pH, temperature, and oxidative doping. PEDOT-Im thin films allow fast reversible wetting changes between hydrophilic and hydrophobic character (water contact angle: 24°[LEFT RIGHT ARROW]107° on ZnO nanowire arrays) by choosing adequate counter-anions.

    16. Insulator Polarization Mechanisms in Polyelectrolyte-Gated Organic Field-Effect Transistors (pages 3334–3341)

      Oscar Larsson, Elias Said, Magnus Berggren and Xavier Crispin

      Article first published online: 3 SEP 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900588

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      In polyelectrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors, three different polarization mechanisms of the polyelectrolyte layer explain the transient response (drain current versus time) of the transistor: the dipolar relaxation at high frequencies, the ionic relaxation (migration) at intermediate frequencies, and the electric double-layer formation at the polyelectrolyte interfaces at low frequencies.

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