Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 19 Issue 22

November 23, 2009

Volume 19, Issue 22

Pages 3513–3668

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
    1. Nanocomposite Synthesis: Embryonic States of Fluorapatite–Gelatine Nanocomposites and Their Intrinsic Electric-Field-Driven Morphogenesis: The Missing Link on the Way from Atomistic Simulations to Pattern Formation on the Mesoscale (Adv. Funct. Mater. 22/2009)

      Paul Simon, Elena Rosseeva, Jana Buder, Wilder German Carrillo-Cabrera and Rüdiger Kniep

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200990100

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      Fractal aggregates of fluorapatite–gelatine nanocomposites (SEM image taken by Yigit Öztan, MPI CPfS)—which bears a strong resemblance to the biosystem hydroxyapatite–collagen, a key material in human bones and teeth–are formed from bundles of calcified protein molecules representing the first (embryonic) states of shape development and leading to extended processes of self-organisation. This process has been studied in detail by P. Simon et al., and is reported on page 3596.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
    1. Organic Single Crystals: Azeotropic Binary Solvent Mixtures for Preparation of Organic Single Crystals (Adv. Funct. Mater. 22/2009)

      Xiaoran Li, B. K. Charlotte Kjellander, John E. Anthony, Cornelis W. M. Bastiaansen, Dirk J. Broer and Gerwin H. Gelinck

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200990101

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      The inside cover of this issue illustrates the solution-phase self-assembly of organic single crystals by using azeotropic binary solvent mixtures, described by X. Li et al. on page 3610, and is a snap-shot taken during the self-assembly of tri-isopropylsilylethynyl pentacene single crystals from an azeotropic binary solvent mixture of isopropanol plus toluene, on a silicon substrate. These needle-like crystals were growing with time while floating in the bulk of the solution during solvent evaporation, with bright colors showing their birefringence.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
  4. Feature Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
    1. Advancements in the Search for Superhard Ultra-Incompressible Metal Borides (pages 3519–3533)

      Jonathan B. Levine, Sarah H. Tolbert and Richard B. Kaner

      Version of Record online: 20 OCT 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901257

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      Recent work on the synthesis and characterization of hard and superhard transition metal borides containing, Ru, Os, W, and Re is summarized. Rhenium diboride (pictured in both powder and crystalline form) is discussed in detail, having received a great deal of interest for its exceptional hardness and incompressibility. The mechanical properties of several of these compounds are discussed and correlated with recent developments in superhard metal boride synthesis.

  5. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
    1. Cell Imaging: (Generic Strategy of Preparing Fluorescent Conjugated-Polymer-Loaded Poly(DL-lactide-co-Glycolide) Nanoparticles for Targeted Cell Imaging) Adv. Funct. Mater. 22/2009

      Kai Li, Jie Pan, Si-Shen Feng, Arthur Wenqing Wu, Kan-Yi Pu, Yutao Liu and Bin Liu

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200990103

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      A generic strategy for the fabrication of highly fluorescent poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles loaded with conjugated polymers is reported by B. Liu et al. This method may serve to produce a new generation of biocompatible, surface-functionalizable probes for targeted cancer cell imaging and diagnostics, as described on page 3535.

  6. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
    1. Generic Strategy of Preparing Fluorescent Conjugated-Polymer-Loaded Poly(DL-lactide-co-Glycolide) Nanoparticles for Targeted Cell Imaging (pages 3535–3542)

      Kai Li, Jie Pan, Si-Shen Feng, Arthur Wenqing Wu, Kan-Yi Pu, Yutao Liu and Bin Liu

      Version of Record online: 19 OCT 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901098

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      A generic strategy for the fabrication of highly fluorescent conjugated-polymer-loaded poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles is developed. This method may serve to produce a new generation of biocompatible, surface-functionalizable probes for targeted cancer cell imaging and diagnostics.

    2. High-Resolution Patterning of Hydrogels in Three Dimensions using Direct-Write Photofabrication for Cell Guidance (pages 3543–3551)

      Stephanie K. Seidlits, Christine E. Schmidt and Jason B. Shear

      Version of Record online: 9 OCT 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901115

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      Multiphoton excitation is used to create three-dimensional architectures of bioactive microstructures within hydrogels materials, scaffolds capable of directing cell adhesion and migration on size scales relevant to in vivo environments. Guidance of both dorsal root ganglion and hippocampal neural progenitor cells is demonstrated along arbitrary, three-dimensional paths.

    3. High-Performance Air-Processed Polymer–Fullerene Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells (pages 3552–3559)

      Chang-Yong Nam, Dong Su and Charles T. Black

      Version of Record online: 23 OCT 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900311

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      Highly-efficient ambient-air-processed bulk heterojunction solar cells having a polythiophene:methanofullerene active blend layer are achieved by applying post-fabrication thermal treatment. TEM with detailed analysis of electronic carrier transport shows that the thermal processing reduces oxygen charge trap density in the blend and is consistent with a corresponding slight increase in thickness of the ∼4 nm aluminum oxide hole-blocking layer present at the electron-collecting contact interface.

    4. Low-Distortion Holographic Data Storage Media Using Free-Radical Ring-Opening Polymerization (pages 3560–3566)

      Kyongsik Choi, James W. M. Chon, Min Gu, Nino Malic and Richard A. Evans

      Version of Record online: 9 OCT 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900437

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      Low shrinkage polymerization, free radical ring-opening monomers have no net bond formation per repeat unit and display significantly less shrinkage during polymerization than conventional monomers to provide low distortion holographic optical data storage media. Allylic sulfide ring-opening monomers display bulk shrinkages of ∼2% or less.

    5. Customized Electronic Coupling in Self-Assembled Donor–Acceptor Nanostructures (pages 3567–3573)

      Dimas G. de Oteyza, Juan M. García-Lastra, Martina Corso, Bryan P. Doyle, Luca Floreano, Alberto Morgante, Yutaka Wakayama, Angel Rubio and J. Enrique Ortega

      Version of Record online: 8 OCT 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901374

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      Besides the inherent interest of donor-acceptor nanostructures for potential optoelectronic devices, an appropriate choice of molecules allows the synthesis of highly ordered molecular mixtures with controlled intermolecular interactions (see figure). Comparison of the corresponding single-component and binary layers provides systems with distinctly different molecule–molecule interactions, in which to study their effect on the interrelated molecule–substrate coupling.

    6. Decorating Liquid Crystal Surfaces with Proteins for Real-Time Detection of Specific Protein–Protein Binding (pages 3574–3579)

      Deny Hartono, Chang-Ying Xue, Kun-Lin Yang and Lin-Yue Lanry Yung

      Version of Record online: 15 OCT 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901020

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      Self-assembly of DOGS-NTA amphiphiles loaded with Ni2+ at an aqueous-liquid-crystal (LC) interface allows immobilization of histidine-tagged ubiquitin through complex formation between Ni2+ and histidine. Exposing this surface to anti-ubiquitin antibody induces specific protein-protein binding and triggers orientational transition of LCs (left). As controls, exposing the same surface with anti-biotin antibody (middle), and exposing DOGS-NTA-Ni surface (without ubiquitin) with anti-ubiquitin antibody (right) causes no LC transition. This confirms that the LC transition is not due to non-specific binding.

    7. Charge-Reversal Drug Conjugate for Targeted Cancer Cell Nuclear Drug Delivery (pages 3580–3589)

      Zhuxian Zhou, Youqing Shen, Jianbin Tang, Maohong Fan, Edward A Van Kirk, William J Murdoch and Maciej Radosz

      Version of Record online: 24 SEP 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900825

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      Nuclear localizing cationic polymer polylysine is latently amidized to become negatively charged for use as a drug carrier for targeted cancer drug delivery. The carrier undergoes negative to positive charge-reversal once in the cancer cell lysosomes and regains nuclear localization ability, delivering drugs to their target, the nuclear DNA, for high therapeutic efficacy.

    8. B–Z DNA Transition Triggered by a Cationic Comb-Type Copolymer (pages 3590–3595)

      Naohiko Shimada, Arihiro Kano and Atsushi Maruyama

      Version of Record online: 5 OCT 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901169

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      A cationic comb-type copolymer, but not a cationic homopolymer, induces B–Z DNA transition at a concentration of 10−4M. The copolymer specifically modifies the micro-environment around DNA molecules to induce the transition through stable and spontaneous inter-polyelectrolyte complex formation. The transition proceeds in a two-step manner involving formation of a distinct intermediate.

    9. Embryonic States of Fluorapatite–Gelatine Nanocomposites and Their Intrinsic Electric-Field-Driven Morphogenesis: The Missing Link on the Way from Atomistic Simulations to Pattern Formation on the Mesoscale (pages 3596–3603)

      Paul Simon, Elena Rosseeva, Jana Buder, Wilder German Carrillo-Cabrera and Rüdiger Kniep

      Version of Record online: 24 SEP 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900843

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      The shape development of fluorapatite (FAP)–gelatine nanocomposites starts from triple-helical protein molecules, which are mineralized step by step by nanoplatelets of FAP. The calcified protein molecules assemble to nano-boards, which aggregate by adding up more and more of these boards in a parallel alignment ending up in a perfect hexagonal prismatic seed. When a critical size of the embryonic composite aggregates is reached an intrinsic electric field is generated, which takes over control of the growth and directs the shape development as well as the hierarchical inner architecture of the composite.

    10. Nanoparticle Electroluminescence: Controlling Emission Color Through Förster Resonance Energy Transfer in Hybrid Particles (pages 3604–3609)

      Christopher F. Huebner, Ryan D. Roeder and Stephen H. Foulger

      Version of Record online: 5 OCT 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900473

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      Hybrid nanoparticles composed of poly(2,5-dioctyl-1,4-phenylenevinylene), a green emitter (lem = 505 nm), and poly(9,9-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl), a blue emitter (lem = 417 nm), are prepared through a mini-emulsion procedure. These nanoparticles are employed in the construction of organic light-emitting devices and the color characteristics of the electroluminescence can be tuned by exploiting the Förster resonance energy transfer between the polymers within a particle, while suppressing energy transfer between the particles.

    11. Azeotropic Binary Solvent Mixtures for Preparation of Organic Single Crystals (pages 3610–3617)

      Xiaoran Li, B. K. Charlotte Kjellander, John E. Anthony, Cornelis W. M. Bastiaansen, Dirk J. Broer and Gerwin H. Gelinck

      Version of Record online: 2 OCT 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901353

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      Single-crystalline tri-isopropylsilylethynyl pentacene (TIPS-PEN) with dimensions up to millimeters are self-assembled from homogeneous solutions comprising two solvents with opposing polarities and a positive azeotropic point. Here, the transition from polycrystalline films to single crystals is studied as a function of the initial solvent composition. At compositions close to the azeotropic point, an abrupt change is found (see figure). The average field-effect mobilities are enhanced by 4 times from thin films to single crystals.

    12. Selective Electrochemical Etching of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (pages 3618–3624)

      Dacheng Wei, Yunqi Liu, Lingchao Cao, Hongliang Zhang, Liping Huang, Gui Yu, Hisashi Kajiura and Yongming Li

      Version of Record online: 19 OCT 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900924

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      Electrochemical etching of single-walled carbon nanotubes shows both diameter and electrical selectivity. With the aid of a gate electric field, metallic SWNTs are produced via selective etching, resulting in high-performance SWNT field-effect transistors with pure semiconducting SWNT channels (see figure). This method would be valuable for the application of SWNTs in electronic devices.

    13. Simple and Efficient Generation of White Light Emission From Organophosphorus Building Blocks (pages 3625–3631)

      Carlos Romero-Nieto, Stefan Durben, Ila M. Kormos and Thomas Baumgartner

      Version of Record online: 7 OCT 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901540

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      Tuning the pronounced luminescence features of two dithieno[3,2-b;2′,3′-d] phospholes provides three essential components necessary to generate fluorescent white light emission through effective fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) processes. These building blocks can also be incorporated into one polymeric material. The graphic shows the three components and the resulting fluorescence of their mixture.

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      Reversibly Deformable and Mechanically Tunable Fluidic Antennas (pages 3632–3637)

      Ju-Hee So, Jacob Thelen, Amit Qusba, Gerard J. Hayes, Gianluca Lazzi and Michael D. Dickey

      Version of Record online: 30 SEP 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900604

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      Highly flexible antennas are formed by filling an elastomeric microfluidic channel with a liquid metal alloy. The antennas can be tuned mechanically by elongating the antenna and are therefore sensors of strain. The liquid metal maintains electrical continuity during deformation, and the spectral response shows no hysteresis before and after stretching.

    15. Multilayer Hybrid Films Consisting of Alternating Graphene and Titania Nanosheets with Ultrafast Electron Transfer and Photoconversion Properties (pages 3638–3643)

      Kiran Kumar Manga, Yong Zhou, Yongli Yan and Kian Ping Loh

      Version of Record online: 6 OCT 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900891

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      The formation of layer-by-layer-assembled multilayer films consisting of alternating titania and graphene oxide nanosheets followed by UV-assisted photocatalytic reduction of graphene oxide to graphene is presented. Efficient exciton dissociation at the interfaces coupled with cross-surface charge percolation allows efficient photocurrent conversion in the multilayered hybrid titania–graphene films.

    16. Phenylcarbazole-Based Phosphine Oxide Host Materials For High Efficiency In Deep Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (pages 3644–3649)

      Soon Ok Jeon, Kyoung Soo Yook, Chul Woong Joo and Jun Yeob Lee

      Version of Record online: 26 OCT 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901274

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      Highly efficient deep blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes are developed using novel phenylcarbazole-based phosphine oxide host materials (PPO1 and PPO2). A deep blue phosphorescent dopant, tris((3,5-difluoro-4-cyanophenyl)pyridine) iridium, is doped into PPO1 and PPO2 at a doping concentration of 15% and a high quantum efficiency of 18.4% is obtained with color coordinates of (0.14, 0.15).

    17. Controlled Synthesis of CdSe Nanowires by Solution–Liquid–Solid Method (pages 3650–3661)

      Zhen Li, Özgül Kurtulus, Nan Fu, Zhe Wang, Andreas Kornowski, Ullrich Pietsch and Alf Mews

      Version of Record online: 1 OCT 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900569

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      Controlling the competition among the factors influencing the growth of nanocatalysts, the growth of quantum dots and nanowires using the solution–liquid–solid process allows control of CdSe nanowire diameter, length, crystal structure, and optical properties. This general strategy can be applied to the synthesis of other types of nanowires, and consequently has great potential for fabricating various nanodevices.

    18. Charge Transfer Excitons in Polymer/Fullerene Blends: The Role of Morphology and Polymer Chain Conformation (pages 3662–3668)

      Markus Hallermann, Ilka Kriegel, Enrico Da Como, Josef M. Berger, Elizabeth von Hauff and Jochen Feldmann

      Version of Record online: 8 OCT 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901398

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      Charge transfer excitons are one significant recombination channel in polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells. Here, a weak dependence of their photoluminescence intensity on morphology is observed, whereas the chain conformation of the polymer plays a crucial role. Conjugated polymers such as RE-P3HT, with a high degree of intrachain order, show a weak charge transfer emission when compared to MDMO-PPV and ra-P3HT. The results highlight an important strategy in limiting the recombination via charge transfer excitons.

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