Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 19 Issue 23

December 9, 2009

Volume 19, Issue 23

Pages 3673–3832

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Full Papers
    7. Corrections
    1. Nanolithography: Thermochemical Nanolithography of Multifunctional Nanotemplates for Assembling Nano-Objects (Adv. Funct. Mater. 23/2009)

      Debin Wang, Vamsi K. Kodali, William D. Underwood II, Jonas E. Jarvholm, Takashi Okada, Simon C. Jones, Mariacristina Rumi, Zhenting Dai, William P. King, Seth R. Marder, Jennifer E. Curtis and Elisa Riedo

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200990104

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      On page 3696, Wang et al. report on the nanoscale chemical surface patterning of different chemical species (amine, thiol, aldehyde, and biotin) in independent nanopatterns by the iterative application of thermochemical nanolithography. Due to the unique chemical stability of the patterns, the resultant substrates can be stored for weeks and subsequently be used for the selective attachment of nanometer-sized objects, such as proteins or DNA, using standard chemical protocols.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Full Papers
    7. Corrections
    1. Liquid-Crystal Polymers: Liquid-Crystalline Polymer with a Block Mesogenic Side Group: Photoinduced Manipulation of Nanophase-Separated Structures (Adv. Funct. Mater. 23/2009)

      Kunihiko Okano, Yasuyuki Mikami and Takashi Yamashita

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200990105

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The inside cover image represents a novel azobenzene liquid-crystalline (LC) polymer with a block mesogenic side group, which exhibits a lamellar structure after annealing in an LC phase. Whereas irradiation with linearly polarized light aligns the lamellae parallel to the polarization, irradiation with unpolarized light erases the surface morphology accompanied by photochemical phase transition, as reported by K. Okano et al. on page 3804.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Full Papers
    7. Corrections
    1. Contents: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 23/2009) (pages 3673–3679)

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200990106

  4. Feature Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Full Papers
    7. Corrections
    1. Liquid-Phase Exfoliation of Nanotubes and Graphene (pages 3680–3695)

      Jonathan N. Coleman

      Article first published online: 11 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901640

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      In order to maximize their unsurpassed physical properties, carbon nanotubes must be exfoliated down to individual tubes. Likewise, to access its unique properties graphene must be separated from its parent crystal. This article looks at liquid phase techniques to exfoliate both nanotubes and graphene.

  5. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Full Papers
    7. Corrections
    1. Thermochemical Nanolithography of Multifunctional Nanotemplates for Assembling Nano-Objects (pages 3696–3702)

      Debin Wang, Vamsi K. Kodali, William D. Underwood II, Jonas E. Jarvholm, Takashi Okada, Simon C. Jones, Mariacristina Rumi, Zhenting Dai, William P. King, Seth R. Marder, Jennifer E. Curtis and Elisa Riedo

      Article first published online: 8 OCT 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901057

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Nanoscale chemical patterning of different chemical species in independent nanopatterns is achieved by iterative application of thermochemical nanolithography to inscribe amine patterns followed by their chemical conversion to other functional groups.

    2. A Direct, Multiplex Biosensor Platform for Pathogen Detection Based on Cross-linked Polydiacetylene (PDA) Supramolecules (pages 3703–3710)

      Cheol Hee Park, Jun Pyo Kim, Sang Wook Lee, Noo Li Jeon, Pil J. Yoo and Sang Jun Sim

      Article first published online: 2 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900393

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      A clever solution to the problem of immobilization of PDA liposomes on a substrate for the use in biosensors is illustrated in the figure. This new immobilization method exploits crosslinking between the PDA liposomes through use of an ‘interlinker’, a bis-functional chemical capable of reacting with the functional groups on the PDA liposome surface. A PDA based biosensor chip for the simultaneous detection of multiple pathogens is demonstrated.

    3. Robustness of Spin Polarization in Graphene-Based Spin Valves (pages 3711–3716)

      Masashi Shiraishi, Megumi Ohishi, Ryo Nouchi, Nobuhiko Mitoma, Takayuki Nozaki, Teruya Shinjo and Yoshishige Suzuki

      Article first published online: 2 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900989

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      Graphene spintronics is currently regarded as one of the most pivotal research topics in group-IV spintronics. Here, an unprecedented robustness of the spin polarization in multilayer-graphene spin valves is revealed: the spin polarization of the injected spins into the graphene is constant at room temperature. This finding can expand the possibilities of device design for future spin transistors. Furthermore, an important accordance between theory and experiment in molecular spintronics is found, which provides construction of a steadfast physical basis in this field.

    4. Pathogen-Mimicking MnO Nanoparticles for Selective Activation of the TLR9 Pathway and Imaging of Cancer Cells (pages 3717–3725)

      Mohammed Ibrahim Shukoor, Filipe Natalio, Muhammad Nawaz Tahir, Matthias Wiens, Marco Tarantola, Helen Annal Therese, Matthias Barz, Stefan Weber, Maxim Terekhov, Heinz C. Schröder, Werner E. G. Müller, Andreas Janshoff, Patrick Theato, Rudolf Zentel, Laura Maria Schreiber and Wolfgang Tremel

      Article first published online: 26 OCT 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900635

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      Pathogen-mimicking metal oxide nanoparticles with the ability to enter and to selectively target and activate the TLR9 pathway in cancer cells with optical and MR imaging capabilities are prepared. A multifunctional polymer is used as an interface for the nanoparticle surface modification that affords a protective organic biocompatible shell and provides an efficient and convenient means for loading the immunostimulatory oligonucleotides. These nanoparticles allow for monitoring of the nanoparticle cellular trafficking by optical and magnetic resonance imaging and can also be used for drug delivery.

    5. Nanoscale Conducting Channels at the Surface of Organic Semiconductors Formed by Decoration of Molecular Steps with Self-Assembled Molecules (pages 3726–3730)

      Bumsu Lee, Taekjib Choi, Sang-Wook Cheong and Vitaly Podzorov

      Article first published online: 11 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901525

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Nucleation of silane SAMs at the surface of organic crystals occurs at molecular steps during the first few minutes of exposure to SAM vapor. The observed molecular step decoration results in macroscopically long nanoscale conducting channels at the crystal surface and opens intriguing possibilities for studies of nanoscale charge transport, as well as visualization and selective doping of surface defects in organic electronic devices.

    6. High-Performance Multifunctional TiO2 Nanowire Ultrafiltration Membrane with a Hierarchical Layer Structure for Water Treatment (pages 3731–3736)

      Xiwang Zhang, Tong Zhang, Jiawei Ng and Darren Delai Sun

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901435

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      A multifunctional TiO2 nanowire ultrafiltration (UF) membrane with a layered hierarchical structure is successfully fabricated via a simple and general method. The crystal phase, morphology, permeability and photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 nanowire membrane are thoroughly investigated. Experimental results show that the membrane possesses unique properties, such as a high membrane flux and anti-fouling and anti-bacterial characteristics, making it promising for applications in environmental purification.

    7. Enhanced Optical Properties and Opaline Self-Assembly of PPV Encapsulated in Mesoporous Silica Spheres (pages 3737–3745)

      Timothy L. Kelly, Yuri Yamada, Celine Schneider, Kazuhisa Yano and Michael O. Wolf

      Article first published online: 11 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901484

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An in situ polymerization procedure is used to synthesize PPV inside the mesopores of monodisperse silica spheres. The composite displays properties that are superior to those of the unencapsulated polymer, including a higher fluorescence quantum yield, greater resistance to oxidative photobleaching, and increased processability. Self-assembly yields opaline films that exhibit overlap between the PPV emission band and the photonic bandgap.

    8. Origins of Improved Hole-Injection Efficiency by the Deposition of MoO3 on the Polymeric Semiconductor Poly(dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) (pages 3746–3752)

      Yasuo Nakayama, Katsuyuki Morii, Yuuichirou Suzuki, Hiroyuki Machida, Satoshi Kera, Nobuo Ueno, Hiroshi Kitagawa, Yutaka Noguchi and Hisao Ishii

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901022

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      MoO3 deposition onto the polymer light-emitting material poly(dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) induces the following effects: upward band bending in the F8BT films accompanied by diffusion of MoO3 ‘acceptors’ into F8BT, and the generation of an interface state near the Fermi level at the MoO3-on-F8BT interfaces. These may be the origins of the improved hole-injection efficiency between F8BT and electrodes caused by MoO3 interlayers.

    9. Porous Polymersomes with Encapsulated Gd-Labeled Dendrimers as Highly Efficient MRI Contrast Agents (pages 3753–3759)

      Zhiliang Cheng, Daniel L. J. Thorek and Andrew Tsourkas

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901253

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The facile synthesis of a composite magnetic resonance contrast platform is described. It consists of Gd-labeled dendrimers encapsulated in porous polymersomes. These nanoparticles exhibit improval permeability to water flux and a large capacity to store chelated Gd within the aqueous lumen, resulting in enhanced longitudinal relaxivity.

    10. Real-Time Liquid Crystal pH Sensor for Monitoring Enzymatic Activities of Penicillinase (pages 3760–3765)

      Xinyan Bi, Deny Hartono and Kun-Lin Yang

      Article first published online: 2 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900823

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      When pH decreases from 7.0 to 6.9, a dark-to-bright optical response is observed in the liquid crystal (LC) comprising 4′-pentyl-biphenyl-4-carboxylic acid (5CB) doped with 4′-pentyl-biphenyl-4-carboxylic acid (PBA). The response can be explained by considering the orientational transitions of the LC induced by the protonation and deprotonation of PBA at the aqueous/LC interface. The high sensitivity to pH change can be further exploited for monitoring local pH changes resulting from enzymatic reactions.

    11. Electronic Structure of Self-Assembled Monolayers on Au(111) Surfaces: The Impact of Backbone Polarizability (pages 3766–3775)

      LinJun Wang, Gerold M. Rangger, Lorenz Romaner, Georg Heimel, Tomas Bučko, ZhongYun Ma, QiKai Li, Zhigang Shuai and Egbert Zojer

      Article first published online: 2 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901152

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A comprehensive density-functional theory study on a systematic series of organic thiols self-assembled on Au(111) surfaces (see figure) is presented. The authors derive relationships between the electronic structure of individual molecules and the properties of corresponding self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), namely the electrode work-function modification related to SAM adsorption and the alignment of the SAM conducting states relative to the metal Fermi level.

    12. Metastable Copper-Phthalocyanine Single-Crystal Nanowires and Their Use in Fabricating High-Performance Field-Effect Transistors (pages 3776–3780)

      Kai Xiao, Rongjin Li, Jing Tao, Edward A. Payzant, Ilia N. Ivanov, Alex A. Puretzky, Wenping Hu and David B. Geohegan

      Article first published online: 26 OCT 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900363

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Single-crystalline copper-phthalocyanine (CuPc) nanowires in the metastable α-phase are synthesized by a simple, vapor-phase route through careful control of the growth temperature. α-CuPc nanowires are successfully incorporated as active semiconductors in field-effect transistors (FETs). Single nanowire devices exhibit carrier mobilities and current on/off ratios as high as 0.4 cm2 V−1 s−1 and >104, respectively, rendering them useful for organic photovoltaic cells, organic light-emitting diodes, FETs, memory devices, and gas sensors.

    13. [Ru(0)]@SiO2 and [RuO2]@SiO2 Hybrid Nanomaterials: From Their Synthesis to Their Application as Catalytic Filters for Gas Sensors (pages 3781–3787)

      Victor Matsura, Yannick Guari, Catherine Reyé, Robert J. P. Corriu, Mar Tristany, Susanna Jansat, Karine Philippot, André Maisonnat and Bruno Chaudret

      Article first published online: 11 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900289

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      High metal content composite nanomaterials are produced following a facile method consisting of an organometallic synthesis of size-controlled Ru(0) nanoparticles as elemental bricks in the presence of a bifunctional ligand (see figure). Some of these nanocomposites display very interesting properties when applied as catalytic filters for gas sensors.

    14. Photo-induced Charge Transfer and Relaxation of Persistent Charge Carriers in Polymer/Nanocrystal Composites for Applications in Hybrid Solar Cells (pages 3788–3795)

      Marc Daniel Heinemann, Karsten von Maydell, Folker Zutz, Joanna Kolny-Olesiak, Holgert Borchert, Ingo Riedel and Jürgen Parisi

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900852

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The charge dynamics in polymer/CdSe nanocrystal hybrid solar cells is examined by photo-induced absorption spectros copy and light-induced electron spin resonance (ESR). In contrast to polymer/PCBM ([6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester) systems, trapping of charge carriers dominates the dynamics. An increased amount of localized states in the polymer phase is found for the hybrid system, providing a reason for the limited efficiency of these systems.

    15. Solvent-Resistant PDMS Microfluidic Devices with Hybrid Inorganic/Organic Polymer Coatings (pages 3796–3803)

      Bo-Yeol Kim, Lan-Young Hong, Young-Min Chung, Dong-Pyo Kim and Chang-Soo Lee

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901024

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The simple coating of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) with a hybrid inorganic/organic polymer results in the creation of microfluidic channels that are chemically resistant to virtually any solvent. This novel modification method enables these microfluidic devices to be used for solvent-based applications such as oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions (see figure).

    16. Liquid-Crystalline Polymer with a Block Mesogenic Side Group: Photoinduced Manipulation of Nanophase-Separated Structures (pages 3804–3808)

      Kunihiko Okano, Yasuyuki Mikami and Takashi Yamashita

      Article first published online: 2 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901247

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An azobenzene liquid-crystalline (LC) polymer with a block mesogenic side group is developed and exhibits a phase-separated structure after annealing in a LC phase. Whereas irradiation with linearly polarized light aligns the lamellae parallel to the polarization, irradiation with unpolarized light erases the surface morphology accompanied by photochemical phase transition.

    17. Electronic Structure and Geminate Pair Energetics at Organic–Organic Interfaces: The Case of Pentacene/C60 Heterojunctions (pages 3809–3814)

      Stijn Verlaak, David Beljonne, David Cheyns, Cedric Rolin, Mathieu Linares, Frédéric Castet, Jérôme Cornil and Paul Heremans

      Article first published online: 26 OCT 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901233

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The electronic structure at the hetero-interface between organic semiconductors is revealed by microelectrostatic calculations for the case of a junction of pentacene with C60 fullerene. The strong discontinuity in quadrupole field provokes band bendings and level shifts, with consequences for geminate polaron-pair dissociation at such interfaces.

    18. 980-nm Laser-Driven Photovoltaic Cells Based on Rare-Earth Up-Converting Phosphors for Biomedical Applications (pages 3815–3820)

      Zhigang Chen, Lisha Zhang, Yangang Sun, Junqing Hu and Dayang Wang

      Article first published online: 2 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901630

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Nanorobots powered internally by a photovoltaic cell (PVC) are no longer a dream. Specially prepared PVCs irradiated by a 980-nm laser provide efficient electricity output, even when covered by layers of biological tissue, to power these nanodevices (see figure). These clever cells function through up-converting luminescence after excitation by the laser and because of the high penetration depth of 980-nm light in biological tissue the conversion efficiency is still high enough to power in-vivo nanodevices.

    19. Synthesis–Structure–Property Relationships for Hyperbranched Aminosilica CO2 Adsorbents (pages 3821–3832)

      Jeffrey H. Drese, Sunho Choi, Ryan P. Lively, William J. Koros, Daniel J. Fauth, McMahan L. Gray and Christopher W. Jones

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901461

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The synthesis of hyperbranched aminosilica (HAS) solid CO2 adsorbents is modified to obtain materials with varied amine loadings. The composition and structure of the materials, as well as the aminopolymers grown off of the support, are characterized by an array of techniques and correlated to their measured adsorption performance (see figure).

  6. Corrections

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Full Papers
    7. Corrections
    1. You have free access to this content
      Cyclodextrin-Threaded Conjugated Polyrotaxanes for Organic Electronics: The Influence of the Counter Cations

      Gianluca Latini, Lisa-Jodie Parrott, Sergio Brovelli, Michael J. Frampton, Harry L. Anderson and Franco Cacialli

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200990107

      This article corrects:

      Cyclodextrin-Threaded Conjugated Polyrotaxanes for Organic Electronics: The Influence of the Counter Cations1

      Vol. 18, Issue 16, 2419–2427, Article first published online: 23 JUL 2008

    2. You have free access to this content
      Integrated Multifunctional Nanosystems for Medical Diagnosis and Treatment

      Donglu Shi

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200990108

      This article corrects:

      Integrated Multifunctional Nanosystems for Medical Diagnosis and Treatment

      Vol. 19, Issue 21, 3356–3373, Article first published online: 9 OCT 2009

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