Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 20 Issue 24

December 21, 2010

Volume 20, Issue 24

Pages 4209–4399

  1. Cover Picture

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    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Feature Articles
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    1. Gas Sensors: Ultrasensitive and Highly Selective Gas Sensors Based on Electrospun SnO2 Nanofibers Modified by Pd Loading (Adv. Funct. Mater. 24/2010) (page 4209)

      Dae-Jin Yang, Itai Kamienchick, Doo Young Youn, Avner Rothschild and Il-Doo Kim

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090108

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      The cover image shows a scanning electron microscopy image of nanocrystalline Pd-loaded SnO2 gas sensors produced by electrospinning. SnO2 and PdO nanocrystallites are presented in yellow and orange, respectively, in the false-color image of the fibers in front. On page 4258, Avner Rothschild, Il-Doo Kim, and co-workers demonstrate that Pd-loading remarkably enhances the sensitivity to CO and reduces the sensitivity to NO2.

  2. Inside Front Cover

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    1. Microactuators: Control of the Properties of Micrometer Sized Actuators from Liquid Crystalline Elastomers Prepared in a Microfluidic Setup (Adv. Funct. Mater. 24/2010) (page 4210)

      Christian Ohm, Eva-Kristina Fleischmann, Isabelle Kraus, Christophe Serra and Rudolf Zentel

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090109

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      The picture presents the microfluidic synthesis of particles from an oriented liquid-crystalline elastomer. Such materials, presented by Rudolf Zentel and co-workers on page 4314, combine the ability of liquid crystals to self organize into ordered phases with the mechanical properties of elastomers. During the phase transition from the nematic to the isotropic phase, the polymer chains in the material change from an elongated to a spherical conformation. This molecular effect causes a reversible macroscopic change in the particle shape from spherical to rod-like.

  3. Contents

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    3. Inside Front Cover
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    1. Contents: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 24/2010) (pages 4211–4217)

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090110

  4. Correction

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      Correction: Impedance Measurements as a Simple Tool to Control the Quality of Conjugated Polymers Designed for Photovoltaic Applications (page 4218)

      Pavel A. Troshin, Diana K. Susarova, Yury L. Moskvin, Ilya E. Kuznetsov, Sergei A. Ponomarenko, Ekaterina N. Myshkovskaya, Ksenya A. Zakharcheva, Alexander A. Balakai, Sergei D. Babenko and Vladimir F. Razumov

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090111

      This article corrects:
  5. Feature Articles

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    1. Direct Physical Imaging and Chemical Probing of LiFePO4 for Lithium-Ion Batteries (pages 4219–4232)

      Sung-Yoon Chung, Young-Min Kim and Si-Young Choi

      Article first published online: 23 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000393

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      Olivine-type ordered LiFePO4 (see picture) has been studied during the past decade to elucidate the origins of its many peculiar physical aspects for achieving better electrochemical performance. Based on straightforward atomic-scale imaging and chemical probing, four different issues regarding LiFePO4 are discussed in this article, giving a brief overview on the valuable experimental demonstrations made to date.

    2. Recent Developments in One-Dimensional Inorganic Nanostructures for Photodetectors (pages 4233–4248)

      Tianyou Zhai, Liang Li, Xi Wang, Xiaosheng Fang, Yoshio Bando and Dmitri Golberg

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001259

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      With large surface-to-volume ratios and Debye length comparable to their small sizes, 1D inorganic nanostructures have been extensively investigated and widely used to fabricate high-performance nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices. This feature article reviews the state-of-the-art research activities that focus on the 1D inorganic nanostructures and their photodetector applications in this feature article.

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    1. Non-Toxic Dry-Coated Nanosilver for Plasmonic Biosensors (page 4249)

      Georgios A. Sotiriou, Takumi Sannomiya, Alexandra Teleki, Frank Krumeich, Janos Vörös and Sotiris E. Pratsinis

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090112

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      Nanosilver particles are made by flame aerosol technology and in situ coated by a nanothin silica shell that blocks the toxicity of nanosilver against E. coli bacteria and prevents nanosilver flocculation in aqueous solutions, facilitating its use in bio-imaging and protein biosensing.

  7. Full Papers

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    1. Non-Toxic Dry-Coated Nanosilver for Plasmonic Biosensors (pages 4250–4257)

      Georgios A. Sotiriou, Takumi Sannomiya, Alexandra Teleki, Frank Krumeich, Janos Vörös and Sotiris E. Pratsinis

      Article first published online: 3 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000985

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      Nanosilver particles are made by flame aerosol technology and in situ coated by a nanothin silica shell that blocks the toxicity of nanosilver against E. coli bacteria and prevents nanosilver flocculation in aqueous solutions, facilitating its use in bio-imaging and protein biosensing.

    2. Ultrasensitive and Highly Selective Gas Sensors Based on Electrospun SnO2 Nanofibers Modified by Pd Loading (pages 4258–4264)

      Dae-Jin Yang, Itai Kamienchick, Doo Young Youn, Avner Rothschild and Il-Doo Kim

      Article first published online: 7 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001251

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      Nanocrystalline SnO2 fibers are fabricated by electrospinning using Pd as a grain growth inhibitor and a catalyst for enhancing oxidation reactions. Pd-loaded or unloaded (pristine) SnO2 fibers can be used as gas sensors capable of detecting trace concentrations as low as several parts per billion (ppb) of H2 and NO2, respectively.

    3. Near-Field Lithography by Two-Photon Induced Photocleavage of Organic Monolayers (pages 4265–4272)

      Marta Álvarez, Andreas Best, Andreas Unger, José M. Alonso, Aránzazu del Campo, Marcus Schmelzeisen, Kaloian Koynov and Max Kreiter

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000939

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      Sub-wavelength structuring mediated by the near-field enhancement of metallic nanoparticles is demonstrated. For this, gold nanoparticles are combined with a polysiloxane monolayer with a photosensitive group (NVoc). The NVoc is cleaved by low doses of a two-photon excitation process due to the nanoparticles mediated radiation enhancement from a femtosecond laser.

    4. Large-Scale Highly Ordered Chitosan-Core Au-Shell Nanopatterns with Plasmonic Tunability: A Top-Down Approach to Fabricate Core–Shell Nanostructures (pages 4273–4278)

      Youn-Kyoung Baek, Seung Min Yoo, Taejoon Kang, Hwan-Jin Jeon, Kyounghwan Kim, Ji-Sun Lee, Sang Yup Lee, Bongsoo Kim and Hee-Tae Jung

      Article first published online: 14 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001051

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      Highly ordered chitosan-Au core–shell nanopatterns with tunable surface plasmon resonance properties are prepared by combining the fabrication of chitosan nanopatterns using soft lithography with selective deposition of Au nanoparticles onto the patterned chitosan surface. A proof-of-concept application of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) based detection of DNA hybridization on the chitosan-Au core–shell nanopatterns is successfully performed.

    5. A Microbial-Mineralization-Inspired Approach for Synthesis of Manganese Oxide Nanostructures with Controlled Oxidation States and Morphologies (pages 4279–4286)

      Manabu Oba, Yuya Oaki and Hiroaki Imai

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000361

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      An intermediate-mediated approach is used to synthesize manganese oxide nanostructures with controlled oxidation states and morphologies. The new synthetic route is inspired by microbial mineralization of manganese oxide in nature. The combination of organic molecules, which inclue antioxidizing and chelating agents, facilitates the parallel control of the oxidation states and morphologies in an aqueous solution at room temperature.

    6. Hybridized Nanowires and Cubes: A Novel Architecture of a Heterojunctioned TiO2/SrTiO3 Thin Film for Efficient Water Splitting (pages 4287–4294)

      Jiawei Ng, Shiping Xu, Xiwang Zhang, Hui Ying Yang and Darren D. Sun

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000931

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      SrTiO3 nanocubes are shown to precipitate on the surfaces of TiO2 nanowires, forming heterojunctions at interphases of the two hybridized semiconductors. The heterojunctions bestow efficient anti-recombination properties on the photogenerated charges and facilitate interfacial electron transfer and trapping. This results in enhanced photocatalytic cleavage of water molecules and generation of hydrogen gas.

    7. High Fill Factor and Open Circuit Voltage in Organic Photovoltaic Cells with Diindenoperylene as Donor Material (pages 4295–4303)

      Julia Wagner, Mark Gruber, Alexander Hinderhofer, Andreas Wilke, Benjamin Bröker, Johannes Frisch, Patrick Amsalem, Antje Vollmer, Andreas Opitz, Norbert Koch, Frank Schreiber and Wolfgang Brütting

      Article first published online: 11 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001028

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      Small-molecule solar cells are demonstrated using diindenoperylene as new donor material. Due to the high crystallinity and large surface area of DIP films grown at elevated temperature as well as favorable energy level alignment with the fullerene C60 as an acceptor, a large open-circuit voltage close to 1 V and exceptionally high fill factors of almost 75% are achieved, leading to power conversion efficiencies of 4%.

  8. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Feature Articles
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    1. Ultrathin Electronic Composite Sheets of Metallic/Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes Embedded in Conjugated Block Copolymers (page 4304)

      Jinwoo Sung, June Huh, Ji-Hyuk Choi, Seok Ju Kang, Yeon Sik Choi, Geun Tak Lee, Junhan Cho, Jae-Min Myoung and Cheolmin Park

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090113

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      Novel ultrathin electronic composite sheets of individually networked SWNTs dispersed and embedded in a conjugated diblock polymer are developed. The electronic properties of the films are precisely controlled. A highly reliable field-effect transistor with a composite film is realized. The fabricated electronic composites are conveniently micropatterned by photolithography, as well as by unconventional transfer printing techniques.

  9. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
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    1. Ultrathin Electronic Composite Sheets of Metallic/Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes Embedded in Conjugated Block Copolymers (pages 4305–4313)

      Jinwoo Sung, June Huh, Ji-Hyuk Choi, Seok Ju Kang, Yeon Sik Choi, Geun Tak Lee, Junhan Cho, Jae-Min Myoung and Cheolmin Park

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001064

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      Novel ultrathin electronic composite sheets of individually networked SWNTs dispersed and embedded in a conjugated diblock polymer are developed. The electronic properties of the films are precisely controlled. A highly reliable field-effect transistor with a composite film is realized. The fabricated electronic composites are conveniently micropatterned by photolithography, as well as by unconventional transfer printing techniques.

    2. Control of the Properties of Micrometer-Sized Actuators from Liquid Crystalline Elastomers Prepared in a Microfluidic Setup (pages 4314–4322)

      Christian Ohm, Eva-Kristina Fleischmann, Isabelle Kraus, Christophe Serra and Rudolf Zentel

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001178

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      The use of a microfluidic setup to prepare monodisperse particles from a liquid crystalline elastomer is presented. After the application of a stimulus like heat or the presence of a solvent these show a strong and reversible shape change. The possibility to control the particle actuational behavior, shape, size, and mechanical properties is demonstrated.

    3. Immobilization on a Nanomagnetic Co/C Surface Using ROM Polymerization: Generation of a Hybrid Material as Support for a Recyclable Palladium Catalyst (pages 4323–4328)

      Alexander Schätz, Toby R. Long, Robert N. Grass, Wendelin J. Stark, Paul R. Hanson and Oliver Reiser

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000959

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      Co/C-nanomagnets are modified at the surface via immobilization of a norbornenyl-tagged ligand using ROM polymerization to ultimately support palladium catalysts, which are applied in Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions. The inherent advantage of such a hybrid material lies in the combined properties of the individual components, i.e., high catalyst loading invoked through the ROMP technology and magnetic fluidization/separation furnished by the highly magnetic nanobeads (158 emu g−1).

    4. Influence of Annealing and Interfacial Roughness on the Performance of Bilayer Donor/Acceptor Polymer Photovoltaic Devices (pages 4329–4337)

      Hongping Yan, Sufal Swaraj, Cheng Wang, Inchan Hwang, Neil C. Greenham, Chris Groves, Harald Ade and Christopher R. McNeill

      Article first published online: 28 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001292

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      The influence of interface structure on the performance of bilayer polymer heterojunction devices is investigated. Through a combination of X-ray reflectivity, photoluminescence quenching, device characterization, and Monte Carlo studies, we show that the performance of polymer solar cells is sensitive to interfacial structure with non-equilibrium, sharp interfaces optimal for charge separation.

    5. High Degree of Optical Tunability of Self-Assembled Photonic-Plasmonic Crystals by Filling Fraction Modification (pages 4338–4343)

      Martín López-García, Juan F. Galisteo-López, Álvaro Blanco, Cefe López and Antonio García-Martín

      Article first published online: 5 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001192

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      The optical properties of two-dimensional hybrid photonic-plasmonic crystals are fine-tuned by employing oxygen plasma to modify the filling fraction of the lattice. Simulations and experiments agree in showing a high degree of spectral tunability of the modes of the system in a continuous manner. When applied to active samples a strong modification of the emission of internal sources is obtained.

    6. Effect of the Ionic Conductivity on the Performance of Polyelectrolyte-Based Supercapacitors (pages 4344–4350)

      Grace Wee, Oscar Larsson, Madhavi Srinivasan, Magnus Berggren, Xavier Crispin and Subodh Mhaisalkar

      Article first published online: 14 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001096

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      A solid-state, polyanionic proton conducting electrolyte, poly(styrenesulfonic acid) (PSS:H), is demonstrated as an effective ion conducting electrolyte medium in carbon nanotube-based supercapacitors. High capacitance values are achieved for these supercapacitors, due to the high effective electrode area of the carbon nanotubes. As a result of the enhanced ionic conductivity of the PSS:H film with increasing humidity level, the capacitance increases with the humidity level (85 F g−1 at 80% RH).

    7. Impedance Measurements as a Simple Tool to Control the Quality of Conjugated Polymers Designed for Photovoltaic Applications (pages 4351–4357)

      Pavel A. Troshin, Diana K. Susarova, Yury L. Moskvin, Ilya E. Kuznetsov, Sergei A. Ponomarenko, Ekaterina N. Myshkovskaya, Ksenya A. Zakharcheva, Alexander A. Balakai, Sergei D. Babenko and Vladimir F. Razumov

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001308

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      An empirical correlation between the relative photovoltaic performance of conjugated polymers (η/ηmax) and their effective relaxation times τeff determined from the impedance measurements is revealed. The developed method might be applied for fast screening of synthesized conjugated polymers in order to draw conclusions about the quality of the prepared samples and their suitability for use in organic solar cells.

    8. Enhanced Dye Fluorescence in Novel Dye–ZnO Nanocomposites (pages 4358–4363)

      Jianhui Zhang, Aaron Thurber, Dmitri A. Tenne, John W. Rasmussen, Denise Wingett, Charles Hanna and Alex Punnoose

      Article first published online: 27 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001060

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      New dye–ZnO composite nanotripods, nanotubes, and nanorods with greatly enhanced dye fluorescence (see figure) have been designed and synthesized, by exploiting the interaction of Zn2+–dye carbonyl group. This development not only facilitates dye applications in medical diagnostics and bio-nanotechnology, but also supplies a novel and general approach to improve the fluorescence of organic dyes by doping them into metal oxides.

    9. Metal-Catalyzed Etching of Vertically Aligned Polysilicon and Amorphous Silicon Nanowire Arrays by Etching Direction Confinement (pages 4364–4370)

      Shih-wei Chang, Vivian P. Chuang, Steven T. Boles and Carl V. Thompson

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000437

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      Metal-catalyzed etching with patterned metal meshes having different geometries was used to control the orientations of silicon nanowires. Specific conditions for fabrication of nanowires with axes normal to the substrate surface, regardless of the crystallographic orientation of the substrate, were determined. This allowed use of metal-catalyzed etching to fabricate vertically aligned polycrystalline and amorphous silicon nanopillar arrays from deposited films.

    10. Autonomic Self-Repairing Glassy Materials (pages 4371–4374)

      Daniel Coillot, François O. Méar, Renaud Podor and Lionel Montagne

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000147

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      Crack-proof glass. The figure describes the extrinsic self-healing process of glassy materials. Healing particles of vanadium boride are dispersed within the glassy matrix. When a crack occurs on the surface of the sample (A) and propagates in the bulk (B), active particles react on contact with atmospheric oxygen to produce a new glass that fills the crack (C).

    11. The Zintl Compound Ca5Al2Sb6 for Low-Cost Thermoelectric Power Generation (pages 4375–4380)

      Eric S. Toberer, Alexandra Zevalkink, Nicole Crisosto and G. Jeffrey Snyder

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000970

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      Carrier concentration control via sodium doping is used to improve the thermoelectric performance of the Zintl compound Ca5Al2Sb6 by reducing resistivity. The thermal conductivity is found to be extremely low (0.6 W mK−1 at 850 K), approaching the amorphous limit at high temperatures.. A maximum zT of 0.6 is obtained at 1000 K.

    12. Enhanced Performance in Polymer Solar Cells by Surface Energy Control (pages 4381–4387)

      Xavier Bulliard, Soo-Ghang Ihn, Sungyoung Yun, Yungi Kim, Dukhyun Choi, Jae-Young Choi, Min Kim, Myungsun Sim, Jong-Hwan Park, Woong Choi and Kilwon Cho

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000960

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      Enhanced power conversion efficiency in polymer solar cells is achieved by surface energy control. Surface modification based on a mixed self-assembled monolayer allows the independent control of the surface energy and work function. These results demonstrate that controlling the surface energy of a buffer layer that lies underneath a photoactive layer is an effective method for improving the performance in polymer solar cells.

    13. Tuning Electrical Conductance of Serpentine Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (pages 4388–4393)

      Jun Huang, Bei Wang, Indranil Lahiri, Awnish K. Gupta, Peter C. Eklund and Wonbong Choi

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000957

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      Follow the curves. The resistivity (ρ) of bent single-walled carbon nanotubes is found to increase with curvature (1/rb). Local Raman spectra show that the G-band Raman frequencies shift along the curvature, which may be attributed to local deformation and broken cylindrical symmetry in the nanotubes.

    14. Nafion–Carbon Nanocomposite Membranes Prepared Using Hydrothermal Carbonization for Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel Cells (pages 4394–4399)

      Zhanli Chai, Cheng Wang, Hongjie Zhang, Cara M. Doherty, Bradley P. Ladewig, Anita J. Hill and Huanting Wang

      Article first published online: 1 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001412

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      Nafion–carbon nanocomposite membranes (see graphic) are synthesized by infiltrating Nafion 117 membranes with glucose solution, followed by hydrothermal treatment. The carbon content is controlled by the hydrothermal treatment duration. Nanocomposite membranes with high carbon loading have low methanol permeability and high proton conductivity, and produce maximum power densities in H2/O2 and direct methanol fuel cells of 31.7% and 44.0% higher than those of Nafion 117 membranes, respectively.

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