Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 20 Issue 10

May 25, 2010

Volume 20, Issue 10

Pages 1527–1686

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. Bulk Heterojunctions: Ultrafast Hole-Transfer Dynamics in Polymer/PCBM Bulk Heterojunctions (Adv. Funct. Mater. 10/2010)

      Artem A. Bakulin, Jan C. Hummelen, Maxim S. Pshenichnikov and Paul H. M. van Loosdrecht

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090038

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      The active layer of the currently most efficient plastic photovoltaic cells is a blend of polymer and methanofullerene molecules. In their article on page 1653, M. S. Pshenichnikov et al. show that hole transfer upon methanofullerene excitation operates simultaneously with electron transfer as the charge generation process in plastic photovoltaics, at a staggering timescale of 30 fs.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
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    9. Full Papers
    1. Field-Structured Chemiresistors: Field-Structured Chemiresistors (Adv. Funct. Mater. 10/2010)

      Douglas H. Read and James E. Martin

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090039

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      D. H. Read and J. E. Martin report on page 1577 the use of field-structured composites as improved chemiresistors. Magnetic fields are used to organize Au-coated magnetic particles into electrically conducting pathways within a polymer matrix. Though many structures are possible, a biaxial field leads to stacked particle sheets, as illustrated on the cover. These sensors undergo a reversible conductor–insulator transition over such a narrow concentration range that they behave like chemical switches. This switching point is tuned by controlling polymer stresses.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
  4. Feature Article

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
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    1. Structural Fabrication and Functional Modulation of Nanoparticle–Polymer Composites (pages 1533–1550)

      Hao Zhang, Jishu Han and Bai Yang

      Version of Record online: 7 APR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000089

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      Considering the techniques of nanoparticle (NP) synthesis and surface functionalization, recent progress in the fabrication methodologies and functional modulations of NP–polymer composites are presented. Polymers are hypothesized as an inert host to stabilize and integrate the functionalities of NPs, whereas the unique physicochemical properties of polymers provide further opportunities to modulate the NP functionalities within the preformed nanocomposites.

  5. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
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    1. Molecular Magnets: Deposition of Functionalized Cr7Ni Molecular Rings on Graphite from the Liquid Phase (Adv. Funct. Mater. 10/2010)

      Alberto Ghirri, Valdis Corradini, Christian Cervetti, Andrea Candini, Umberto del Pennino, Grigore Timco, Robin J. Pritchard, Christopher A. Muryn, Richard E. P. Winpenny and Marco Affronte

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090041

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  6. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
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    1. Deposition of Functionalized Cr7Ni Molecular Rings on Graphite from the Liquid Phase (pages 1552–1560)

      Alberto Ghirri, Valdis Corradini, Christian Cervetti, Andrea Candini, Umberto del Pennino, Grigore Timco, Robin J. Pritchard, Christopher A. Muryn, Richard E. P. Winpenny and Marco Affronte

      Version of Record online: 14 APR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902437

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      A systematic investigation is carried out by AFM and XPS analysis of different derivatives of molecular Cr7Ni rings deposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite from the liquid phase. A self-assembled buffer layer of alkyl chains with sulfur terminations efficiently sticks to a cationic Cr7Ni derivative.

    2. Grayscale Photopatterning of an Amorphous Polymer Thin Film Prepared by Photopolymerization of a Bisanthracene-Functionalized Liquid-Crystalline Monomer (pages 1561–1567)

      Hideyuki Kihara, Masashi Motohashi, Kazunari Matsumura and Masaru Yoshida

      Version of Record online: 1 APR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902311

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      Photopatterning is recorded on an amorphous polymer film prepared from a bisanthracene-functionalized liquid-crystalline monomer by combination of photodimerization and thermal back-reaction of an anthracene moiety. The contrast arises from a difference between amorphous and ordered phases, and can be clearly seen under polarized light. Controlling the intensity of exposure light makes it possible to record grayscale photopatterning.

    3. Light-Driven Titanium-Dioxide-Based Reversible Microfireworks and Micromotor/Micropump Systems (pages 1568–1576)

      Yiying Hong, Misael Diaz, Ubaldo M. Córdova-Figueroa and Ayusman Sen

      Version of Record online: 5 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000063

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      Titanium dioxide (TiO2), which possesses high photocatalytic activity, can be utilized to power the autonomous motion of microscale objects. This paper presents the first examples of TiO2 micromotors and micropumps. UV-induced TiO2 reversible microfireworks phenomenon is observed, and diffusiophoresis is proposed as a possible mechanism.

    4. Field-Structured Chemiresistors (pages 1577–1584)

      Douglas H. Read and James E. Martin

      Version of Record online: 23 APR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902286

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      Polymer composites containing Au-coated magnetic particles that are organized into electrically conducting pathways using magnetic fields are successfully used as chemiresistors. Absorption of chemical vapors elicits a reversible increase in the chemiresistor resistance. These sensors undergo a conductor–insulator transition over such a narrow concentration range that they can be described as chemical switches.

    5. Simultaneous Immobilization of Bioactives During 3D Powder Printing of Bioceramic Drug-Release Matrices (pages 1585–1591)

      Elke Vorndran, Uwe Klammert, Andrea Ewald, Jake E. Barralet and Uwe Gbureck

      Version of Record online: 6 APR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901759

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      The use of a multijet 3D-rapid-prototyping machine enables low temperature synthesis of bioceramic implants with simultaneous deposition of bioactive compounds with high spatial accuracy for localized delivery. The results show only a marginal loss in biological activity of the bioactive additive following printing. Release kinetics can be controlled by polymer modification and local drug embedment.

    6. Fabrication, Optical Modeling, and Color Characterization of Semitransparent Bulk-Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells in an Inverted Structure (pages 1592–1598)

      Tayebeh Ameri, Gilles Dennler, Christoph Waldauf, Hamed Azimi, Andrea Seemann, Karen Forberich, Jens Hauch, Markus Scharber, Kurt Hingerl and Christoph J. Brabec

      Version of Record online: 21 APR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000176

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      A semitransparent inverted organic photodiode is successfully fabricated with a Baytron PH500 layer/silver grid as the top electrode. Reasonable performances are achieved under both rear- and front-side illumination. The maximum efficiency achievable in semitransparent cells based on P3HT:PC70BM is predicted versus the transparency perception for human eye. Optical simulations suggest that low-bandgap materials have a better potential for semitransparent devices.

    7. Designed Multifunctional Nanocomposites for Biomedical Applications (pages 1599–1609)

      Humphrey H. P. Yiu, Hong-jun Niu, Ellen Biermans, Gustaaf van Tendeloo and Matthew J. Rosseinsky

      Version of Record online: 1 APR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902117

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      The assembly of multifunctional nanocomposite materials is demonstrated by exploiting the molecular sieving property of SBA-16 nanoporous silica. Cages of SBA-16 are used to host iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles, leaving a pore volume of 0.29 cm3 g−1 accessible for drug storage. The outer surface of the particles is decorated by antibodies using (1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC) coupling. The resulting material offers a dual magnetic and antibody-targeting drug delivery mechanism.

    8. Emission Color Tuning in Ambipolar Organic Single-Crystal Field-Effect Transistors by Dye-Doping (pages 1610–1615)

      Hajime Nakanotani, Masatoshi Saito, Hiroaki Nakamura and Chihaya Adachi

      Version of Record online: 14 APR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902339

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      Dye-doping of organic crystals is used to tune the emission color and increase the efficiency of ambipolar light-emitting organic crystal transistors. A tetracene-doped p-distyrylbenzene (P3V2) crystal-based transistor exhibits a maximum external electroluminescence efficiency one order of magnitude higher than that of a pure P3V2 crystal-based transistor without reducing the electron mobility.

  7. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. Tissue Engineering: Stem Cell Aligned Growth Induced by CeO2 Nanoparticles in PLGA Scaffolds with Improved Bioactivity for Regenerative Medicine (Adv. Funct. Mater. 10/2010)

      Corrado Mandoli, Francesca Pagliari, Stefania Pagliari, Giancarlo Forte, Paolo Di Nardo, Silvia Licoccia and Enrico Traversa

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090042

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  8. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. Stem Cell Aligned Growth Induced by CeO2 Nanoparticles in PLGA Scaffolds with Improved Bioactivity for Regenerative Medicine (pages 1617–1624)

      Corrado Mandoli, Francesca Pagliari, Stefania Pagliari, Giancarlo Forte, Paolo Di Nardo, Silvia Licoccia and Enrico Traversa

      Version of Record online: 14 APR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902363

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      Biosupports are fabricated by aligning CeO2 nanoparticles within poly(D,L-lactic-co- glycolic acid) (PLGA) matrices, and compared with unfilled or TiO2 nanoparticle-loaded PLGA films. The aligned growth of stem cells is observed only for scaffolds that incorporate oriented ceramic nanoparticles. Improved stem cell proliferative activity is observed for CeO2 nanocomposites due to the antioxidative properties of the nanostructured CeO2.

    2. Monodisperse Polymer Capsules: Tailoring Size, Shell Thickness, and Hydrophobic Cargo Loading via Emulsion Templating (pages 1625–1631)

      Jiwei Cui, Yajun Wang, Almar Postma, Jingcheng Hao, Leticia Hosta-Rigau and Frank Caruso

      Version of Record online: 3 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000209

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      Monodisperse polymer capsules with nanometer-tailored size and shell thickness are prepared using a facile emulsion templating-polymerization method. Functional nanoparticles and hydrophobic drugs are loaded in the capsules by preloading the emulsions with hydrophobic cargo. This work provides new avenues for the preparation of nanoengineered polymer capsules and the encapsulation of hydrophobic species.

    3. Fabrication of Density Gradients of Biodegradable Polymer Microparticles and Their Use in Guiding Neurite Outgrowth (pages 1632–1637)

      Xiaoran Li, Matthew R. MacEwan, Jingwei Xie, Daku Siewe, Xiaoyan Yuan and Younan Xia

      Version of Record online: 3 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000146

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      Continuous and discrete density gradients of biodegradable microparticles are fabricated using the electrospray technique. An optimal surface roughness is found for promoting neurite adhesion and extension in vitro.

    4. Synthesis of Highly Fluorescent and Soluble 1,2,4-Linking Hyperbranched Poly(arylenevinylene) Featuring Intramolecular Energy Funneling (pages 1638–1644)

      Zengqi Xie, Seong-Jun Yoon and Soo Young Park

      Version of Record online: 23 APR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000267

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      1,2,4-Linking hyperbranched poly-(arylenevinylene) with high solubility (>200 mg mL−1) and high fluorescence quantum yield (ΦF in film 0.64) was prepared via the Wittig reaction. The molecular weights could be tailored by controlling the amount of base used in the reaction. The energy gradient from short branches to long stems in the polymer ensured the highly efficient energy funneling property.

    5. In-Film Bioprocessing and Immunoanalysis with Electroaddressable Stimuli-Responsive Polysaccharides (pages 1645–1652)

      Xiaohua Yang, Eunkyoung Kim, Yi Liu, Xiao-Wen Shi, Gary W. Rubloff, Reza Ghodssi, William E. Bentley, Zeev Pancer and Gregory F. Payne

      Version of Record online: 23 APR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902092

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      Cells are co-deposited in an electroaddressable hydrogel film composed of alginate (Ca2+ responsive) and agarose (thermally responsive). The cells entrapped within this dual-stimuli-responsive network are grown, induced, and their surface-displayed proteins are immunoanalyzed by the electrophoresis-assisted contacting of antibodies. In-film bioprocessing to address, culture, and analyze living materials should enhance the capabilities of lab-on-a-chip systems for biological applications.

    6. Ultrafast Hole-Transfer Dynamics in Polymer/PCBM Bulk Heterojunctions (pages 1653–1660)

      Artem A. Bakulin, Jan C. Hummelen, Maxim S. Pshenichnikov and Paul H. M. van Loosdrecht

      Version of Record online: 7 APR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902099

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      Ultrafast Vis-IR spectroscopy allows the hole-transfer dynamics of photoexcited methanofullerene [60]PCBM to a polymer to be followed in real time after selective PCBM excitation. Injection of holes into the polymer is delayed by 30 fs, which is attributed to the hole-transfer time. The PCMB exciton harvesting efficiency is shown to be related to the blend morphology, yielding insight into its optimization.

    7. Highly Emissive and Electrochemically Stable Thienylene Vinylene Oligomers and Copolymers: An Unusual Effect of Alkylsulfanyl Substituents (pages 1661–1669)

      Shehzad Jeeva, Olena Lukoyanova, Athan Karas, Afshin Dadvand, Federico Rosei and Dmitrii F. Perepichka

      Version of Record online: 7 APR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902300

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      The synthesis and characterization of thienylene vinylene oligomers and polymers, functionalized with alkylsulfanyl substituents, are described. These materials exhibit efficient photoluminescence unusual for thienylene vinylene based structures. The polymers also show good thermal stability and increased stability toward electrochemical n-doping.

    8. Graphite Oxides Obtained from Porous Graphite: The Role of Surface Chemistry and Texture in Ammonia Retention at Ambient Conditions (pages 1670–1679)

      Mykola Seredych, Albert V. Tamashausky and Teresa J. Bandosz

      Version of Record online: 30 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000061

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      Although both of the studied graphite oxides are porous, there are visible differences in their texture caused by differences in the surface chemistries due to reactions with different oxidizing agents. The incorporation of sulfur species into the graphene layers affects their spatial arrangement, which results in more disordered structure. It also increases surface hydrophilicity. This has a visible effect on ammonia adsorption.

    9. Synthesis and Lithium Storage Properties of Co3O4 Nanosheet-Assembled Multishelled Hollow Spheres (pages 1680–1686)

      Xi Wang, Xing-Long Wu, Yu-Guo Guo, Yeteng Zhong, Xinqiang Cao, Ying Ma and Jiannian Yao

      Version of Record online: 5 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902295

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      Single-, double-, and triple-shelled hollow spheres assembled by Co3O4 nanosheets are successfully synthesized. These novel structures are composed of oriented self-assembled building blocks. When tested as the anode material in lithium-ion batteries, the multishelled microspheres exhibit excellent cycle performance and enhanced lithium storage capacity. The superior cyclic and rate capacity arise from the synergetic effect of small diffu-sion lengths in the nanosheet building blocks and sufficient void space to buffer volume expansion.

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