Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 20 Issue 11

June 9, 2010

Volume 20, Issue 11

Pages 1691–1851

  1. Cover Picture

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    1. Microencapsulation: Restoration of Conductivity with TTF-TCNQ Charge-Transfer Salts (Adv. Funct. Mater. 11/2010)

      Susan A. Odom, Mary M. Caruso, Aaron D. Finke, Alex M. Prokup, Joshua A. Ritchey, John H. Leonard, Scott R. White, Nancy R. Sottos and Jeffrey S. Moore

      Version of Record online: 31 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090043

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      Rupture of a mixture of core–shell microcapsules containing tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) and, separately, tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) in solution results in the formation of the conductive TTF-TCNQ charge-transfer salt. On page 1721, J. S. Moore and co-workers used this initially non-conductive microcapsule system to restore electrical conductivity to a damaged gold circuit upon microcapsule rupture. Illustration provided by Alex Jerez.

  2. Inside Front Cover

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    1. Waveguide Sensors: Use of Reversal Nanoimprinting of Nanoparticles to Prepare Flexible Waveguide Sensors Exhibiting Enhanced Scattering of the Surface Plasmon Resonance (Adv. Funct. Mater. 11/2010)

      Dehui Wan, Hsuen-Li Chen, Yu-Ting Lai, Chen-Chieh Yu and King-Fu Lin

      Version of Record online: 31 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090044

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      The image displays a flexible surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based waveguide sensor prepared by directly imprinting metal nanoparticles onto flexible plates, as presented by H.-L. Chen et al. on page 1742. The metal nanoparticles could scatter the evanescent wave and the guiding mode waves from the SPR-based waveguide simultaneously. The scattering signal underwent a distinguishable red-shift when the target molecules bound to the particles.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
    8. Full Paper
    9. Full Papers
  4. Feature Article

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    1. Design of Multiresponsive Hydrogel Particles and Assemblies (pages 1697–1712)

      Grant R. Hendrickson, Michael H. Smith, Antoinette B. South and L. Andrew Lyon

      Version of Record online: 11 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902429

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      A perspective on the design of hydrogel particle-based materials is presented. These efforts range from the development of core/shell microgels to their application in drug delivery and biomaterials. The graphic illustrates the use of cryo-SEM to visualize nanogels frozen in a concentrated colloidal sol, revealing the structure of individual particles as well as the particle assembly as a whole.

  5. Frontispiece

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    1. Conjugated Polymers: Enhanced Charge Transportation in Semiconducting Polymer/Insulating Polymer Composites: The Role of an Interpenetrating Bulk Interface (Adv. Funct. Mater. 11/2010)

      Guanghao Lu, Haowei Tang, Yan Huan, Sijun Li, Ligui Li, Yuzhen Wang and Xiaoniu Yang

      Version of Record online: 31 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090046

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      By taking advantage of two-phase interface engineering in three dimensions, X. Yang and co-workers demonstrate on page 1714 the substantially improved (instead of decreased) electrical properties of conjugated polymer/insulating polymer composites. This novel approach paves the way for preparing high-performance semiconducting polymer composites with reduced cost, improved mechanical properties, and environmental stability.

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    1. Enhanced Charge Transportation in Semiconducting Polymer/Insulating Polymer Composites: The Role of an Interpenetrating Bulk Interface (pages 1714–1720)

      Guanghao Lu, Haowei Tang, Yan Huan, Sijun Li, Ligui Li, Yuzhen Wang and Xiaoniu Yang

      Version of Record online: 11 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902281

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      The electrical properties of semiconducting polymer/insulating polymer composites can be improved upon two-phase interface engineering in three dimensions. Microscopically, charge transportation in the semiconducting component is assisted by the surrounding insulating matrix which reduces the activation energy. To maximize this enhancement, especially for soft electronics, both a large interfacial area and morphological continuity are required.

    2. Restoration of Conductivity with TTF-TCNQ Charge-Transfer Salts (pages 1721–1727)

      Susan A. Odom, Mary M. Caruso, Aaron D. Finke, Alex M. Prokup, Joshua A. Ritchey, John H. Leonard, Scott R. White, Nancy R. Sottos and Jeffrey S. Moore

      Version of Record online: 3 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000159

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      The formation of the conductive charge-transfer salt TTF-TCNQ (tetrathiafulvalene-tetracyanoquinodimethane) is reported via rupture of microencapsulated solutions of its individual components, as verified by FT-IR, UV-vis, and conductivity measurements.

    3. Control of Optical Hysteresis in Block Copolymer Photonic Gels: A Step Towards Wet Photonic Memory Films (pages 1728–1732)

      Eunjoo Kim, Changjoon Kang, Heeyoel Baek, Kyosung Hwang, Dongwoo Kwak, Eunkyung Lee, Youngjong Kang and Edwin L. Thomas

      Version of Record online: 3 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000329

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      The optical hysteresis in PS-b-P2VP block copolymer photonic gels is tuned by controlling the ion-pairing affinity between various anions and the protonated pyridinium ions on the P2VP block, which is highly dependent on the hydration energy of the ions, the dielectric constant of the solvent, and the ionic strength of the medium.

    4. Silica-Coated Manganese Oxide Nanoparticles as a Platform for Targeted Magnetic Resonance and Fluorescence Imaging of Cancer Cells (pages 1733–1741)

      Hong Yang, Yeming Zhuang, He Hu, Xiaoxia Du, Cuixia Zhang, Xiangyang Shi, Huixia Wu and Shiping Yang

      Version of Record online: 3 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902445

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      Monodisperse silica-coated manganese oxide nanoparticles (NPs) are aminated through silanization. The amine-functionalized core–shell NPs enable the covalent conjugation of a fluorescent dye, Rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RBITC), and folate (FA) onto their surface. These Mn3O4@SiO2(RBITC)–FA core–shell nanocomposites may find application in bimodal imaging (both magnetic resonance and fluorescence) in various biological systems.

    5. Use of Reversal Nanoimprinting of Nanoparticles to Prepare Flexible Waveguide Sensors Exhibiting Enhanced Scattering of the Surface Plasmon Resonance (pages 1742–1749)

      Dehui Wan, Hsuen-Li Chen, Yu-Ting Lai, Chen-Chieh Yu and King-Fu Lin

      Version of Record online: 11 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000057

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      A flexible surface plasmon resonance-based scattering waveguide sensor is prepared by directly imprinting solid and hollow gold nanoparticles onto flexible polycarbonate plates—without any surface modification—using a modified reversal nanoimprint lithography technology. Consistent with 3D finite-difference time domain simulations, almost one order of magnitude enhancement in the scattering signal is obtained.

    6. Simultaneous Optimization of Luminance and Color Chromaticity of Phosphors Using a Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (pages 1750–1755)

      Asish Kumar Sharma, Kyung Hyun Son, Bo Yong Han and Kee-Sun Sohn

      Version of Record online: 5 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902285

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      Nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA) operations, such as Pareto sorting and niche sharing, and the ensuing high-throughput synthesis and characterization are used to identify promising green phosphors in the MgO–ZnO–SrO–CaO–BaO–Al2O3–Ga2O3–MnO system. The resulting Mn2+-doped AB2O4 (A = alkali earth, B = Al and Ga) spinel solid solutions may find application in either plasma display panels or cold cathode fluorescent lamps.

    7. Poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) Brushes with Incorporated Nanoparticles as a SERS Active Sensing Layer (pages 1756–1761)

      Smrati Gupta, Mukesh Agrawal, Marc Conrad, Naima Aurelia Hutter, Phillip Olk, Frank Simon, Lukas M. Eng, Manfred Stamm and Rainer Jordan

      Version of Record online: 5 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000025

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      A facile approach to the fabrication of excellent surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates with as high as 6 × 106 surface enhancement factor is reported.

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    1. The Role of Transition Metal Oxides in Charge-Generation Layers for Stacked Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (pages 1762–1766)

      Sami Hamwi, Jens Meyer, Michael Kröger, Thomas Winkler, Marco Witte, Thomas Riedl, Antoine Kahn and Wolfgang Kowalsky

      Version of Record online: 14 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000301

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      Charge generation in transition metal oxide (TMO)-based interconnecting units of stacked organic light-emitting diodes occurs between the WO3 layer and its neighboring hole-transport material TCTA. The role of the adjacent n-type doped electron-transport layer BPhen:Cs2CO3 is only to facilitate electron injection from the TMO into the adjacent organic light-emitting unit.

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    1. Functionalization Strategies for Protease Immobilization on Magnetic Nanoparticles (pages 1767–1777)

      Dan Li, Wey Yang Teoh, J. Justin Gooding, Cordelia Selomulya and Rose Amal

      Version of Record online: 3 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000188

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      A range of functionalization strategies on the surfaces of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are explored to generate distal amine (−NH2), aldehyde (−CHO), carboxylic (−COOH), epoxy (−COC), mercapto (−SH), and maleimide moieties. These functional surfaces are suitable for the conjugation of various biomolecules, with potential magneto-driven applications in proteomic, bioseparation, and chemotherapeutics.

    2. A Versatile Solvent-Free “One-Pot” Route to Polymer Nanocomposites and the in situ Formation of Calcium Phosphate/Layered Silicate Hybrid Nanoparticles (pages 1778–1786)

      Hans Weickmann, Matthias Gurr, Olaf Meincke, Ralf Thomann and Rolf Mülhaupt

      Version of Record online: 5 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000041

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      Novel nanocomposites containing well-dispersed in situ formed calcium phosphate/layered silicate hybrid nanoparticles can be prepared in a versatile solvent-free “one-pot” process without requiring separate steps such as organophilic modification, purification, drying, dispersing, and compounding. The versatility of the approach is illustrated by successful application in different polymers varying from polystyrene, polymethyl methacrylate, and polyurethane to polyurethane-foam.

    3. Control of Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Performance by Block-Copolymer-Directed TiO2 Synthesis (pages 1787–1796)

      Pablo Docampo, Stefan Guldin, Morgan Stefik, Priti Tiwana, M. Christopher Orilall, Sven Hüttner, Hiroaki Sai, Ulrich Wiesner, Ulrich Steiner and Henry J. Snaith

      Version of Record online: 21 APR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902089

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      Titania synthesis via block copolymer self-assembly is shown to control not only morphological aspects, but also the electronic structure of TiO2. This synthesis approach enables unparalleled tuning of operational functionality when integrated into solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. Peak power conversion efficiencies of 3.2% for thin solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells represent a doubling of the previous best efficiency for block-copolymer-structured hybrid solar cells.

    4. Highly Efficient p-i-n and Tandem Organic Light-Emitting Devices Using an Air-Stable and Low-Temperature-Evaporable Metal Azide as an n-Dopant (pages 1797–1802)

      Kyoung Soo Yook, Soon Ok Jeon, Sung-Yong Min, Jun Yeob Lee, Ha-Jin Yang, Taeyong Noh, Sung-Kee Kang and Tae-Woo Lee

      Version of Record online: 14 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000137

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      A low-temperature, evaporable cesium azide (CsN3) is employed as an n-dopant in an electron transport layer. The driving voltage of the p-i-n device using the CsN3-doped n-type layer and a MoO3-doped p-type layer is greatly reduced, and it shows very high power efficiency.

    5. Supramolecular Soft Adhesive Materials (pages 1803–1811)

      Jérémie Courtois, Imane Baroudi, Nicolas Nouvel, Elise Degrandi, Sandrine Pensec, Guylaine Ducouret, Corinne Chanéac, Laurent Bouteiller and Costantino Creton

      Version of Record online: 3 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901903

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      Supramolecular soft adhesive materials based on bis-urea functionalized low-molecular-weight polyisobutylenes (PIBUT) can interact through supramolecular hydrogen bonds and self-organize over times on the order of days at room temperature. The very slow dynamics combined with strongly interacting moieties result in interesting adhesive properties on typical low-adhesion surfaces such as silicone rubber.

    6. Positively Charged Iridium(III) Triazole Derivatives as Blue Emitters for Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells (pages 1812–1820)

      Mathias Mydlak, Claudia Bizzarri, David Hartmann, Wiebke Sarfert, Günter Schmid and Luisa De Cola

      Version of Record online: 3 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000223

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      A series of blue-emitting cationic iridium(III) complexes are prepared and investigated. They are employed in electroluminescent devices in combination with ionic liquids, showing the bluest emission and the shortest turn-on time ever reported for iridium complexes.

    7. Enhanced-Light-Harvesting Amphiphilic Ruthenium Dye for Efficient Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 1821–1826)

      Mingkui Wang, Soo-Jin Moon, Difei Zhou, Florian Le Formal, Ngoc-Lê Cevey-Ha, Robin Humphry-Baker, Carole Grätzel, Peng Wang, Shaik M. Zakeeruddin and Michael Grätzel

      Version of Record online: 3 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902396

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      One of the active research fields in dye-sensitized solar cells is in enhancing the molar-extinction coefficient and red-shifting the spectral response of the charge-transfer chromophores. A ruthenium-complex sensitizer is employed for high-efficiency solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. The heteroleptic sensitizer features hexylthiophene in its ancillary bipyridyl ligand, which extends the π-conjugation, resulting in a conversion efficiency of 4.5% under AM 1.5 full sunlight.

    8. High-Surface-Area Nanoporous Boron Carbon Nitrides for Hydrogen Storage (pages 1827–1833)

      David Portehault, Cristina Giordano, Christel Gervais, Irena Senkovska, Stefan Kaskel, Clément Sanchez and Markus Antonietti

      Version of Record online: 11 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000281

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      Reactive hard templating produces gas-storage materials consisting of boron carbon nitrides with high surface areas up to 1560 m2 g−1. These hierarchical materials are obtained as copies of mesoporous graphitic carbon nitride via infiltration with a borane complex and pyrolysis. Composition and texture tuning is demonstrated by temperature adjustment and yields materials with strongly different H2 uptakes, guiding further search of materials for hydrogen storage.

    9. Polysaccharide-Derived Carbons for Polar Analyte Separations (pages 1834–1841)

      Robin J. White, Carla Antonio, Vitaly L. Budarin, Ed Bergström, Jane Thomas-Oates and James H. Clark

      Version of Record online: 3 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000169

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      The polysaccharide alginic acid is transformed into tunable mesoporous carbons (Vmeso > 1 cm3 g−1) in a truly sustainable manner, rendering materials suitable for challenging synergistic polar carbohydrate separations.

    10. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Multifunctional Magnetic Optical Sensor Particles with Tunable Sizes for Monitoring Metabolic Parameters and as a Basis for Nanotherapeutics (pages 1842–1851)

      Günter Mistlberger, Klaus Koren, Elisabeth Scheucher, Daniel Aigner, Sergey M. Borisov, Armin Zankel, Peter Pölt and Ingo Klimant

      Version of Record online: 3 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000321

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      Multifunctional magnetic optical sensor particles with sizes between 50 and 180 nm are synthesized by an emulsifier-free nanoprecipitation method. Through surface and core modifications these particles are suitable for optical oxygen- and pH-sensing and imaging, for singlet oxygen production, as magnetic carriers for biosensors, and many other applications.

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