Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 20 Issue 12

June 23, 2010

Volume 20, Issue 12

Pages 1859–2020

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
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    7. Full Papers
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    1. Shape Memory Materials: Identification of Quaternary Shape Memory Alloys with Near-Zero Thermal Hysteresis and Unprecedented Functional Stability (Adv. Funct. Mater. 12/2010)

      Robert Zarnetta, Ryota Takahashi, Marcus L. Young, Alan Savan, Yasubumi Furuya, Sigurd Thienhaus, Burkhard Maaß, Mustafa Rahim, Jan Frenzel, Hayo Brunken, Yong S. Chu, Vijay Srivastava, Richard D. James, Ichiro Takeuchi, Gunther Eggeler and Alfred Ludwig

      Article first published online: 22 JUN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090047

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      On page 1917, R. Zarnetta et al. report that for the reversible martensitic transformation in shape memory alloys the compatibility at the austenite/martensite interface is directly related to the width of the thermal hysteresis and to the functional stability. A “perfect” compatibility results in the growth of twinless martensite (blue) within the austenite (red), as shown in the TEM image for a Ti50Ni39Pd11 shape memory alloy (image provided courtesy of R. Delville).

  2. Inside Front Cover

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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
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    1. Carbon Nanotubes: Boosting the Non Linear Optical Response of Carbon Nanotube Saturable Absorbers for Broadband Mode-Locking of Bulk Lasers (Adv. Funct. Mater. 12/2010)

      W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim and F. Rotermund

      Article first published online: 22 JUN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090048

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      The image shows an artist's view of the broadband light matter interaction in single-walled carbon nanotubes. Brought in close proximity, tubes may interact with each other, which may be beneficially exploited for an accelerated relaxation mechanism of the excited carriers and enable ultrafast broadband laser mode-locking as demonstrated by F. Rotermund et al. on page 1937.

  3. Contents

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    1. Contents: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 12/2010) (pages 1859–1864)

      Article first published online: 22 JUN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090049

  4. Feature Article

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    1. Electrical Conductance in Biological Molecules (pages 1865–1883)

      M. Waleed Shinwari, M. Jamal Deen, Evgeni B. Starikov and Gianaurelio Cuniberti

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902066

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      Biomolecular charge transport is presented, with a particular focus on charge transfer/transport in DNA and protein molecules. The experimental data, as well as the presently available theories, are critically reviewed and analyzed. A summary of the active research in this field is also given, along with a number of practical recommendations.

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    1. Sensors: Glass Fibers with Carbon Nanotube Networks as Multifunctional Sensors (Adv. Funct. Mater. 12/2010)

      Shang-lin Gao, Rong-Chuan Zhuang, Jie Zhang, Jian-Wen Liu and Edith Mäder

      Article first published online: 22 JUN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090050

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      A semiconductive interphase between a glass fi ber and an epoxy matrix is achieved by coating carbon nanotubes on the glass fiber, as reported by S.-L. Gao, E. Mäder, et al. on page 1885. The interphase at the nanoscale provides multifunctional sensibility, which can be observed by electric force microscopy. The resulting composites with an ultra-high anisotropic electrical property are capable of detecting piezoresistive effects as well as the local glass transition temperature.

  6. Full Papers

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    1. Glass Fibers with Carbon Nanotube Networks as Multifunctional Sensors (pages 1885–1893)

      Shang-lin Gao, Rong-Chuan Zhuang, Jie Zhang, Jian-Wen Liu and Edith Mäder

      Article first published online: 5 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000283

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      A single glass fiber coated by carbon nanotubes is shown here to provide multifunctional sensitivities. Emphasis is given to the dependencies of electricity on stress/strain, temperature, and relative humidity. The composites of the carbon-nanotube-coated glass fibers in an epoxy matrix exhibit ultrahigh anisotropic electrical properties and an ultralow electrical percolation threshold; they are capable of detecting piezoresistive effects as well as the local glass transition temperature.

    2. A Quantum-Chemical Study on Understanding the Dehydrogenation Mechanisms of Metal (Na, K, or Mg) Cation Substitution in Lithium Amide Nanoclusters (pages 1894–1902)

      Lanlan Li, Bo Peng, Zhanliang Tao, Fangyi Cheng and Jun Chen

      Article first published online: 11 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000215

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      Metal-cation substitutions in lithium amide nanoclusters lower the reaction barrier for the rate-limiting step of the dehydrogenation reaction of lithium amide. The improving effect of these substitutions can be ascribed to the modified electronic structure and bonding characteristics of lithium-amide nanoclusters.

    3. Multifunctional Mesoporous Silica Material Used for Detection and Adsorption of Cu2+ in Aqueous Solution and Biological Applications in vitro and in vivo (pages 1903–1909)

      Qingtao Meng, Xiaolin Zhang, Cheng He, Guangjie He, Peng Zhou and Chunying Duan

      Article first published online: 3 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000080

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      An inorganic–organic silica material (SBA–P2) is synthesized featuring a high affinity Cu2+-specific fluorescence response in aqueous solution, with a detection limit for Cu2+ of ca. 0.65 ppb (10−9M). It can extract Cu2+ from solution so that only trace amounts remain. The fluorescence responses of Cu2+ in vitro (human breast cancer cells) and in vivo (five-day-old zebrafish) demonstrate the possibility of further applications in biology.

    4. High Quality Factor Metallodielectric Hybrid Plasmonic–Photonic Crystals (pages 1910–1916)

      Xindi Yu, Lei Shi, Dezhuan Han, Jian Zi and Paul V. Braun

      Article first published online: 11 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000135

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      A hybrid plasmonic–photonic crystal based on a periodic dielectric structure on a flat metal surface combines a surface plasmon system's high field localization and the dielectric photonic crystal's long propagation length and mode coupling capability. This system supports resonance modes with quality factors an order of magnitude higher than typical nanostructured plasmonic systems. A hybrid plasmonic–photonic crystal-based optical sensor achieves atomic layer resolution without advanced data processing.

    5. Identification of Quaternary Shape Memory Alloys with Near-Zero Thermal Hysteresis and Unprecedented Functional Stability (pages 1917–1923)

      Robert Zarnetta, Ryota Takahashi, Marcus L. Young, Alan Savan, Yasubumi Furuya, Sigurd Thienhaus, Burkhard Maaß, Mustafa Rahim, Jan Frenzel, Hayo Brunken, Yong S. Chu, Vijay Srivastava, Richard D. James, Ichiro Takeuchi, Gunther Eggeler and Alfred Ludwig

      Article first published online: 11 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902336

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      By using thin-film combinatorial methods, the lattice parameters of quaternary Ti–Ni–Cu–Pd shape memory alloys and the thermal hysteresis are tailored. Novel alloys with near-zero thermal hysteresis, as predicted by the geometric non-linear theory of martensite, are identified. The thin-film results are transferred to bulk materials and a significantly improved functional stability is found.

    6. Domain Engineering of Lead-Free Li-Modified (K,Na)NbO3 Polycrystals with Highly Enhanced Piezoelectricity (pages 1924–1929)

      Ke Wang and Jing-Feng Li

      Article first published online: 20 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000284

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      Environmently friendly piezoceramics are on their way! Lead-free (K,Na)NbO3 (KNN)-based materials are promising candidates to substitute widely used lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics. A high d33 of 324 pC N−1 can be obtained for Li-doped KNN ceramics by means of a re-poling treatment after aging for two months. A mechanism corresponding to the details of the spontaneous polarization change in the domain level is proposed.

    7. A Controllable Self-Assembly Method for Large-Scale Synthesis of Graphene Sponges and Free-Standing Graphene Films (pages 1930–1936)

      Fei Liu and Tae Seok Seo

      Article first published online: 20 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000287

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      Large-scale graphene oxide (GO) sponges or free-standing large-area GO films are generated from a GO suspension in a speed vacuum concentrator simply by controlling the chamber temperature. While the reduced GO sponge shows a high structural flexibility, the GO film and its reduced form demonstrate excellent photoluminescence and electrochemical properties.

    8. Boosting the Non Linear Optical Response of Carbon Nanotube Saturable Absorbers for Broadband Mode-Locking of Bulk Lasers (pages 1937–1943)

      W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim and F. Rotermund

      Article first published online: 19 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902368

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      The relaxation of the non-linear absorption of single-walled carbon nanotubes can be accelerated by tube-to-tube interactions. Devices with broadband switching, low non-saturable losses, and sub-100 fs relaxation time are presented, setting a record for absorptive photonic switches. These devices are demonstrated by mode-locking three different bulk solid-state lasers in the 1000–1600 nm wavelength range with the same absorber device.

    9. Diagrammatic Separation of Different Crystal Structures of A2BX4 Compounds Without Energy Minimization: A Pseudopotential Orbital Radii Approach (pages 1944–1952)

      Xiuwen Zhang and Alex Zunger

      Article first published online: 18 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901811

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      A 98% successful diagrammatic sorting approach of 44 different crystal structures of 688 oxide A2BX4 compounds (96% for 266 oxide-only) is described by plotting the total radius of the A atom versus the B atom for many compounds and seeking boundaries between the domains of different structure types. The radii are sums of the quantum-mechanically calculated “orbital radii,” rather than empirical radii or phenomenological electronegativity scales.

  7. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. Bioelectronics: Induced SER-Activity in Nanostructured Ag–Silica–Au Supports via Long-Range Plasmon Coupling (Adv. Funct. Mater. 12/2010)

      Jiu-Ju Feng, Ulrich Gernert, Peter Hildebrandt and Inez M. Weidinger

      Article first published online: 22 JUN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090051

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      The picture shows a nanostructured layered silver-silica-gold electrode developed by J.-J. Feng, I. M. Weidinger, et al. on page 1954 where the underlying silver surface can be excited by laser light. The resulting surface plasmon resonance is transferred over a distance of up to 20 nm to the outer gold layer where attached proteins can be detected by surfaceenhanced Raman spectroscopy.

  8. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
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    1. Induced SER-Activity in Nanostructured Ag–Silica–Au Supports via Long-Range Plasmon Coupling (pages 1954–1961)

      Jiu-Ju Feng, Ulrich Gernert, Peter Hildebrandt and Inez M. Weidinger

      Article first published online: 11 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000302

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      Plasmon transfer from optically excited Ag nanostructures to Au is observed over distances more than 20 nm. The metal layers are separated by a silica film of variable thicknesses that improves the plasmon coupling efficiency and the long-term stability of this device. SERR intensity, biocompatibility, and electron-transfer dynamics are investigated using cytochrome c as a model enzyme.

    2. pH-Responsive Nanoporous Silica Colloidal Membranes (pages 1962–1969)

      Olga Schepelina, Nils Poth and Ilya Zharov

      Article first published online: 20 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000369

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      Nanoporous membranes with varied thickness and nanopore size are fabricated from sintered silica colloidal crystals modified with pH-responsive poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) brushes. In the presence of acid, the diffusion rate of positively charged species through the membranes decreases significantly. Increasing the polymer length and membrane thickness and decreasing the nanopore size lead to the complete acid-controlled gating of the membranes.

    3. Solar Cells by Design: Photoelectrochemistry of TiO2 Nanorod Arrays Decorated with CdSe (pages 1970–1976)

      Jin Ho Bang and Prashant V. Kamat

      Article first published online: 18 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902234

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      One-dimensional TiO2 nanostructures are grown directly on transparent, conductive glass using hydrothermal/solvothermal synthesis. A highly crystalline, rutile TiO2 nanorod array is decorated with CdSe using electrochemical deposition. When employed as photoanodes, the TiO2 nanorods exhibit better electron transport than a TiO2 particulate film, but show less photocurrent due to insufficient surface area.

    4. Water-Soluble Polyfluorenes as an Interfacial Layer Leading to Cathode-Independent High Performance of Organic Solar Cells (pages 1977–1983)

      Seung-Hwan Oh, Seok-In Na, Jang Jo, Bogyu Lim, Doojin Vak and Dong-Yu Kim

      Article first published online: 14 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902386

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      Copper as a cathode for organic solar cells! Thanks to novel water-soluble polyfluorene derivatives that are used as an interfacial dipole layer, low-cost and high-efficiency OSCs with high work-function metal cathodes are created. The efficiency of these OSCs is dramatically enhanced because of the formation of an interfacial dipole. In particular, for a copper cathode the device efficiency can be enhanced from 0.8% to 3.36%.

    5. Interaction of Zoospores of the Green Alga Ulva with Bioinspired Micro- and Nanostructured Surfaces Prepared by Polyelectrolyte Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembly (pages 1984–1993)

      Xinyu Cao, Michala E. Pettitt, Florian Wode, Maria Pilar Arpa Sancet, Jinhong Fu, Jian Ji, Maureen E. Callow, James A. Callow, Axel Rosenhahn and Michael Grunze

      Article first published online: 20 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000242

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      The interaction of spores of green algae with bioinspired structured surfaces in the nanometer–micrometer-size range is investigated using a series of coatings with systematically varied morphology and chemistry. Structured surfaces are prepared by layer-by-layer spray coating deposition of polyelectrolytes at varying pH and subsequently chemically functionalized. The influence of morphology on the biological response is determined.

    6. Effect of Contact Mode on the Electrical Transport and Field-Emission Performance of Individual Boron Nanowires (pages 1994–2003)

      Fei Liu, Zanjia Su, Li Li, Fuyao Mo, Shunyu Jin, Shaozhi Deng, Jun Chen, Chengmin Shen, Hongjun Gao and Ningsheng Xu

      Article first published online: 11 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000149

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      Growing nanowires from the base up is essential for assuring better device performances. The contact mode between nanostructures and their substrate strongly affects the electrical transport and field-emission behavior of boron nanowires. The in situ physical properties of individual boron nanowires with different contact modes are elaborated on and nanowires grown from the base up exhibit much better performances than those grown from the top down.

    7. A Three-Dimensional and Sensitive Bioassay Based on Nanostructured Quartz Combined with Viral Nanoparticles (pages 2004–2009)

      Jong-Hwan Lee, Jung Suk Kim, Jin-Seung Park, Wonbae Lee, Kyung Eun Lee, Sung-Sik Han, Kyu Back Lee and Jeewon Lee

      Article first published online: 19 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902054

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      Nanostructured quartz surfaces are densely covered with probe antibodies in a controlled orientation via engineered viral nanoparticles, leading to the preparation of a 3D assay system. The successful application of this nanostructured quartz-based assay system to highly sensitive detection of disease markers is reported.

    8. Quantification of Grafting Densities Achieved via Modular “Grafting-to” Approaches onto Divinylbenzene Microspheres (pages 2010–2020)

      Leena Nebhani, Detlef Schmiedl, Leonie Barner and Christopher Barner-Kowollik

      Article first published online: 14 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902330

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      The surface of monodisperse polymeric microspheres is modified with modular macromolecular building blocks via ultrarapid Diels–Alder conjugation in a grafting-to approach. The resulting core–shell microspheres are quantitatively characterized with regard to the achieved grafting densities and loading capacities.

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