Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 20 Issue 13

July 9, 2010

Volume 20, Issue 13

Pages 2027–2188

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Frontispiece
    6. Feature Article
    7. Full Papers
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    10. Correction
    1. Ionic Liquids: Electropolymerization of a Bifunctional Ionic Liquid Monomer Yields an Electroactive Liquid-Crystalline Polymer (Adv. Funct. Mater. 13/2010)

      Sungwon Lee, Gregory A. Becht, Byeongdu Lee, Christopher T. Burns and Millicent A. Firestone

      Article first published online: 5 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090052

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      M. A. Firestone et al. present a polymer that incorporates an electronic component with an ionic liquid and produces a mixed ionic and electronic conductor on page 2063. Electropolymerization of a bifunctional imidazolium-based ionic liquid monomer incorporating both vinyl and thiophene groups yields a liquid-crystalline polymer that adopts an interconnected network structure formed by two orthogonally oriented lamellar sheets. The structural ordering leads to enhanced electrical conductivity.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Frontispiece
    6. Feature Article
    7. Full Papers
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    10. Correction
    1. Biomineralization: Mussel-Inspired Polydopamine Coating as a Universal Route to Hydroxyapatite Crystallization (Adv. Funct. Mater. 13/2010)

      Jungki Ryu, Sook Hee Ku, Haeshin Lee and Chan Beum Park

      Article first published online: 5 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090053

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      A universal biomineralization approach that can integrate hydroxyapatites on virtually any type and shape of substrate is presented. H. Lee, C. B. Park, and co-workers show on page 2132 that polydopamine, a catecholamine surface modifier inspired by adhesive proteins found in mussels, enriches calcium ions at the interface, facilitating the formation of biomimetic hydroxyapatite crystals.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Frontispiece
    6. Feature Article
    7. Full Papers
    8. Frontispiece
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    10. Correction
    1. Contents: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 13/2010) (pages 2027–2033)

      Article first published online: 5 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090054

  4. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
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    6. Feature Article
    7. Full Papers
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    10. Correction
    1. Thin Films: Self-Assembled Heteroepitaxial Oxide Nanocomposite Thin Film Structures: Designing Interface-Induced Functionality in Electronic Materials (Adv. Funct. Mater. 13/2010)

      Judith L. MacManus-Driscoll

      Article first published online: 5 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090055

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      Achieving self-assembling/self-organizing systems is the holy grail of nanotechnology, as presented in the Feature Article by J. L. MacManus-Driscoll on page 2035. Multifunctionality or enhanced functionality can emerge as a result of self-assembly of two oxides in nano-composite films. Checkerboards, ordered nanochains, nanorods, or random nanoparticle structures are all possible structures and they influence the resulting properties in different ways. It is now possible to predict the nanocomposite structure that will form from a given starting composition.

  5. Feature Article

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    10. Correction
    1. Self-Assembled Heteroepitaxial Oxide Nanocomposite Thin Film Structures: Designing Interface-Induced Functionality in Electronic Materials (pages 2035–2045)

      Judith L. MacManus-Driscoll

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000373

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      Vertical heteroepitaxial nanocomposite oxide films hold great promise for achieving improved or novel materials functionalities. There are a number of potential advantages over conventional multilayer structures. This review encapsulates the basic principles governing the evolution of the different nanocomposite forms and gives examples of the functional property enhancements so far achieved.

  6. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
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    10. Correction
    1. Lateral Inhomogeneity in the Electronic Structure of a Conjugated Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Thin Film (pages 2046–2052)

      Kaname Kanai, Takahiro Miyazaki, Takanori Wakita, Kouki Akaike, Takayoshi Yokoya, Yukio Ouchi and Kazuhiko Seki

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000116

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      Photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy results clearly resolve a considerable lateral inhomogeneity in the morphology of a regioregular (RR)-P3HT film, which results in a variation of the electronic structure depending on the local crystallinity. The PEEM results show how annealing facilitates crystal growth in a high-molecular-weight RR-P3HT film.

    2. Tunable Guided-Mode Resonance Grating Filter (pages 2053–2062)

      Adriana Szeghalmi, Michael Helgert, Robert Brunner, Frank Heyroth, Ulrich Gösele and Mato Knez

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902044

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      Nanolaminate functional coatings deposited by atomic layer deposition onto 2D nanostructured polycarbonate substrates provide promising tunable guided-mode resonance filters for miniaturized, mobile optical instruments. The peak position of the filter is shifted by ∼40 nm when the substrate is rotated by 10° without changing the angle of incidence and the optical setup. Theoretical simulations of a model system support the experimental data.

    3. Electropolymerization of a Bifunctional Ionic Liquid Monomer Yields an Electroactive Liquid-Crystalline Polymer (pages 2063–2070)

      Sungwon Lee, Gregory A. Becht, Byeongdu Lee, Christopher T. Burns and Millicent A. Firestone

      Article first published online: 9 JUN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000024

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      The electropolymerization of a bifunctional imidazolium-based ionic liquid (IL) monomer that incorporates both a vinyl group and a thiophene moiety yields a well-ordered multilamellar structured film. The supramolecular structure promotes good electronic conduction.

    4. Low-Temperature Superionic Conductivity in Strained Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (pages 2071–2076)

      Michael Sillassen, Per Eklund, Nini Pryds, Erik Johnson, Ulf Helmersson and Jørgen Bøttiger

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000071

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      High lateral ionic conductivity enhancements are demonstrated at low temperatures in a simple model system consisting of single epitaxial YSZ layers synthesized on SrTiO3 and MgO single crystals, as compared to conventional bulk YSZ ceramics. The source of the enhancement is found at the interfaces due to the combined effect of strain and misfit dislocations.

      Corrected by:

      Correction: Correction: Low-Temperature Superionic Conductivity in Strained Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia

      Vol. 20, Issue 19, 3194, Article first published online: 20 OCT 2010

    5. Polarizability, Susceptibility, and Dielectric Constant of Nanometer-Scale Molecular Films: A Microscopic View (pages 2077–2084)

      Amir Natan, Natalia Kuritz and Leeor Kronik

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902162

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      The dielectric constant of molecular films is essential for understanding thin film organic electronic devices. The size-dependence of the polarizability, susceptibility, and dielectric constant of nanometer-scale molecular films is explored theoretically by combining quantum mechanical calculations and electrostatic modeling.

    6. The Impact of Polymer Regioregularity on Charge Transport and Efficiency of P3HT:PCBM Photovoltaic Devices (pages 2085–2092)

      Ralf Mauer, Marcel Kastler and Frédéric Laquai

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000320

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      Charge-carrier transport in pristine P3HT and in P3HT blends with PCBM is studied by the time-of-flight technique. In highly regioregular (rr >98%) P3HT:PCBM blends the charge transport is non- dispersive with balanced mobilities, whereas lower regioregularity (rr ∼94%) leads to dispersive transport. The charge mobilities are unaffected by annealing and both polymers give similar device efficiencies.

    7. Sensitive Explosive Vapor Detection with Polyfluorene Lasers (pages 2093–2097)

      Ying Yang, Graham A. Turnbull and Ifor D. W. Samuel

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901904

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      Distributed feedback semiconductor lasers based on polyfluorene are demonstrated as chemical sensors for detecting nitroaromatic explosive vapors. The temporal dynamics of the laser response to the analyte show a drop to 60% of its initial value in 46 s. A very rapid and complete recovery of laser output is achieved by briefly exposing the laser to a vacuum.

    8. Design of Biomolecular Interfaces Using Liquid Crystals Containing Oligomeric Ethylene Glycol (pages 2098–2106)

      Zhongqiang Yang, Jugal K. Gupta, Kenji Kishimoto, Yoshiko Shoji, Takashi Kato and Nicholas L. Abbott

      Article first published online: 17 JUN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000367

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      A general and facile approach to the design of liquid crystals (LCs) with interfaces that present chemical functionality relevant to biological applications is reported. The approach permits the preparation of LC films and micrometer-sized droplets with tailored interfaces that inhibit non-specific protein adsorption and associated ordering transitions in the LC.

  7. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Frontispiece
    6. Feature Article
    7. Full Papers
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    10. Correction
    1. Biomineralization: Amorphous Calcium Carbonate is Stabilized in Confinement (Adv. Funct. Mater. 13/2010)

      Christopher J. Stephens, Sophie F. Ladden, Fiona C. Meldrum and Hugo K. Christenson

      Article first published online: 5 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090056

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      F. C. Meldrum, H. K. Christenson, et al. describe on page 2108 a device based on two crossed cylinders used to study confinement effects on precipitation of calcium carbonate. Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) remains stable for days even when the confining surfaces are as far as a micrometer apart. Such stabilization of ACC in vitro may have important implications for the understanding of biomineralization.

  8. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
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    6. Feature Article
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    10. Correction
    1. Amorphous Calcium Carbonate is Stabilized in Confinement (pages 2108–2115)

      Christopher J. Stephens, Sophie F. Ladden, Fiona C. Meldrum and Hugo K. Christenson

      Article first published online: 2 JUN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000248

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      The environment in which minerals form can have a significant effect on their stabilities and mechanisms of crystallization. Amorphous CaCO3 (ACC) can be stabilized with respect to the crystalline polymorphs of CaCO3 by confinement alone. That stabilization of ACC is achieved at micrometer-scale separations demonstrates the versatility of this strategy and its potential value in biological systems.

    2. The β-to-γ Transition in BiFeO3: A Powder Neutron Diffraction Study (pages 2116–2123)

      Donna C. Arnold, Kevin S. Knight, Gustau Catalan, Simon A. T. Redfern, James F. Scott, Philip Lightfoot and Finlay D. Morrison

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000118

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      High-temperature powder neutron diffraction experiments conducted around the reported β–γ phase transition (∼930 °C) in BiFeO3 demonstrate that while a small volume contraction is observed at the transition temperature, consistent with an insulator–metal transition, both the β- and γ-phase of BiFeO3 exhibit orthorhombic (Pbnm) symmetry.

    3. Influence of Molecular Weight on the Performance of Organic Solar Cells Based on a Fluorene Derivative (pages 2124–2131)

      Christian Müller, Ergang Wang, L. Mattias Andersson, Kristofer Tvingstedt, Yi Zhou, Mats R. Andersson and Olle Inganäs

      Article first published online: 2 JUN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000224

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      The photocurrent extracted from bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices based on a liquid-crystalline fluorene derivative is found to strongly vary with increasing oligomer size up to a number average molecular weight, Mn ≈ 10 kg mol−1, but is rendered less chain-length dependent for higher degrees of polymerization as the fluorene derivative gradually adopts macromolecular behavior.

    4. Mussel-Inspired Polydopamine Coating as a Universal Route to Hydroxyapatite Crystallization (pages 2132–2139)

      Jungki Ryu, Sook Hee Ku, Haeshin Lee and Chan Beum Park

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902347

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      A universal biomineralization approach readily integrates hydroxyapatites on ceramics, noble metals, semiconductors, and synthetic polymers, irrespective of the size and morphology of the substrate. Surface-anchored catecholamine moieties in the polydopamine enriches calcium ions at the interface, facilitating the formation of hydroxyapatite crystals that are aligned to the c-axes, parallel to the polydopamine layer, as is observed in natural hydroxyapatites in mineralized tissues.

    5. Oxidative Inorganic Multilayers for Polypyrrole Film Generation (pages 2140–2147)

      Mikko Salomäki, Markus Räsänen, Jarkko Leiro, Terhi Huti, Mikko Tenho, Jukka Lukkari and Jouko Kankare

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902412

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      A versatile approach for producing thin conducting polymer films is presented. A cerium(IV) polyphosphate multilayer film is redox active, which is shown by its capability to form a conducting polymer layer on its surface by oxidation of pyrrole monomers in the adjacent aqueous solution. This is a general method to produce thin oxidative films of arbitrary size and form on a wide variety of surfaces.

    6. High-Performance Air-Stable n-Type Organic Transistors Based on Core-Chlorinated Naphthalene Tetracarboxylic Diimides (pages 2148–2156)

      Joon Hak Oh, Sabin–Lucian Suraru, Wen-Ya Lee, Martin Könemann, Hans Wolfgang Höffken, Cornelia Röger, Rüdiger Schmidt, Yoonyoung Chung, Wen-Chang Chen, Frank Würthner and Zhenan Bao

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000425

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      The molecular packing of core-chlorinated naphthalene tetracarboxylic diimides (NDIs) shows various advantageous characteristics for charge transport including marginal core distortion, close π-plane distance, large π-orbital overlap, and high packing density. These features together with their easy processing and simple synthesis lead to thin-film transistor devices with excellent electron mobilities of up to 1.43 cm2 V−1 s−1 in air.

    7. Optimization of Si NC/P3HT Hybrid Solar Cells (pages 2157–2164)

      Chin-Yi Liu, Zachary C. Holman and Uwe R. Kortshagen

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902471

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      The effects of annealing treatment and cathode material on silicon nanocrystals/P3HT blend solar cells are studied. Annealing improves device performance by as much as a factor of 2, and the best device exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 1.47%.

    8. Electrochemical Method for Synthesis of a ZnFe2O4/TiO2 Composite Nanotube Array Modified Electrode with Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Activity (pages 2165–2174)

      Yang Hou, Xin-Yong Li, Qi-Dong Zhao, Xie Quan and Guo-Hua Chen

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902390

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      ZnFe2O4/TiO2 composite nanotube arrays are prepared via electrochemical anodization of pure titanium foil in fluorine-containing ethylene glycol, followed by a novel cathodic electrodeposition method. The deposition of ZnFe2O4 is promoted in the TiO2 nanotube arrays but minimized at the tube entrances. The enhanced separation of the photoinduced electrons and holes is demonstrated by surface photovoltage, photoelectrochemical investigations, and photocatalytic degradation of 4-chlorophenol.

    9. Synthesis of Zwitterionic Water-Soluble Oligofluorenes with Good Light-Harvesting Ability (pages 2175–2180)

      Chengfen Xing, Libing Liu, Zhiqiang Shi, Yuliang Li and Shu Wang

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902155

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      A new water-soluble zwitterionic oligofluorene bearing carboxylic acid and quaternary ammonium as pendant groups (OF-1) is synthesized and characterized. It forms aggregates by intermolecular electrostatic interactions and exhibits similar light-harvesting ability as those of conjugated polymers. Efficient fluorescence resonance energy transfer occurs from OF-1 to double-stranded DNA tagged with fluorescein. A remote DNA sensing is also developed.

    10. Electronic Contact Deposition onto Organic Molecular Monolayers: Can We Detect Metal Penetration? (pages 2181–2188)

      Hagay Shpaisman, Rotem Har-Lavan, Nir Stein, Omer Yaffe, Roman Korobko, Oliver Seitz, Ayelet Vilan and David Cahen

      Article first published online: 17 JUN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902402

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      Contact penetration is particularly worrisome for ultrathin (1–3 nm) molecular monolayers. Using a semiconductor as the layer's substrate, metallic penetration can be identified. If the organic monolayer is intact a metal–insulator–semiconductor structure results, but if metal penetrated the monolayer the junction behaves as a metal–semiconductor structure. By comparing a molecule-free interface with a molecularly modified one, possible metal penetration is identified.

  9. Correction

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Frontispiece
    6. Feature Article
    7. Full Papers
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    10. Correction
    1. You have free access to this content
      Highly Emissive and Electrochemically Stable Thienylene Vinylene Oligomers and Copolymers: An Unusual Effect of Alkylsulfanyl Substituents

      Shehzad Jeeva, Olena Lukoyanova, Athan Karas, Afshin Dadvand, Federico Rosei and Dmitrii F. Perepichka

      Article first published online: 5 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090057

      This article corrects:

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