Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 20 Issue 16

August 23, 2010

Volume 20, Issue 16

Pages 2543–2736

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Articles
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. Organic Electronics: High Tg Cyclic Olefin Copolymer Gate Dielectrics for N,N′-Ditridecyl Perylene Diimide Based Field-Effect Transistors: Improving Performance and Stability with Thermal Treatment (Adv. Funct. Mater. 16/2010)

      Jaeyoung Jang, Sooji Nam, Dae Sung Chung, Se Hyun Kim, Won Min Yun and Chan Eon Park

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090068

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The image shows well-ordered N,N′-ditridecyl perylene diimide (PTCDI-C13) molecules formed on a high Tg ethylene-norbornene cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) gate dielectric via thermal annealing, as presented by C. E. Park et al. on page 2611. The densely packed PTCDI-C13 crystals on a highly hydrophobic COC dielectric form a natural shield against to water and oxygen in air, leading to outstanding air-stability. The n-type organic FETs based on this semiconductor-dielectric combination with thermal treatment showed high performance and long-term stability with respect to H2O/O2 degradation, hysteresis, or sweep-stress over 4 months in ambient air.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Articles
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. Nanoarrays: Cooperative Near-Field Surface Plasmon Enhanced Quantum Dot Nanoarrays (Adv. Funct. Mater. 16/2010)

      Kirsty Leong, Yeechi Chen, David J. Masiello, Melvin T. Zin, Marketa Hnilova, Hong Ma, Candan Tamerler, Mehmet Sarikaya, David S. Ginger and Alex K.-Y. Jen

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090069

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Plasmon enhanced fluorescence from quantum dots (QDs) sandwiched between colloidal gold nanoparticles and lithographically created metal nanoarrays is observed, as presented by A. K.-Y. Jen et al. on page 2675. This enhanced brightness is achieved by systematically tuning the vertical distance of the QD from the gold nanoparticles using solid-specific peptide linkers and by optimizing the localized surface plasmon resonance by varying the geometric arrangement of the patterned gold nanoarray.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Articles
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
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    1. Contents: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 16/2010) (pages 2543–2549)

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090070

  4. Feature Articles

    1. Top of page
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    1. Harnessing Surface Wrinkle Patterns in Soft Matter (pages 2550–2564)

      Shu Yang, Krishnacharya Khare and Pei-Chun Lin

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000034

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Two distinct approaches for wrinkling and transition, including mechanical stretching/releasing of oxide/PDMS bilayers and swelling of hydrogel films confined on a rigid substrate with a depth-wise modulus gradient, are discussed. By harnessing the topographic tunability in PDMS wrinkles, various applications, including tunable adhesion, wetting, microfluidics, and microlens arrays, are demonstrated.

    2. Tunable Colors in Opals and Inverse Opal Photonic Crystals (pages 2565–2578)

      Carlos I. Aguirre, Edilso Reguera and Andreas Stein

      Article first published online: 20 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000143

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This review article highlights different systems and mechanisms for achieving tunable color based on opaline materials with close-packed or non-close-packed structural elements and inverse opal photonic crystals like those shown on the left. Inorganic and polymeric systems such as hydrogels, metallopolymers, and elastomers are discussed.

      Corrected by:

      Correction: Correction: Tunable Colors in Opals and Inverse Opal Photonic Crystals

      Vol. 21, Issue 2, 210, Article first published online: 28 DEC 2010

  5. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Articles
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    1. Silver Surface Iodination for Enhancing the Conductivity of Conductive Composites

      Cheng Yang, Yu-Tao Xie, Matthew Ming-Fai Yuen, Bing Xu, Bo Gao, Xiaomin Xiong and C. P. Wong

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090071

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      Controlled iodination to the silver microfiller surface can alter the surface properties and dramatically improve the conductivity of the conductive composite. This method is effective in reducing the silver filler content from much higher levels (e.g., 80 wt%) of commercial composites to currently only 27.5 wt%. The printed radio frequency identification (RFID) antenna retain similar read range performance.

  6. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Articles
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. Silver Surface Iodination for Enhancing the Conductivity of Conductive Composites (pages 2580–2587)

      Cheng Yang, Yu-Tao Xie, Matthew Ming-Fai Yuen, Bing Xu, Bo Gao, Xiaomin Xiong and C. P. Wong

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000673

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Controlled iodination to the silver microfiller surface can alter the surface properties and dramatically improve the conductivity of the conductive composite. This method is effective in reducing the silver filler content from much higher levels (e.g., 80 wt%) of commercial composites to currently only 27.5 wt%. The printed radio frequency identification (RFID) antenna retain similar read range performance.

    2. A Generalized System for Photoresponsive Membrane Rupture in Polymersomes (pages 2588–2596)

      Neha P. Kamat, Gregory P. Robbins, Jeff Rawson, Michael J. Therien, Ivan J. Dmochowski and Daniel A. Hammer

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000659

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      Co-encapsulating conjugated multiporphyrin dyes in a polymersome membrane with dextran in the aqueous lumen confers photolability to the polymersome. Amphiphilic interactions of the luminal encapsulant with the membrane coupled with localized heat production in the hydrophobic bilayer likely cause differential thermal expansion in the membrane and the subsequent membrane rupture.

    3. Cationic Polyelectrolyte Amplified Bead Array for DNA Detection with Zeptomole Sensitivity and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Selectivity (pages 2597–2604)

      Chun Wang, Ruoyu Zhan, Kan-Yi Pu and Bin Liu

      Article first published online: 28 JUN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000459

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      A strand specific DNA assay, which consists of a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe, a cationic conjugated polymer (PFVP), and self-assembled polystyrene beads in microwell arrays on silicon chip, is developed to allow the detection of ∼300 copies of Cy5-labeled DNA or 150 attomole of label-free DNA using a commercial confocal microscope with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) selectivity.

    4. The Effects of Moisture in Low-Voltage Organic Field-Effect Transistors Gated with a Hydrous Solid Electrolyte (pages 2605–2610)

      Nikolai Kaihovirta, Harri Aarnio, Carl-Johan Wikman, Carl-Eric Wilén and Ronald Österbacka

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000586

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The role of moisture in low-voltage organic field-effect transistors gated with a hydrous ion conducting membrane is clarified. Electromodulation spectroscopy is used in combination with ordinary transistor characteristics for monitoring the insulator/semiconductor interface. The transition from reversible field-effect doping into irreversible oxidative degradation is identified.

    5. High Tg Cyclic Olefin Copolymer Gate Dielectrics for N,N′-Ditridecyl Perylene Diimide Based Field-Effect Transistors: Improving Performance and Stability with Thermal Treatment (pages 2611–2618)

      Jaeyoung Jang, Sooji Nam, Dae Sung Chung, Se Hyun Kim, Won Min Yun and Chan Eon Park

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000383

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A unique application of an ethylene-norbornene cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) as a gate dielectric layer for N,N′-ditridecyl perylene diimide based OFETs is introduced. The COC gate dielectric layer has good physical strength (Tg exceeding 180 °C) and a hydroxyl-free polymeric surface, producing highly ordered semiconductor thin films after thermal annealing. The resulting OFETs exhibit high performance and long-term stability under ambient conditions.

    6. Engineering Nanoparticle Cluster Arrays for Bacterial Biosensing: The Role of the Building Block in Multiscale SERS Substrates (pages 2619–2628)

      Linglu Yang, Bo Yan, W. Ranjith Premasiri, Lawrence D. Ziegler, Luca Dal Negro and Björn M. Reinhard

      Article first published online: 13 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000630

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      Nanoparticle cluster arrays (NCAs) are two dimensional photonic plasmonic crystals (see a and b) that sustain electromagnetic interactions on multiple length scales. In this study, NCAs are assembled from different building blocks (40, 60, 80 nm gold spheres and 40/5, 40/10 core-satellite nanostructures, and their SERS performance is evaluated. The 80 nm NCAs lead to the overall highest SERS enhancement and reproducibility both for small molecules and for monolayers of bacteria (c). Effective single cell SERS sensitivity is demonstrated for optimized NCAs.

    7. The Effect of Nanoparticle Shape on the Photocarrier Dynamics and Photovoltaic Device Performance of Poly(3-hexylthiophene):CdSe Nanoparticle Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells (pages 2629–2635)

      Smita Dayal, Matthew O. Reese, Andrew J. Ferguson, David S. Ginley, Garry Rumbles and Nikos Kopidakis

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000628

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      The charge generation and decay dynamics in CdSe nanoparticle blends with P3HT is studied with time-resolved microwave conductivity as a function of CdSe nanoparticle shape and is correlated with photovoltaic device performance. An enhanced carrier lifetime observed for high aspect ratio nanoparticles (nanorods and tetrapods) explains the better photovoltaic performance of these devices compared to those of quantum dot devices.

    8. Bio-inspired Photoelectric Conversion Based on Smart-Gating Nanochannels (pages 2636–2642)

      Liping Wen, Xu Hou, Ye Tian, Jin Zhai and Lei Jiang

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000239

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      A novel photoelectric conversion system based on smart-gating proton-driven nanochannels is successfully constructed. Inspired by natural processes that can convert solar energy into electrochemical potential, photo-acid molecules, 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonate, are used as light-driven, cross-membrane, proton pumps. The generated protons are then transported across the smart-gating nanochannel under the force of a proton gradient, which results in a diffusion potential and electrochemical faradaic current.

  7. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Articles
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. Chemiluminescence-Generating Nanoreactor Formulation for Near-Infrared Imaging of Hydrogen Peroxide and Glucose Level in vivo

      Chang-Keun Lim, Yong-Deok Lee, Jinhee Na, Jung Min Oh, Song Her, Kwangmeyung Kim, Kuiwon Choi, Sehoon Kim and Ick Chan Kwon

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090072

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      All-in-one nanoformulation of densely integrated peroxyoxalate fuel and a cyanine dye optimizes the chemiluminescence reactivity toward hydrogen peroxide, to generate bright near-infrared signal. Successful in vivo imaging of endogenously overproduced hydrogen peroxide offers an opportunity for early diagnosis of diseases.

  8. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Articles
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. Chemiluminescence-Generating Nanoreactor Formulation for Near-Infrared Imaging of Hydrogen Peroxide and Glucose Level in vivo (pages 2644–2648)

      Chang-Keun Lim, Yong-Deok Lee, Jinhee Na, Jung Min Oh, Song Her, Kwangmeyung Kim, Kuiwon Choi, Sehoon Kim and Ick Chan Kwon

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000780

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      All-in-one nanoformulation of densely integrated peroxyoxalate fuel and a cyanine dye optimizes the chemiluminescence reactivity toward hydrogen peroxide, to generate bright near-infrared signal. Successful in vivo imaging of endogenously overproduced hydrogen peroxide offers an opportunity for early diagnosis of diseases.

    2. Triple-Shape Polymeric Composites (TSPCs) (pages 2649–2656)

      Xiaofan Luo and Patrick T. Mather

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000052

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      Triple-shape polymeric composites (TSPCs) that exhibit two separated thermal transitions with three different shapes are fabricated using a unique fiber/matrix composite approach. Utilizing a specifically designed thermomechanical programming process, TSPCs are capable of fixing two well-defined temporary shapes and recovering sequentially from one temporary shape to the other, and finally to the permanent shape upon continuous heating.

    3. Tuning Specific Biomolecular Interactions Using Electro-Switchable Oligopeptide Surfaces (pages 2657–2663)

      Chun L. Yeung, Parvez Iqbal, Marzena Allan, Minhaj Lashkor, Jon A. Preece and Paula M. Mendes

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000411

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      A new class of responsive surfaces that rely on electro-switchable peptides to control biomolecular interactions on gold surfaces is reported. This system is based upon the conformational switching of positively charged oligolysine peptides that are tethered to a gold surface, such that bioactive molecular moieties (biotin) incorporated on the oligolysines can be reversibly exposed (bio-active state) or concealed (bio-inactive state) on demand, as a function of surface potential.

    4. Anomalous Oxidation States in Multilayers for Fuel Cell Applications (pages 2664–2674)

      James M. Perkins, Sarah Fearn, Stuart N. Cook, Rajagopalan Srinivasan, Chris M. Rouleau, Hans M. Christen, Geoff D. West, Richard J. H. Morris, Hamish L. Fraser, Stephen J. Skinner, John A. Kilner and David W. McComb

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000279

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      Multilayer ceria/doped ceria (CeO2/Ce0.85Sm0.15O2) thin films are grown on MgO substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Ceria valence state is mapped using high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), showing discrete regions of 3+ and 4+ ceria cations. This anomaly is relevant to the oxygen ion conductivity of the thin film.

    5. Cooperative Near-Field Surface Plasmon Enhanced Quantum Dot Nanoarrays (pages 2675–2682)

      Kirsty Leong, Yeechi Chen, David J. Masiello, Melvin T. Zin, Marketa Hnilova, Hong Ma, Candan Tamerler, Mehmet Sarikaya, David S. Ginger and Alex K.-Y. Jen

      Article first published online: 7 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000424

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      Surface plasmon enhanced fluorescence of quantum dot (QD) nanoarrays are fabricated using a peptide self-assembly to systematically tune the distance between the QD and metal surface and localize surface plasmon resonance. An enhancement factor of 15 in the QD photoluminescence is achieved when the QDs are sandwiched in between the electric fields of the nanoparticles. Thus by sandwiching QDs in between the “hot-spots” of metal nanoparticles, an increase in the QD emission is attainable.

    6. Biomimetic Approach to Confer Redox Activity to Thin Chitosan Films (pages 2683–2694)

      Eunkyoung Kim, Yi Liu, Xiao-Wen Shi, Xiaohua Yang, William E. Bentley and Gregory F. Payne

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902428

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      Catechol-quinone redox couples are commonly used in biology to transfer electrons. A biomimetic film is fabricated by grafting catechol onto the aminopolysaccharide chitosan to impart redox properties. Specifically, the catechol-modified chitosan films can amplify and partially rectify mediator currents, and also offer switching capabilities. Possible biological precedents for redox-active films are discussed.

    7. The Origin of the High Voltage in DPM12/P3HT Organic Solar Cells (pages 2695–2700)

      Antonio Sánchez-Díaz, Marta Izquierdo, Salvatore Filippone, Nazario Martin and Emilio Palomares

      Article first published online: 13 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000549

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      DPM12-based organic photovoltaic cells show a much higher open-circuit voltage than would be expected when solely looking at the energy levels. This can, however, be fully explained by the slower charge-recombination dynamics and the blend morphology in these cells. Extensive research on these types of solar cells shows the exact correlation between the above factors, which is corroborated by the experimental results.

    8. Triplet Formation in Fullerene Multi-Adduct Blends for Organic Solar Cells and Its Influence on Device Performance (pages 2701–2708)

      Clare Dyer-Smith, Luke X. Reynolds, Annalisa Bruno, Donal D. C. Bradley, Saif A. Haque and Jenny Nelson

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000477

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      Organic donor:acceptor blends employing fullerene multi-adduct acceptor molecules exhibit triplet formation when the HOMO(donor)–LUMO(acceptor) offset is high, presenting a limit to open circuit voltage in this materials system. Energy transfer from polymer to fullerene appears to be an important pathway for exciton deactivation in these materials and should be avoided in order to increase cell efficiency.

    9. Electrical Percolation Behavior in Silver Nanowire–Polystyrene Composites: Simulation and Experiment (pages 2709–2716)

      Sadie I. White, Rose M. Mutiso, Patrick M. Vora, David Jahnke, Sam Hsu, James M. Kikkawa, Ju Li, John E. Fischer and Karen I. Winey

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000451

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      Model composites of polystyrene and silver nanowires are used to investigate the effect of filler aspect ratio on electrical percolation threshold in the finite-aspect-ratio regime. Experimental percolation thresholds are compared to those obtained from simulations and analytical models to evaluate their predictive accuracies.

    10. Graphene-Based Nanoporous Materials Assembled by Mediation of Polyoxometalate Nanoparticles (pages 2717–2722)

      Ding Zhou and Bao-Hang Han

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902323

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      An approach to construct graphene-based nanoporous materials is described by utilizing the chemisorption between graphene sheets and polyoxometalate nanoparticles. The as-prepared graphene–polyoxometalate material possesses a specific surface area of 680 m2 g−1 and its hydrogen uptake volume increases significantly after oxidation, thus endowing the material with controllable ability of hydrogen adsorption and desorption.

    11. Nanometer-Scale Mapping of Elastic Modules in Biogenic Composites: The Nacre of Mollusk Shells (pages 2723–2728)

      Haika Moshe-Drezner, Doron Shilo, Avraham Dorogoy and Emil Zolotoyabko

      Article first published online: 25 JUN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902165

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      Nanoscale modulus maps reveal gradual changes of elastic modules across the ceramic/organic interfaces in the nacre layer of Perna canaliculus shells. This phenomenon is explained as a result of inhomogeneous distribution of organic macromolecules within ceramic tablets and indicates that the nacre should be considered as a compositionally and functionally graded material.

    12. Origin of Radiation-Induced Degradation in Polymer Solar Cells (pages 2729–2736)

      Ankit Kumar, Roderick Devine, Clay Mayberry, Bao Lei, Gang Li and Yang Yang

      Article first published online: 25 JUN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000374

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      The effect of X-ray irradiation on polymer photovoltaics for space applications is studied. No structural changes are found to take place in the bulk of the polymer film. However, charge accumulation can be a severe problem resulting in degradation in solar cell performance, which can be mitigated by engineering smart polymer–electrode interfaces.

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