Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 20 Issue 19

October 8, 2010

Volume 20, Issue 19

Pages 3187–3398

  1. Cover Picture

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    1. Carbon Nanotubes: High Electromechanical Response of Ionic Polymer Actuators with Controlled-Morphology Aligned Carbon Nanotube/Nafion Nanocomposite Electrodes (Adv. Funct. Mater. 19/2010)

      Sheng Liu, Yang Liu, Hülya Cebeci, Roberto Guzmán de Villoria, Jun-Hong Lin, Brian L. Wardle and Q. M. Zhang

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090083

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      The cover image presents vertically aligned carbon nano tubes (CNTs) with ultrahigh volume fraction. The CNTs reported by L. Wardle, Q. M. Zhang, and coworkers on page 3266 create unique opportunities for ionic polymer actuators with a morphology approaching the optimal nanostructure: the vertical alignment of CNT electrodes greatly facilitates the ion transport in the actuators, and the high elastic anisotropy of the composite layers, arising from the high modulus of CNTs, enhances actuation strain.

  2. Inside Front Cover

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    1. Temperature-Responsive Substrates: Adhesion and Mechanical Properties of PNIPAM Microgel Films and Their Potential Use as Switchable Cell Culture Substrates (Adv. Funct. Mater. 19/2010)

      Stephan Schmidt, Michael Zeiser, Thomas Hellweg, Claus Duschl, Andreas Fery and Helmuth Möhwald

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090084

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      The image presents self-assembled monolayers of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) particles, which are utilized as temperature-responsive cell culture substrates and allow convenient control over the adhesion of cells. Reduction of the temperature from 37 °C to 25 °C is sufficient to release adherent fibroblast cells. S. Schmitt and co-workers shed light on this favorable behavior in the article starting on page 3235, in which biologically relevant material properties of the particle film are determined via scanning force microscopy.

  3. Contents

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    1. Contents: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 19/2010) (pages 3187–3193)

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090085

  4. Correction

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    1. You have free access to this content
      Correction: Low-Temperature Superionic Conductivity in Strained Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (page 3194)

      Michael Sillassen, Per Eklund, Nini Pryds, Erik Johnson, Ulf Helmersson and Jørgen Bøttiger

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090088

      This article corrects:

      Low-Temperature Superionic Conductivity in Strained Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia

      Vol. 20, Issue 13, 2071–2076, Article first published online: 25 MAY 2010

  5. Frontispiece

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    1. Architecture of Supramolecular Soft Functional Materials: From Understanding to Micro-/Nanoscale Engineering

      Jing-Liang Li and Xiang-Yang Liu

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090086

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      Micro-/nanoscale engineering of supramolecular soft functional materials with three-dimensional fiber networks on the basis of the nucleation-growth mechanism enables the design of the micro-/nanofiber network structure with the desired properties of the materials. A comprehensive overview on the fundamentals and the engineering strategies is given together with plenty of examples.

  6. Feature Articles

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    1. Architecture of Supramolecular Soft Functional Materials: From Understanding to Micro-/Nanoscale Engineering (pages 3196–3216)

      Jing-Liang Li and Xiang-Yang Liu

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000744

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      Micro-/nanoscale engineering of supramolecular soft functional materials with three-dimensional fiber networks on the basis of the nucleation-growth mechanism enables the design of the micro-/nanofiber network structure with the desired properties of the materials. A comprehensive overview on the fundamentals and the engineering strategies is given together with plenty of examples.

    2. Volume Organization of Polymer and Hybrid Solar Cells as Revealed by Electron Tomography (pages 3217–3234)

      Svetlana S. van Bavel and Joachim Loos

      Article first published online: 3 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000745

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      Information on the local volume organization of the bulk heterojunction photoactive layer is a requisite for better understanding critical parameters influencing the (ultimate) performance of polymer and hybrid solar cell devices. Electron tomography is the advanced tool providing such volume data with nanometer resolution.

  7. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
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    10. Full Papers
    1. Adhesion and Mechanical Properties of PNIPAM Microgel Films and Their Potential Use as Switchable Cell Culture Substrates (pages 3235–3243)

      Stephan Schmidt, Michael Zeiser, Thomas Hellweg, Claus Duschl, Andreas Fery and Helmuth Möhwald

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000730

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      Thin films of thermoresponsive microgels are shown to allow controlled adhesion and detachment of cell via temperature stimulus. The key material variables of the microgel surface, i.e., degree of swelling, texture, elastic modulus and surface forces are analyzed as a function of temperature. The drastic change of these parameters upon temperature stimulus correlates with the cell response.

    2. Multicolor Tunable Emission from Organogels Containing Tetraphenylethene, Perylenediimide, and Spiropyran Derivatives (pages 3244–3251)

      Qun Chen, Deqing Zhang, Guanxin Zhang, Xingyuan Yang, Yu Feng, Qinghua Fan and Daoben Zhu

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000590

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      Gelation-induced fluorescence enhancement is observed for a gel based on the low-molecular weight gelator LMWG1, a dendron-substituted tetraphenylethene compound. The fluorescence of the gels with LMWG1 can be reversibly switched on and off by varying the temperature. Moreover, gels with multicolor emission can be prepared with LMWG1 by introducing either perylene diimide or spiropyran after light irradiations.

    3. Contact Angle Analysis During the Electro-oxidation of Self-Assembled Monolayers Formed by n-Octadecyltrichlorosilane (pages 3252–3259)

      Nicole Herzer, Jurriaan H. K. van Schaik, Stephanie Hoeppener and Ulrich S. Schubert

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000077

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      The electrochemical oxidation process of self-assembled monolayers formed by n-octadecyltrichlorosilane on silicon surfaces in a droplet of water has been studied by means of in situ water contact angle measurements. The chosen approach represents an easy way to screen the major parameters that influence the oxidation process. Furthermore, the oxidized regions are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, XPS measurements, and AFM investigations to obtain more information about the electro-oxidation process.

    4. High-Performance Carbon-LiMnPO4 Nanocomposite Cathode for Lithium Batteries (pages 3260–3265)

      Seung-Min Oh, Sung-Woo Oh, Chong-Seung Yoon, Bruno Scrosati, Khalil Amine and Yang-Kook Sun

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000469

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      The addition of acetylene black (AB) carbon to a nanostructured C-LiMnPO4 cathode material results in an extraordinary electrode material for a lithium cell with very high reversible capacity and an excellent cycle life. The composite can easily be made by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis followed by ball milling. Microscopic studies confirm that the carbon particles protect the cathode materials from dissolution.

    5. High Electromechanical Response of Ionic Polymer Actuators with Controlled-Morphology Aligned Carbon Nanotube/Nafion Nanocomposite Electrodes (pages 3266–3271)

      Sheng Liu, Yang Liu, Hülya Cebeci, Roberto Guzmán de Villoria, Jun-Hong Lin, Brian L. Wardle and Q. M. Zhang

      Article first published online: 20 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000570

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      Making use of unique properties of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) with ultrahigh volume fraction, an ionic polymer actuator with high electromechanical response under low operation voltage is developed. The high elastic anisotropy of the composite actuators, arising from the high modulus and alignment of the CNTs, further enhances actuation strain. Ion transport is greatly facilitated by the channels in the electrodes between the aligned CNTs.

    6. Uptake and Release of Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Mammalian Cells (pages 3272–3279)

      Vera Neves, Elena Heister, Sara Costa, Carmen Tîlmaciu, Ewa Borowiak-Palen, Cristina E. Giusca, Emmanuel Flahaut, Brigitte Soula, Helen M. Coley, Johnjoe McFadden and S. Ravi P. Silva

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000994

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      Efforts to develop carbon nanotubes as nano-vehicles for precise and controlled drug and gene delivery are hampered by uncertainties regarding their cellular uptake, fate and safety. Here, it is shown that, under standard transfection methods, nanotubes are taken up by cultured cells and then released after 24 h with no discernable stress response.

    7. High Breakdown Field Dielectric Elastomer Actuators Using Encapsulated Polyaniline as High Dielectric Constant Filler (pages 3280–3291)

      Martin Molberg, Daniel Crespy, Patrick Rupper, Frank Nüesch, Jan-Anders E. Månson, Christiane Löwe and Dorina M. Opris

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000486

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      In the field of dielectric elastomer actuators conductive particles are often used to increase the dielectric constant of the elastomers. However, such materials suffer from a low breakdown field due to agglomeration of the conductive particles (black line in left hand cartoon). The use of fillers prepared by the encapsulation of polyaniline into an insulating polymer shell (red shell around green particles in right hand cartoon) furnishes robust composites with high breakdown fields and increased dielectric constant.

    8. Inkjet-Printed Single-Droplet Organic Transistors Based on Semiconductor Nanowires Embedded in Insulating Polymers (pages 3292–3297)

      Jung Ah Lim, Joo-Hyun Kim, Longzhen Qiu, Wi Hyoung Lee, Hwa Sung Lee, Donghoon Kwak and Kilwon Cho

      Article first published online: 30 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000528

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      Inkjet-printed single-droplet organic transistors based on semiconductor nanowires embedded in insulating polymers are successfully demonstrated by controlling relative solubility of the semiconducting component in a blend solution. The efficient charge transport in the crystalline semiconductor nanowires and the encapsulation of these nanowires in insulating polymer matrix significantly improve the current–voltage characteristics and environmental stability of the printed transistors.

    9. Layer-by-Layer All-Inorganic Quantum-Dot-Based LEDs: A Simple Procedure with Robust Performance (pages 3298–3302)

      James S. Bendall, Marzia Paderi, Francesca Ghigliotti, Nello Li Pira, Vitoguido Lambertini, Vladimir Lesnyak, Nikolai Gaponik, Giuseppe Visimberga, Alexander Eychmüller, Clivia M. Sotomayor Torres, Mark E. Welland, Christina Gieck and Leonardo Marchese

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001191

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      A novel all-inorganic electroluminescent device is synthesized out of highly emitting nanoparticles incorporated into a laminar inorganic scaffold. The device can be synthesized in ambient conditions at room temperature using aqueous-based materials. The device shows luminescent stability over a wide temperature range and is expected to find use in harsh operating regimes.

    10. Contact-Killing Polyelectrolyte Microcapsules Based on Chitosan Derivatives (pages 3303–3312)

      Di Cui, Anna Szarpak, Isabelle Pignot-Paintrand, Annabelle Varrot, Thomas Boudou, Christophe Detrembleur, Christine Jérôme, Catherine Picart and Rachel Auzély-Velty

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000601

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      Antibacterial capsules: A new type of multilayer capsules is designed for use as antibacterial vehicles by taking advantage of the properties of natural polysaccharides. These capsules, prepared by layer-by-layer assembly of hyaluronic acid (HA; see graphic) and quaternized chitosan (QCHI) derivatives onto sacrificial colloidal particles, show distinct killing activities depending on the nature of the polysaccharide on the surface.

  8. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
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    1. Nanostructure and Optoelectronic Characterization of Small Molecule Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells by Photoconductive Atomic Force Microscopy

      Xuan-Dung Dang, Arnold B. Tamayo, Junghwa Seo, Corey V. Hoven, Bright Walker and Thuc-Quyen Nguyen

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090087

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      Photoconductive atomic force microscopy equipped with a light source is used to examine nanostructures and optoelectronic properties of diketopyrrolopyrrole-based bulk heterojunction solar cells at the nanoscale. Electron and hole collection networks corresponding to respective donor and acceptor phases can be visualized with nanometer resolution.

  9. Full Papers

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    1. Nanostructure and Optoelectronic Characterization of Small Molecule Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells by Photoconductive Atomic Force Microscopy (pages 3314–3321)

      Xuan-Dung Dang, Arnold B. Tamayo, Junghwa Seo, Corey V. Hoven, Bright Walker and Thuc-Quyen Nguyen

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000799

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      Photoconductive atomic force microscopy equipped with a light source is used to examine nanostructures and optoelectronic properties of diketopyrrolopyrrole-based bulk heterojunction solar cells at the nanoscale. Electron and hole collection networks corresponding to respective donor and acceptor phases can be visualized with nanometer resolution.

    2. High-Nanofiller-Content Graphene Oxide–Polymer Nanocomposites via Vacuum-Assisted Self-Assembly (pages 3322–3329)

      Karl W. Putz, Owen C. Compton, Marc J. Palmeri, SonBinh T. Nguyen and L. Catherine Brinson

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000723

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      Well-ordered graphene oxide–polymer nanocomposite papers with high nanofiller loading are fabricated via vacuum-assisted self-assembly. This process utilizes an inexpensive experimental setup to afford papers with widely varying nanofiller content (44–77 wt%) in relatively quick fashion (≈11 nm min−1). The mechanical properties of the nanocomposites are dependent on the type of intercalated polymer (PVA or PMMA) and are significantly improved over pure component films/papers.

    3. An Individual Carbon Nanotube Transistor Tuned by High Pressure (pages 3330–3335)

      Christophe Caillier, Anthony Ayari, Vincent Gouttenoire, Jean-Michel Benoit, Vincent Jourdain, Matthieu Picher, Matthieu Paillet, Sylvie Le Floch, Stephen T. Purcell, Jean-Louis Sauvajol and Alfonso San Miguel

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000398

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      A transistor based on an individual multiwalled carbon nanotube is studied under high pressure of up to 1 GPa. Dramatic effects are observed, such as the lowering of the Schottky barrier at the gold–nanotube contacts, the enhancement of the intertube conductance, including a discontinuity related to a structural transition, and the decrease of the gate hysteresis of the device.

    4. Formation of Nickel Oxide Nanotubes with Uniform Wall Thickness by Low-Temperature Thermal Oxidation Through Understanding the Limiting Effect of Vacancy Diffusion and the Kirkendall Phenomenon (pages 3336–3342)

      Yi Ren, Wai Kin Chim, Sing Yang Chiam, Jin Quan Huang, Can Pi and Ji Sheng Pan

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000498

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      The Kirkendall effect can be influenced by rapid vacancy diffusion, which cannot be easily bypassed in the oxidation of Ni nanowires, leading to the formation of NiO nanotubes with non-uniform wall thickness. Here, a step-wise oxidation process can be utilized, by combining low temperature oxidation with a chemical etching step, to produce NiO nanotubes with uniform wall thickness from Ni nanowires.

    5. Fabrication and Characterization of Superhydrophobic Surfaces with Dynamic Stability (pages 3343–3349)

      Xi Yao, Liang Xu and Lei Jiang

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000013

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      A new strategy for the fabrication and characterization of superhydrophobic surfaces of dynamic stability is reported. The hierarchical structures were obtained on both copper foils and wires by electrodeposition. An original test, mechanical monitor-assisted continuous water surface strokes, was set up to reveal the dynamic stability of the as-prepared superhydrophobic copper wires.

    6. Towards Efficient Dispersion of Carbon Nanotubes in Thermotropic Liquid Crystals (pages 3350–3357)

      Stefan Schymura, Martin Kühnast, Vanessa Lutz, Stefan Jagiella, Ursula Dettlaff-Weglikowska, Siegmar Roth, Frank Giesselmann, Carsten Tschierske, Giusy Scalia and Jan Lagerwall

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000539

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      The success in dispersing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in thermotropic liquid crystals (LCs) depends strongly on the type of LC used and on the details of the dispersion procedure. After optimization an LC can disperse CNTs at concentrations greater than the commonly used organic CNT solvent NMP.

    7. Non-Corrosive, Non-Absorbing Organic Redox Couple for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 3358–3365)

      Dongmei Li, Hong Li, Yanhong Luo, Kexin Li, Qingbo Meng, Michel Armand and Liquan Chen

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000150

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      A new colorless electrolyte containing the non-corrosive organic redox couple tetramethylthiourea (TMTU) and its oxidized dimer tetramethylformaminium disulfide dication ([TMFDS]2+) is applied to DSCs. This redox couple prefers carbon counter-electrodes to Pt electrodes. The DSC with the carbon electrode can reach 3.1% efficiency under AM 1.5 illumination of 100 mW cm−2 and 4.5% under weaker light intensities.

    8. Self-Assembled Graphene–Enzyme Hierarchical Nanostructures for Electrochemical Biosensing (pages 3366–3372)

      Qiong Zeng, Jinsheng Cheng, Longhua Tang, Xiaofei Liu, Yanzhe Liu, Jinghong Li and Jianhui Jiang

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000540

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      A simple method for assembling graphene sheets with HRP through electrostatic attraction into novel hierarchically ordered nanocomposites is described, and the enzyme electrode with good biocompatibility and excellent electrochemical catalytic performance to H2O2 is fabricated.

    9. Titanium Containing γ-MnO2 (TM) Hollow Spheres: One-Step Synthesis and Catalytic Activities in Li/Air Batteries and Oxidative Chemical Reactions (pages 3373–3382)

      Lei Jin, Linping Xu, Christine Morein, Chun-hu Chen, Monique Lai, Saminda Dharmarathna, Arthur Dobley and Steven L. Suib

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001080

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      Ti-containing γ-MnO2 (TM) hollow spheres are successfully synthesized by a simple co-precipitation method, and a self-transformation process by localized Ostwald ripening can explain the formation mechanism of hollow spheres. These TM hollow spheres provide strong electrocatalytic and oxidative catalytic activities in Li-air batteries and chemical oxidation reactions, respectively.

    10. High-Yield Synthesis and Electrochemical and Photovoltaic Properties of Indene-C70 Bisadduct (pages 3383–3389)

      Youjun He, Guangjin Zhao, Bo Peng and Yongfang Li

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001122

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      Indene-C70 bisadduct (IC70BA) is synthesized with high yield by [4+2] cycloaddition reaction between indene and C70. The best photovoltaic performance of the polymer solar cell based on P3HT as donor and IC70BA as acceptor shows a power conversion efficiency of 5.79% with a Voc of 0.81 V, Isc of 11.34 mA cm−2, and a FF of 0.63, under the illumination of AM1.5G, 100 mW cm−2.

    11. Hierarchical ZnS-In2S3-CuS Nanospheres with Nanoporous Structure: Facile Synthesis, Growth Mechanism, and Excellent Photocatalytic Activity (pages 3390–3398)

      Yingxuan Li, Gang Chen, Qun Wang, Xu Wang, Ankun Zhou and Zaoyu Shen

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000604

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      Novel hierarchical ZnS-In2S3-CuS nanospheres with nanoporous structure are synthesized on a large scale via a facile self-assembly route in the absence of any templates or surfactants. In the shell, many nanocrystallites are readily attached to straight nanorods by a lateral oriented attachment mechanism. The nanorods play an important role in the photocatalytic performance of the solid solutions.

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