Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 20 Issue 2

January 22, 2010

Volume 20, Issue 2

Pages 179–346

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correspondence
    6. Feature Article
    7. Full Papers
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. Silicon Microstructures: Detachment Lithography of Photosensitive Polymers: A Route to Fabricating Three-Dimensional Structures (Adv. Funct. Mater. 2/2010)

      Junghoon Yeom and Mark A. Shannon

      Article first published online: 13 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090000

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The scanning electron microscope image featured on the front cover shows a three-dimensional polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) molded film bonded on a glass rod. Multilevel silicon structures used to mold the PDMS film were fabricated from successive steps of detachment lithography of photoresist films, which are patterned with lithography and reactive ion etching, as reported by J. Yeom and M. A. Shannon on page 289. The smallest feature on the pyramid is 2 µm in diameter.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correspondence
    6. Feature Article
    7. Full Papers
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. Antibacterial Coatings: Genetically Engineered Phage Fibers and Coatings for Antibacterial Applications (Adv. Funct. Mater. 2/2010)

      Joan Y. Mao, Angela M. Belcher and Krystyn J. Van Vliet

      Article first published online: 13 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090001

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Genetic manipulation of viruses can be used to fabricate antibacterial fibers and coatings comprising crosslinked M13 bacteriophages, which are modified to bind silver ions. On page 209, Krystyn Van Vliet and co-workers demonstrate the bactericidal effects of such silverized phage fibers against several types of bacterial challenges including those potentially arising from use as wound dressings or antibacterial textiles.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correspondence
    6. Feature Article
    7. Full Papers
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. Contents: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 2/2010) (pages 179–184)

      Article first published online: 13 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090002

  4. Correspondence

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correspondence
    6. Feature Article
    7. Full Papers
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
  5. Feature Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correspondence
    6. Feature Article
    7. Full Papers
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. Advances and Applications of Biodegradable Elastomers in Regenerative Medicine (pages 192–208)

      Maria Concepcion Serrano, Eun Ji Chung and Guillermo. A. Ameer

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901040

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      Elastomers are playing an increasingly important role in regenerative medicine due to their versatility. In this paper, biodegradable synthetic polyester elastomers reported in the literature are discussed, with special emphasis on those used in vivo. Scaffolds may use aligned nanofibers or random macroscopic and microscopic pores (upper left and right, respectively). Applications discussed include heart valve (lower left) and blood vessel replacements (lower right).

  6. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correspondence
    6. Feature Article
    7. Full Papers
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. Genetically Engineered Phage Fibers and Coatings for Antibacterial Applications (pages 209–214)

      Joan Y. Mao, Angela M. Belcher and Krystyn J. Van Vliet

      Article first published online: 21 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900782

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The facile genetic manipulation of viruses is used to create antibacterial fibers and coatings comprising crosslinked M13 bacteriophages, which are modified to bind silver ions, resulting upon reduction in >600 ng cm−1 Ag on pure phage fibers and 100 ng cm−1 Ag on phage-coated Kevlar fibers. The bactericidal effects of silverized phage fibers is demonstrated against several types of bacterial challenges.

    2. Atomic Structure and Electrical Properties of In(Te) Nanocontacts on CdZnTe(110) by Scanning Probe Microscopy (pages 215–223)

      Gili Cohen-Taguri, Ori Sinkevich, Mario Levinshtein, Arie Ruzin and Ilan Goldfarb

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900812

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      The importance of cadmium zinc telluride in a number of scientific applications is due to its high gamma-ray absorption coefficient and high electrical resistivity. However, despite its widespread use, the surface science of CdZnTe has not been well explored. Here, the formation of indium contacts on a CdZnTe surface, and the resultant electrical properties, are explored, using advanced methods for characterization of nanoscale contact systems.

    3. Controllable Shifts in Threshold Voltage of Top-Gate Polymer Field-Effect Transistors for Applications in Organic Nano Floating Gate Memory (pages 224–230)

      Kang-Jun Baeg, Yong-Young Noh, Henning Sirringhaus and Dong-Yu Kim

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901677

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      Solution-processed top-gate field-effect transistor (FET) memory with incorporated Au nanoparticles (NPs) in double-layered polymer gate dielectrics is fabricated using PS, cross-linked PVP, and poly[9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl]-co-(bithiophene)] (F8T2). The threshold voltage is reversibly and systemically controlled by application of appropriate gate biases, which mainly originates from negative charge trapping in the Au NPs. This could be utilized as a key element in organic flash memory.

    4. Chemical Bonding Assembly of Multifunctional Oxide Nanocomposites (pages 231–238)

      Gary Evans, Giap V. Duong, Michael J. Ingleson, Zhongling Xu, James T. A. Jones, Yaroslav Z. Khimyak, John B. Claridge and Matthew J. Rosseinsky

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901632

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      Targeted nanoparticle assembly: multifunctional ceramics are constructed from functionalized nanoparticle building blocks in a controlled manner. The materials show magnetoelectric coupling at room temperature and a high degree of homogeneity between the ferroelectric barium titanate and ferromagnetic cobalt ferrite nanoparticles within the ceramic. The developed experimental protocols are adaptable to the development of hybrid nanomaterials with different property combinations.

    5. Polymer Field-Effect Transistors Fabricated by the Sequential Gravure Printing of Polythiophene, Two Insulator Layers, and a Metal Ink Gate (pages 239–246)

      Monika M. Voigt, Alexander Guite, Dae-Young Chung, Rizwan U. A. Khan, Alasdair J. Campbell, Donal D. C. Bradley, Fanshun Meng, Joachim H. G. Steinke, Steve Tierney, Iain McCulloch, Huguette Penxten, Laurence Lutsen, Olivier Douheret, Jean Manca, Ulrike Brokmann, Karin Sönnichsen, Dagmar Hülsenberg, Wolfgang Bock, Cecile Barron, Nicolas Blanckaert, Simon Springer, Joachim Grupp and Alan Mosley

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901597

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Using the ultrahigh-volume technique of gravure contact printing, the principal components of organic electronics (semiconductor, insulator, conductor) are deposited, fabricating state-of-the-art polymer field-effect transistors. The window of printing parameters, such as molecular weight, solvent dependency, viscosity, and shear behavior, are identified; and the resolution limit of gravure is pushed down to 20 µm.

    6. Time Controlled Protein Release from Layer-by-Layer Assembled Multilayer Functionalized Agarose Hydrogels (pages 247–258)

      Sumit Mehrotra, Daniel Lynam, Ryan Maloney, Kendell M. Pawelec, Mark H. Tuszynski, Ilsoon Lee, Christina Chan and Jeffrey Sakamoto

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901172

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      Hydrogen bonded layer-by-layer hybrid thin films of poly(ethylene glycol)(PEG)/poly(acrylic acid)(PAA)/protein, when prepared over agarose hydrogel, provide sustained release of protein under physiological conditions for more than four weeks. Agarose porosity and multilayer degradation kinetics both govern the protein release. After a sufficient number of bilayers, thin films are formed onto surface of agarose, as characterized by confocal and scanning electron microscopy.

      Corrected by:

      Correction: Time Controlled Protein Release from Layer-by-Layer Assembled Multilayer Functionalized Agarose Hydrogels

      Vol. 20, Issue 6, Article first published online: 4 NOV 2010

    7. Porous Polymer Films with Gradient-Refractive-Index Structure for Broadband and Omnidirectional Antireflection Coatings (pages 259–265)

      Xiao Li, Junpeng Gao, Longjian Xue and Yanchun Han

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901052

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      An extraordinarily high transmittance (>97%) of both visible and near-infrared light is obtained in films containing gradient-refractive-index structures (see figure). The simple fabrication method consists of the spin-coating of a (PS-b-PMMA)/PMMA blend onto an octadecyltrichlorosilane-modified glass substrate. Antireflectivity is obtained in the whole spectral range above for a wide range of incident angles. The films also retain true-color reproduction.

    8. p–n-Junction-Based Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 266–271)

      Liping Heng, Xinyi Wang, Nailiang Yang, Jin Zhai, Meixiang Wan and Lei Jiang

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901671

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) (see figure) with a novel structure are fabricated using a flexible CuI/Cu mesh (bottom figure). The DSSC contains a p–n junction formed by the CuI layer and the TiO2 layer and provides a single direction conductive pathway that benefits the separation of the holes and electrons, so as to improve the efficiency of the cell up to 4.73% under 1 sun illumination.

    9. White Electroluminescence by Supramolecular Control of Energy Transfer in Blends of Organic-Soluble Encapsulated Polyfluorenes (pages 272–280)

      Sergio Brovelli, Francesco Meinardi, Gustaf Winroth, Oliver Fenwick, Giuseppe Sforazzini, Michael J. Frampton, Leszek Zalewski, James A. Levitt, Francesco Marinello, Piero Schiavuta, Klaus Suhling, Harry L. Anderson and Franco Cacialli

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901764

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      It is demonstrated that energy transfer in a blend of semiconducting polymers can be strongly reduced by non-covalent encapsulation of one constituent, ensured by threading of the conjugated strands into functionalized cyclodextrins, thus enabling fabrication of white light-emitting diodes (CIE coordinates: x = 0.282, y = 0.336). Morphological and compositional analyses by atomic force microscopy, fluorescence mapping, µ-Raman, and fluorescence lifetime microscopy of the novel blend are presented.

  7. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correspondence
    6. Feature Article
    7. Full Papers
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. (Adv. Funct. Mater. 2/2010)

      Article first published online: 13 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090003

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract
  8. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correspondence
    6. Feature Article
    7. Full Papers
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. Conformal Nano-Sized Inorganic Coatings on Mesoporous TiO2 Films for Low-Temperature Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Fabrication (pages 282–288)

      Larissa Grinis, Sveta Kotlyar, Sven Rühle, Judith Grinblat and Arie Zaban

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901717

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Amorphous inorganic coatings prepared by sol–gel electrophoretic deposition on non-sintered mesoporous TiO2 electrodes used in dye-sensitized solar cells drastically improve the light-to-electric-power conversion efficiency (see figure). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals the extraordinary quality of the coatings with which efficiencies of up to 6.2% can be reached for cells entirely fabricated at temperatures ≤150 °C.

    2. Detachment Lithography of Photosensitive Polymers: A Route to Fabricating Three-Dimensional Structures (pages 289–295)

      Junghoon Yeom and Mark A. Shannon

      Article first published online: 23 OCT 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900686

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Three-dimensional structures of silicon and glass are created using a detachment-based lithography technique for patterning photosensitive polymers onto a flat PDMS stamp and the successful transfer of detached patterns onto planar and curved substrates. The pattern formation through detachment is characterized by interfacial adhesions, film cohesion, and interfacial geometries.

    3. Hydrophilic Sparse Ionic Monolayer-Protected Metal Nanoparticles: Highly Concentrated Nano-Au and Nano-Ag “Inks” that can be Sintered to Near-Bulk Conductivity at 150 °C (pages 296–303)

      Bibin T. Anto, Sankaran Sivaramakrishnan, Lay-Lay Chua and Peter K. H. Ho

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901336

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A new concept of a sparse ionic protection monolayer is reported to prepare printable gold and silver nanometal inks that are extremely dispersible in practical printing solvents and which can convert to near bulk conductivity at about 150 °C. Detailed measurements show that the conversion temperature is set by the stability of the protection shell, and not by any thermodynamic size effect.

    4. Tuning the Optoelectronic Properties of Carbazole/Oxadiazole Hybrids through Linkage Modes: Hosts for Highly Efficient Green Electrophosphorescence (pages 304–311)

      Youtian Tao, Qiang Wang, Chuluo Yang, Cheng Zhong, Kai Zhang, Jingui Qin and Dongge Ma

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901615

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      A series of simple carbazole/oxadiazole hybrids are designed and synthesized through different linkages between the electronic donor and acceptor components. The relationship between their structures and optoelectronic properties is investigated experimentally and theoretically. Good-to-excellent performance of green electrophosphorescence can be achieved by using 14 as the hosts.

    5. High-Performance Alkaline Polymer Electrolyte for Fuel Cell Applications (pages 312–319)

      Jing Pan, Shanfu Lu, Yan Li, Aibin Huang, Lin Zhuang and Juntao Lu

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901314

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      Alkaline polymer electrolytes (APEs) have long been a dream of electrochemists and electrochemical engineers because they are the key, but so far commercially unavailable, material for realizing low-cost electrochemical devices such as fuel cells, electrolyzers, and sensors. Here, the synthesis and physicochemical properties of a class of APEs, quaternary ammonia polysulfone (QAPS) are reported (see figure), which feature high ionic conductivity, high chemical and thermal stability, and good mechanical performance. Their application to fuel cells is also demonstrated.

    6. Guanine-Based Biogenic Photonic-Crystal Arrays in Fish and Spiders (pages 320–329)

      Avital Levy-Lior, Eyal Shimoni, Osip Schwartz, Efrat Gavish-Regev, Dan Oron, Geoff Oxford, Steve Weiner and Lia Addadi

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901437

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Structural colors evolved by fish and spiders may be iridescent, as in the fish scale (left of image), and silver spider (center of image) or matt white spider (right of image). The color depends on whether the guanine crystals are plate-like and regularly spaced, forming photonic crystal arrays, or prismatic and irregular, giving rise to light scattering. Here these different effects are examined, and some explanation of their properties is given.

    7. An Organic Nanoparticle Transistor Behaving as a Biological Spiking Synapse (pages 330–337)

      Fabien Alibart, Stéphane Pleutin, David Guérin, Christophe Novembre, Stéphane Lenfant, Kamal Lmimouni, Christian Gamrat and Dominique Vuillaume

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901335

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      A hybrid nanoparticle–organic device, termed a NOMFET (nanoparticle organic memory field effect transistor), that mimics the behavior of a biological spiking synapse is developed as a nanocomputing building block with acquired behavior. Charges in the nanoparticles play the role of the neurotransmitters. The NOMFET reproduces the short-term plasticity of a spiking synapse and can be programmed to work as a facilitating or depressing synapse.

    8. Near IR Sensitization of Organic Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: Towards Optimization of the Spectral Response of Organic Solar Cells (pages 338–346)

      Markus Koppe, Hans-Joachim Egelhaaf, Gilles Dennler, Markus C. Scharber, Christoph J. Brabec, Pavel Schilinsky and Claudia N. Hoth

      Article first published online: 14 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901473

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      The spectroscopic response of a P3HT/PCBM-based bulk-heterojunction solar cell is extended into the near infrared region of the spectrum by adding the low bandgap polymer poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b´]-dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PCPDTBT) to the blend. The dominant photoinduced charge transfer mechanisms are studied.

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