Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 20 Issue 3

February 8, 2010

Volume 20, Issue 3

Pages 351–515

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Full Papers
    1. Ultraviolet Sensors: An Efficient Way to Assemble ZnS Nanobelts as Ultraviolet-Light Sensors with Enhanced Photocurrent and Stability (Adv. Funct. Mater. 3/2010)

      Xiaosheng Fang, Yoshio Bando, Meiyong Liao, Tianyou Zhai, Ujjal K. Gautam, Liang Li, Yasuo Koide and Dmitri Golberg

      Version of Record online: 27 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090004

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      On page 500, Xiaosheng Fang and co-workers demonstrate the successful development of high-performance “visible-blind” microscale ZnS nanobelt-based ultraviolet (UV) light sensors through a newly developed non-lithographic method. Such sensors may prove extremely useful for the detection of harmful near-visible-wavelength UV radiation, of particular interest in locations where the shielding effect of the Earth's atmosphere is deteriorating.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Full Papers
    1. Solar Cell Blends: High-Resolution Spectroscopic Mapping of the Chemical Contrast from Nanometer Domains in P3HT:PCBM Organic Blend Films for Solar-Cell Applications (Adv. Funct. Mater. 3/2010)

      Xiao Wang, Dai Zhang, Kai Braun, Hans-Joachim Egelhaaf, Christoph J. Brabec and Alfred J. Meixner

      Version of Record online: 27 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090005

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      The inside cover image presents a near-field spectroscopic map of a P3HT:PCBM solar cell blend film obtaining using a parabolic-mirror-assisted optical microscope. This technique allows for simultaneous recording of both morphological and spectroscopic information, and on page 492 Xiao Wang et al. use it to investigate local molecular distribution, photoluminescence quenching efficiency, and other key properties of the P3HT:PCBM blend film.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Full Papers
  4. Feature Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Full Papers
    1. Enhancement of Thermoelectric Figure-of-Merit by a Bulk Nanostructuring Approach (pages 357–376)

      Yucheng Lan, Austin Jerome Minnich, Gang Chen and Zhifeng Ren

      Version of Record online: 15 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901512

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      A significant ZT improvement has been achieved in nanostructured thermoelectric bulk materials. Thermoelectric transport measurements, coupled with microstructure studies, show that the ZT improvement is the result of low lattice thermal conductivity due to increased phonon scattering. In this article, the synthesis process and the relationship between the microstructures and the thermoelectric properties of the nanostructured thermoelectric bulk materials with an enhanced ZT value are reviewed.

  5. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Full Papers
    1. Brookite Formation in TiO2[BOND]Ag Nanocomposites and Visible-Light-Induced Templated Growth of Ag Nanostructures in TiO2 (pages 377–385)

      Mohammed Es-Souni, Martha Es-Souni, Salah Habouti, Nicole Pfeiffer, Abdelilah Lahmar, Matthias Dietze and Claus-Henning Solterbeck

      Version of Record online: 14 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900498

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      Self-organized faceted silver nanoparticles and nanorods with various sizes are obtained via photoreduction of TiO2–AgxO-nanocomposite coatings using visible light. The nanorods are templated by the TiO2 porous network. Any structure can be “written” on the surface using appropriate masks. One of the many applications of these coating, as SERS substrates, is shown.

    2. Orientation Control of Linear-Shaped Molecules in Vacuum-Deposited Organic Amorphous Films and Its Effect on Carrier Mobilities (pages 386–391)

      Daisuke Yokoyama, Yousuke Setoguchi, Akio Sakaguchi, Michio Suzuki and Chihaya Adachi

      Version of Record online: 4 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901684

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      The molecular orientation of linear-shaped molecules in organic amorphous films, which can be controlled by the substrate temperature, affects the charge transport characteristics of the films. The carrier mobilities in films with random orientation is lower than those in films with horizontal orientation (see figure), demonstrating the significant effect of molecular orientation on the charge-transport characteristics of organic amorphous films.

    3. Enzyme-Based Nanoscale Composites for Use as Active Decontamination Surfaces (pages 392–398)

      Cerasela Zoica Dinu, Guangyu Zhu, Shyam Sundhar Bale, Gaurav Anand, Philippa J. Reeder, Karl Sanford, Gregg Whited, Ravi S. Kane and Jonathan S. Dordick

      Version of Record online: 15 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901388

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      Perhydrolase AcT is immobilized onto multiwalled carbon nanotubes using a PEG linker and covalent binding. The resulting AcT–nanotube conjugates are incorporated into polymeric or paint materials to lead to bioactive composites. The biocomposites can generate peracetic acid to be used for decontamination.

    4. Charge-Transporting Polymers based on Phenylbenzoimidazole Moieties (pages 399–408)

      Marc Debeaux, Manuel W. Thesen, Daniel Schneidenbach, Henning Hopf, Silvia Janietz, Hartmut Krüger, Armin Wedel, Wolfgang Kowalsky and Hans-Hermann Johannes

      Version of Record online: 4 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901590

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      Charge-transporting side-chain polymers based on phenylbenzoimidazole moieties derived from the star-shaped material TPBI are presented. They exhibit high glass-transition temperatures and form stable amorphous films. The application of these promising polymers as matrices in polymeric light-emitting diodes is demonstrated in efficient single-layer devices with low turn-on voltages.

    5. Multifunctional Dendrimer-Templated Antibody Presentation on Biosensor Surfaces for Improved Biomarker Detection (pages 409–421)

      Hye Jung Han, Rangaramanujam M. Kannan, Sunxi Wang, Guangzhao Mao, Juan Pedro Kusanovic and Roberto Romero

      Version of Record online: 4 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901293

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      A dendrimer-based capture strategy for improved biomarker detection is developed; it is validated by its use as a solid phase for an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β in human serum. The dendrimer-modified plate provided assays with enhanced sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, with an IL-6 detection limit of 0.13 pg mL−1. This improved capture approach could be expanded for the detection of a wide range of biomarkers.

    6. Compact and Light Supercapacitor Electrodes from a Surface-Only Solid by Opened Carbon Nanotubes with 2 200 m2 g−1 Surface Area (pages 422–428)

      Tatsuki Hiraoka, Ali Izadi-Najafabadi, Takeo Yamada, Don N. Futaba, Satoshi Yasuda, Osamu Tanaike, Hiroaki Hatori, Motoo Yumura, Sumio Iijima and Kenji Hata

      Version of Record online: 28 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901927

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      A “surface-only solid” with a surface area of 2 240 m2 g−1 (1 310 m2 cm−3) is made from opened single-walled carbon nanotubes. The surface-only solid is an ideal electrode to realize a light and compact supercapacitor with high energy (24.7 W h kg−1) and power (98.9 kW kg−1) densities, exceeding those of conventional electrodes such as activated carbon (see image).

    7. Highly Extensible Bio-Nanocomposite Films with Direction-Dependent Properties (pages 429–436)

      Akhilesh K. Gaharwar, Patrick Schexnailder, Vikas Kaul, Ozan Akkus, Dmitri Zakharov, Soenke Seifert and Gudrun Schmidt

      Version of Record online: 4 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901606

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      Bio-nanocomposite films are made from poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) that is physically cross-linked with silicate nanoparticles, Laponite. Mechanical deformation of silicate cross-linked PEO results in highly extensible bio-nanocomposite materials with a preferred orientation and restructuring at the nano-and micrometer scales.

    8. Polydisperse Spindle-Shaped ZnO Particles with Their Packing Micropores in the Photoanode for Highly Efficient Quasi-Solid Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 437–444)

      Yantao Shi, Chun Zhan, Liduo Wang, Beibei Ma, Rui Gao, Yifeng Zhu and Yong Qiu

      Version of Record online: 4 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901318

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      Through a direct precipitation method, polydisperse ZnO spindle-shaped particles are prepared and shown to be very effective in packing into a hierarchically structured porous film. Conversion efficiencies of 4.0% and 7.0% under 100 and 30 mW cm−2 illumination, respectively, are achieved with a quasi-solid dye-sensitized solar cell incorporating the ZnO film and a highly viscous polymer gel electrolyte.

    9. Thiophene–Benzothiadiazole Co-Oligomers: Synthesis, Optoelectronic Properties, Electrical Characterization, and Thin-Film Patterning (pages 445–452)

      Manuela Melucci, Laura Favaretto, Alberto Zanelli, Massimiliano Cavallini, Alessandro Bongini, Piera Maccagnani, Paolo Ostoja, Gwennaelle Derue, Roberto Lazzaroni and Giovanna Barbarella

      Version of Record online: 7 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901424

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      The effect of size, alternation type, and alkyl substitution motifs on the electronic, self-organization, and electrical properties of newly synthesized thiophene (T) and benzothiadiazole (B) co-oligomers is studied. Insertion of more than a single B ring induces only minor changes in electronic properties but results in higher hole-charge transport in FET configuration. Fine control of structural order in thin deposits of highly soluble cyclohexyl substituted pentamers and heptamers was achieved by nanorubbing and the micro molding in capillaries (MIMIC) technique.

    10. A Graphene Nanoprobe for Rapid, Sensitive, and Multicolor Fluorescent DNA Analysis (pages 453–459)

      Shijiang He, Bo Song, Di Li, Changfeng Zhu, Wenpeng Qi, Yanqin Wen, Lihua Wang, Shiping Song, Haiping Fang and Chunhai Fan

      Version of Record online: 4 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901639

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      A graphene oxide (GO)-based multicolor fluorescent DNA nanoprobe is reported; it allows rapid, sensitive, and selective detection of DNA targets in homogeneous solution based on interactions between GO and DNA molecules. The large planar surface of GO allows simultaneous quenching of multiple DNA probes labeled with different dyes, leading to a multicolor DNA sensor.

    11. Reactive Imprint Lithography: Combined Topographical Patterning and Chemical Surface Functionalization of Polystyrene-block-poly(tert-butyl acrylate) Films (pages 460–468)

      Joost Duvigneau, Stijn Cornelissen, Núria Bardají Valls, Holger Schönherr and G. Julius Vancso

      Version of Record online: 28 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901736

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      Reactive imprint lithography is introduced as a new lithographic tool for the fabrication of large-area, patterned, chemically activated polymer platforms in one step. Polystyrene-block-poly(tert-butyl acrylate) polymer films are imprinted at temperatures well above the thermal deprotection temperature of the tert-butyl ester to yield topographically structured films with exposed carboxylic acid and anhydride groups for bioconjugation.

    12. Functionalized Self-Assembled InAs/GaAs Quantum-Dot Structures Hybridized with Organic Molecules (pages 469–475)

      Miaoxiang Chen, Kazufumi Kobashi, Bo Chen, Meng Lu and James M. Tour

      Version of Record online: 4 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901234

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      Hybrid organic molecule–quantum-dot (QD) systems are formed by grafting diazonium salts onto self-assembled immobile InAs/GaAs QD surfaces. An enhancement in photoluminescence intensity by a factor of 3.3 from the buried InAs QDs is achieved (see figure). Moreover, for the first time narrow photoluminescence at room temperature peaking at 1620 nm with a linewidth of 49 meV is observed from the surface InAs QDs.

    13. High-Temperature Contact Formation on n-Type Silicon: Basic Reactions and Contact Model for Seed-Layer Contacts (pages 476–484)

      Matthias Hörteis, Tobias Gutberlet, Armin Reller and Stefan W. Glunz

      Version of Record online: 16 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901305

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      The quality of a silver contact on n-type silicon is determined by small silver crystallites, which are formed during a high-temperature step. In this paper, the contact formation is explained through systematic analysis of the reactions of the individual ink components with silicon. Their specific function is highlighted and finally a silver ink is developed and optimized for contact formation on crystalline-silicon solar cells.

    14. A Novel Cathode Material with a Concentration-Gradient for High-Energy and Safe Lithium-Ion Batteries (pages 485–491)

      Yang-Kook Sun, Dong-Hui Kim, Chong Seung Yoon, Seung-Taek Myung, Jai Prakash and Khalil Amine

      Version of Record online: 4 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901730

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      A novel high-energy functional cathode material with an average composition of Li[Ni0.72Co0.18Mn0.10] O2, mainly comprising a core material Li[Ni0.8Co0.2] O2 encapsulated completely within a stable manganese-rich concentration-gradient shell was successfully synthesized. This material shows very a high reversible capacity of 193 mA h g−1 as well as excellent cycling and thermal stability.

    15. High-Resolution Spectroscopic Mapping of the Chemical Contrast from Nanometer Domains in P3HT:PCBM Organic Blend Films for Solar-Cell Applications (pages 492–499)

      Xiao Wang, Dai Zhang, Kai Braun, Hans-Joachim Egelhaaf, Christoph J. Brabec and Alfred J. Meixner

      Version of Record online: 15 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901930

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      Confocal and near-field spectroscopic mapping techniques are used (see figure) to investigate the interplay between morphology, molecular distribution, and photoluminescence (PL) quenching efficiencies in P3HT:PCBM blend films that have been annealed at 140 °C for different times. The relevant photophysical information from the blend solar cell films with 10-nm optical resolution is discussed.

    16. An Efficient Way to Assemble ZnS Nanobelts as Ultraviolet-Light Sensors with Enhanced Photocurrent and Stability (pages 500–508)

      Xiaosheng Fang, Yoshio Bando, Meiyong Liao, Tianyou Zhai, Ujjal K. Gautam, Liang Li, Yasuo Koide and Dmitri Golberg

      Version of Record online: 7 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901878

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      An effective and low-cost method to achieve high-performance ‘visible-blind’ micrometer-scale ZnS nanobelt-based ultraviolet-light sensors is successfully developed through enlarging the surface area of the nanobelt exposed to light without using any lithography techniques. The devices exhibit super enhancement of photocurrent compared with individual nanobelt-based sensors and an ultrafast time response (see figure). This work opens up a new avenue for the facile commercialization of nanostructure-based photodetectors.

    17. Improved-Performance Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Nb-Doped TiO2 Electrodes: Efficient Electron Injection and Transfer (pages 509–515)

      Xujie Lü, Xinliang Mou, Jianjun Wu, Dingwen Zhang, Linlin Zhang, Fuqiang Huang, Fangfang Xu and Sumei Huang

      Version of Record online: 5 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901292

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      Well-crystallized Nb-doped anatase TiO2 nanoparticles are prepared by a novel synthetic route and used as the photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells. The homogenous distribution of Nb in the TiO2 lattice is confirmed by STEM analysis. The energy conversion efficiency is improved by 18.2% after Nb-doping, and the as-prepared Nb-doped TiO2 is proved in detail to be a better photoanode material than pure TiO2 (see figure).

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