Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 20 Issue 4

February 22, 2010

Volume 20, Issue 4

Pages 523–685

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Full Papers
    1. Carbon Nanotube Composites: Hierarchical Composites of Single/Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Interlinked Flakes from Direct Carbon Deposition on Layered Double Hydroxides (Adv. Funct. Mater. 4/2010)

      Meng-Qiang Zhao, Qiang Zhang, Xi-Lai Jia, Jia-Qi Huang, Ying-Hao Zhang and Fei Wei

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090007

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      On page 677, M. Q. Zhao et al. report the fabrication of a hierarchical composite combining one-dimensional single/double walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and two-dimensional flakes through direct carbon deposition on layered double hydroxides. The composites can be easily transformed into continuously interlinked CNT layers alternating with calcined lamellar flakes structure. They are found to have the potential for applications in a number or areas, including as an excellent filler for strong polyimide film.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Full Papers
    1. Surface Plasmonics: Plasmonic Crystals: A Platform to Catalog Resonances from Ultraviolet to Near-Infrared Wavelengths in a Plasmonic Library (Adv. Funct. Mater. 4/2010)

      Hanwei Gao, Wei Zhou and Teri W. Odom

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090008

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      Research in the field of surface plasmonics is finding application in many areas; for example, in data storage, nano-electronics, and biosensing. In their feature article on page 529, H. Gao et al. describe recent progress in manipulating surface plasmons from the ultraviolet to near-infrared wavelengths using nanostructured plasmonic crystals (shown in the cover image), and build a comprehensive library of plasmonic resonances, bringing together for the first time the resonance characteristics of key plasmonic materials.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Full Papers
    1. Contents: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 4/2010) (pages 523–528)

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090009

  4. Feature Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Full Papers
    1. Plasmonic Crystals: A Platform to Catalog Resonances from Ultraviolet to Near-Infrared Wavelengths in a Plasmonic Library (pages 529–539)

      Hanwei Gao, Wei Zhou and Teri W. Odom

      Article first published online: 4 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901623

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      A new plasmon-resonance library for on demand identification of specific resonance wavelengths with desired widths for application in, for example, sensing, data storage, and imaging, is reported in this feature article. A large-area, nanopyramidal grating template is developed (see figure), and the authors describe how this can be used in the side-by-side comparison of a range of plasmonic materials.

  5. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Full Papers
    1. Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Nanorods with Aligned Chain Orientation for Organic Photovoltaics (pages 540–545)

      Jong Soo Kim, Yunmin Park, Dong Yun Lee, Ji Hwang Lee, Jong Hwan Park, Jin Kon Kim and Kilwon Cho

      Article first published online: 11 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901760

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      The contact area between donor (poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT) and acceptor (C60) and the degree of P3HT molecular orientation are increased by use of an anodic aluminum oxide template. The cell consisting of P3HT nanorods and C60 shows much lower levels of photoluminescence emission than does the planar bilayer P3HT/C60 cell, and yields a dramatic increase in photovoltaic performance.

    2. Tailored Plasmonic Gratings for Enhanced Fluorescence Detection and Microscopic Imaging (pages 546–553)

      Xiaoqiang Cui, Keiko Tawa, Hironobu Hori and Junji Nishii

      Article first published online: 19 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901401

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      Plasmonic silver gratings perform significant fluorescence enhancement from the excited electric field by grating-coupled surface plasmon resonance and have a wide potential range of applications in fluorescence imaging using general epifluorescence upright microscopes.

    3. High K Capacitors and OFET Gate Dielectrics from Self-Assembled BaTiO3 and (Ba,Sr)TiO3 Nanocrystals in the Superparaelectric Limit (pages 554–560)

      Limin Huang, Zhang Jia, Ioannis Kymissis and Stephen O'Brien

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901258

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      Individual, highly crystalline BaTiO3 and (Ba,Sr)TiO3 superparaelectric nanocrystals with good size tunability and dispersibility are produced using solvothermal synthesis. They can be used as building blocks for low-temperature evaporative driven self-assembly (<60 °C) of high k dielectric thin films for capacitors and gate dielectrics in flexible organic field-effect transistors.

    4. Blue Luminescence of ZnO Nanoparticles Based on Non-Equilibrium Processes: Defect Origins and Emission Controls (pages 561–572)

      Haibo Zeng, Guotao Duan, Yue Li, Shikuan Yang, Xiaoxia Xu and Weiping Cai

      Article first published online: 11 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901884

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      Blue luminescences of ZnO nanoparticles are comprehensively analyzed by excitation-dependent photoluminescence spectra, excitation spectra, and electron paramagnetic resonance. The mechanisms of blue emissions of ZnO are proposed with Zni-related defect levels as initial states. Furthermore, good controllability of visible emissions is achieved, including the co-emitting of blue and green emissions, and the peak adjustment from blue to yellow.

    5. Integration of a Chemical-Responsive Hydrogel into a Porous Silicon Photonic Sensor for Visual Colorimetric Readout (pages 573–578)

      Lisa M. Bonanno and Lisa A. DeLouise

      Article first published online: 19 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901694

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      Using a hybrid chemical-responsive hydrogel–porous Si photonic sensor, optical detection is achieved. Addition of the target analyte (TCEP) breaks disulfide cross-links in the hydrogel (S-S-coPAAm) causing a decrease in refractive index (equation image) that is optically detected by blue-shifts in the reflectance spectrum. Addition of sufficient TCEP results in gel dissolution and large enough shifts in reflected light, such that the color changes are observed by the eye.

    6. Dual Stimuli-Responsive Supramolecular Polypeptide-Based Hydrogel and Reverse Micellar Hydrogel Mediated by Host–Guest Chemistry (pages 579–586)

      Yi Chen, Xiao-Hui Pang and Chang-Ming Dong

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901400

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      Responsive supramolecular hydrogels and reverse micellar hydrogels are fabricated from the same polypeptide-based copolymer via the cooperation of host–guest chemistry and hydrogen-bonding interactions (see figure). These hydrogels have dual stimuli-responsive (temperature and pH) characteristics, and their mechanical and controlled drug-release properties can be tuned by the copolymer topology and the polypeptide composition.

    7. Printed Sub-2 V Gel-Electrolyte-Gated Polymer Transistors and Circuits (pages 587–594)

      Yu Xia, Wei Zhang, Mingjing Ha, Jeong Ho Cho, Michael J. Renn, Chris H. Kim and C. Daniel Frisbie

      Article first published online: 11 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901845

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      An aerosol-jet-printing technique is used to print polymer transistors and circuits that operate at supply voltages below 2 V. The key to sub-2 V operation is a high capacitance ion gel electrolyte that serves as the gate dielectric. NAND gates, a D flip-flop, and 5-stage ring oscillators operating at 150 Hz are demonstrated.

    8. Anode Interfacial Tuning via Electron-Blocking/Hole-Transport Layers and Indium Tin Oxide Surface Treatment in Bulk-Heterojunction Organic Photovoltaic Cells (pages 595–606)

      Alexander W. Hains, Jun Liu, Alex B. F. Martinson, Michael D. Irwin and Tobin J. Marks

      Article first published online: 28 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901045

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      A crosslinking organic silane interfacial layer (IFL) is compared to PEDOT:PSS in bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic devices. The device open-circuit voltage, efficiency, and thermal stability are all affected by the IFL, and performance enhancement over PEDOT:PSS devices is achieved. Additionally, the ITO cleaning procedure (solvent, UV ozone, or O2 plasma) for each IFL is related to the device performance.

    9. Ultralow Dielectric Constant Tetravinyltetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane Films Deposited by Initiated Chemical Vapor Deposition (iCVD) (pages 607–616)

      Nathan J. Trujillo, Qingguo Wu and Karen K. Gleason

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900999

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      For the first time, the versatility of using initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) for environmentally focused processing of organosilicon low-k films is reported. iCVD is an all dry, low-energy process that requires an order of magnitude lower power density than PECVD. Thermal oxidation in atmospheric ambient of iCVD films deposited from tetravinyltetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane can both enhance the mechanical properties and reduce the dielectric constant of the cured films, thus avoiding the typical trade-off between improved mechanical properties and higher dielectric constant.

    10. Topotactic Conversion Route to Mesoporous Quasi-Single-Crystalline Co3O4 Nanobelts with Optimizable Electrochemical Performance (pages 617–623)

      Li Tian, Hongli Zou, Junxiang Fu, Xianfeng Yang, Yi Wang, Hongliang Guo, Xionghui Fu, Chaolun Liang, Mingmei Wu, Pei Kang Shen and Qiuming Gao

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901503

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      Porous quasi-single-crystalline nanobelts comprising textured spinel Co3O4 nanowalls are fabricated via a versatile topotactic transition route from layered hydrotalcite-structured α-Co(OH)2. The synthesis is made possible by the structural match between (0001) Co(OH)2 and (111) Co3O4 planes.

    11. Effects of Phonon Confinement on Anomalous Thermalization, Energy Transfer, and Upconversion in Ln3+-Doped Gd2O3 Nanotubes (pages 624–634)

      Andreia G. Macedo, Rute A. S. Ferreira, Duarte Ananias, Mário S. Reis, Vitor S. Amaral, Luís D. Carlos and João Rocha

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901772

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      Intriguing and unprecedented anomalous thermalization in Gd2O3:Eu3+ (see figure) and Gd2O3:Yb3+,Er3+ nanotubes, up to one order of magnitude larger than previously reported for similar materials, is easily tuned by varying the annealing temperature in the synthesis procedure and/or the lanthanide concentration.

    12. Conjugated Polymer Based on Polycyclic Aromatics for Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells: A Case Study of Quadrathienonaphthalene Polymers with 2% Efficiency (pages 635–643)

      Shengqiang Xiao, Andrew C. Stuart, Shubin Liu, Huaxing Zhou and Wei You

      Article first published online: 19 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901407

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      A simple oxidative photocyclization converts benzodithiophene with two pendent thiophene units (BDT) into an enlarged planar polycyclic aromatic ring, quadrathienonaphthalene (QTN). The as-synthesized homopolymer (HMPQTN) and donor–acceptor polymer (PQTN-BT) demonstrate improved efficiencies (η) in bulk heterojunction solar cells relative to their open-ring counterparts (HMPBDT and PBDT-BT, respectively).

    13. Molecular Auxetic Behavior of Epitaxial Co-Ferrite Spinel Thin Film (pages 644–647)

      Matjaz Valant, Anna-Karin Axelsson, Frederic Aguesse and Neil M. Alford

      Article first published online: 19 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901762

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      Molecular auxetic behavior is extremely rare in functional oxide materials. In this paper, it is reported in the CoFe2O4 spinel structure. The CoFe2O4 structure under compressive axial strain also reduces its cell dimensions in the transverse direction. A hinge-like honeycomb network in the spinel is responsible for the negative Poisson's ratio. The observed phenomenon significantly affects the functional properties of CoFe2O4.

    14. High Efficiency Blue Organic LEDs Achieved By an Integrated Fluorescence–Interlayer–Phosphorescence Emission Architecture (pages 648–655)

      Tianhang Zheng and Wallace C. H. Choy

      Article first published online: 19 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901657

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      By doping fluorescent- and phosphorescent-type emitters into two different hosts to form a fluorescence–interlayer–phosphorescence (FIP) emission architecture, efficient organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) are produced. Blue OLEDs with FIP structure show 34% higher luminance efficiency and 28% higher power efficiency (100 cd m−2) than those of phosphorescent OLEDs with a single emission layer.

    15. Bioinspired Ribbed Nanoneedles with Robust Superhydrophobicity (pages 656–662)

      Xi Yao, Qinwen Chen, Liang Xu, Qikai Li, Yanlin Song, Xuefeng Gao, David Quéré and Lei Jiang

      Article first published online: 11 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901775

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      Inspired by water-strider legs, a new design of a robust superhydrophobic surface is developed. It is successfully achieved on a copper surface and consists of copper hydroxide nanoneedle arrays sculptured with nanogrooves. Squeezing and relaxing water drops between two such surfaces leads to a fully reversible exploration of the solid surface by the liquid.

    16. Nanopatterning by an Integrated Process Combining Capillary Force Lithography and Microcontact Printing (pages 663–668)

      Xuexin Duan, Yiping Zhao, András Perl, Erwin Berenschot, David N. Reinhoudt and Jurriaan Huskens

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901700

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      A novel integrated nanopatterning process is developed by combining capillary force lithography (CFL) and microcontact printing (µCP). Flat polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is used as the substrate in CFL; after chemical functionalization, it functions as the stamp in µCP. The use of flat PDMS results in increased resolution for both methods. Gold patterns at a scale of less than 100 nm are successfully replicated by this process.

    17. Smart Hydrogels Co-switched by Hydrogen Bonds and π–π Stacking for Continuously Regulated Controlled-Release System (pages 669–676)

      Fang Li, Yingchun Zhu, Bo You, Donghui Zhao, Qichao Ruan, Yi Zeng and Chuanxian Ding

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901245

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      4-Nitrophenyl methacrylate is copolymerized with α-methacrylic acid using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a crosslinker to prepare poly(nitrophenyl methacrylate-co-methacrylate acid) hydrogel networks. Carboxylic acid groups and phenyl segments form hydrogen bonding and π–π stacking interactions, respectively. The dual-switch system of the hydrogel networks provides a smart and prolonged controlled release of guest molecules in response to pH in the gastrointestinal tract.

    18. Hierarchical Composites of Single/Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Interlinked Flakes from Direct Carbon Deposition on Layered Double Hydroxides (pages 677–685)

      Meng-Qiang Zhao, Qiang Zhang, Xi-Lai Jia, Jia-Qi Huang, Ying-Hao Zhang and Fei Wei

      Article first published online: 19 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901522

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      A hierarchical composite combining one-dimensional single/double-walled carbon nanotubes (S/DWCNTs) and two-dimensional flakes is fabricated by direct carbon deposition on layered double hydroxides. The composites show a porous structure and uniform distribution of the S/DWCNTs (see figure). A structure containing continuously interlinked CNT layers alternating with calcined lamellar flakes is easily obtained after compression. The hierarchical composite is also demonstrated to be an excellent filler for strong polyimide films.

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