Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 20 Issue 8

April 23, 2010

Volume 20, Issue 8

Pages 1203–1358

  1. Cover Picture

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    3. Inside Front Cover
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    1. Sensors: DNA Sensing Using Nanocrystalline Surface-Enhanced Al2O3 Nanopore Sensors (Adv. Funct. Mater. 8/2010)

      Bala Murali Venkatesan, Amish B. Shah, Jian-Min Zuo and Rashid Bashir

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090027

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      R. Bashir and co-workers report on page 1266 the development of solid-state Al2O3 nanopore sensors with enhanced surface properties for the real-time detection and analysis of individual DNA molecules. The cover illustrates the extension of coiled double-stranded DNA in the high-field region surrounding a nanocrystalline Al2O3 nanopore, followed by DNA transport. Nanocrystallite nucleation during pore formation helps enhance the single-molecule sensitivity and surface-charge characteristics of these devices and enables the potential fabrication of nanometer-scale metallic contacts in the pore. This technology finds broad application in drug screening, medicine, and bio-nanotechnology.

  2. Inside Front Cover

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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
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    1. Nanowires: A General Electrochemical Strategy for Synthesizing Charge-Transfer Complex Micro/Nanowires (Adv. Funct. Mater. 8/2010)

      Liang Ren, Xiaojun Xian, Kai Yan, Lei Fu, Yuwen Liu, Shengli Chen and Zhongfan Liu

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090028

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      A general electrochemical strategy for synthesizing charge-transfer complex micro-/nanowires utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode is demonstrated by Z. Liu and co-workers on page 1209. The background scanning electron microscopy image depicts high-quality AgTCNQ nanowires grown from a CNT electrode. The uniform and high-aspect-ratio nature of thus-grown charge-transfer complex micro-/nanowires intrinsically originates from the specific features of CNTs in terms of one-dimensional structure and ultrasmall surface area with few or no defects.

  3. Contents

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    1. Contents: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 8/2010) (pages 1203–1208)

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090029

  4. Feature Article

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    1. A General Electrochemical Strategy for Synthesizing Charge-Transfer Complex Micro/Nanowires (pages 1209–1223)

      Liang Ren, Xiaojun Xian, Kai Yan, Lei Fu, Yuwen Liu, Shengli Chen and Zhongfan Liu

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902187

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      A general strategy for synthesizing charge-transfer (CT) complex micro/nanowires based on the localized nanoelectrochemistry using a tiny carbon nanotube (CNT) as the electrode is presented. Twelve typical CT complex micro/nanowires with large aspect ratios are successfully obtained, which originate from an ideal one-dimensional structural feature with fewer or no defects and an ultrasmall surface area of the CNT.

    2. Recent Development of Active Nanoparticle Catalysts for Fuel Cell Reactions (pages 1224–1231)

      Vismadeb Mazumder, Youngmin Lee and Shouheng Sun

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902293

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      The synthesis of nanoparticle (NP) catalysts of Pt-, Pd- and Au-based NPs as well as composite NPs, is the focus of this review. The oxygen reduction reaction can be catalyzed by a nanoparticle catalyst: the catalyst is supported on porous carbon materials and the reaction occurs at the fuel cell cathode. The reduced oxygen combines with H+, which is formed from hydrogen oxidation at the anode, producing water.

  5. Frontispiece

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    1. Nanoparticles: Investigations on the Structural Damage in Human Erythrocytes Exposed to Silver, Gold, and Platinum Nanoparticles (Adv. Funct. Mater. 8/2010)

      P. V. Asharani, Swaminathan Sethu, Sajini Vadukumpully, Shaoping Zhong, Chwee Teck Lim, M. Prakash Hande and Suresh Valiyaveettil

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090030

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  6. Full Papers

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    1. Investigations on the Structural Damage in Human Erythrocytes Exposed to Silver, Gold, and Platinum Nanoparticles (pages 1233–1242)

      P. V. Asharani, Swaminathan Sethu, Sajini Vadukumpully, Shaoping Zhong, Chwee Teck Lim, M. Prakash Hande and Suresh Valiyaveettil

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901846

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      Silver nanoparticles are widely used in daily life, which makes human exposure inevitable. When in contact with red blood cells, silver nanoparticles result in agglutination and distortion of membrane structure, leading to multiple pit formation and haemolysis. The hemolyzed products released from the RBCs cause DNA damage of surrounding cells.

    2. Helically π-Stacked Conjugated Polymers Bearing Photoresponsive and Chiral Moieties in Side Chains: Reversible Photoisomerization-Enforced Switching Between Emission and Quenching of Circularly Polarized Fluorescence (pages 1243–1250)

      Hiroyuki Hayasaka, Tatsuaki Miyashita, Kazuya Tamura and Kazuo Akagi

      Article first published online: 15 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902059

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      Multifunctional conjugated polymers bearing fluorescent, chiral, and photoresponsive functions are synthesized by introducing dithienylethene moieties linked with optically active alkyl groups into the side chains of poly(p-phenylene) and poly(bithienylene-phenylene). Dynamic quenching and emission of circularly polarized fluorescence (CPF) are realized through reversible photoisomerization between open and closed forms of the side chains.

    3. Integration of Density Multiplication in the Formation of Device-Oriented Structures by Directed Assembly of Block Copolymer–Homopolymer Blends (pages 1251–1257)

      Guoliang Liu, Carla S. Thomas, Gordon S. W. Craig and Paul F. Nealey

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902229

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      Non-regular, device-oriented structures can be interpolated to multiply the feature density by the directed assembly of block copolymer–homopolymer blends on a chemically patterned substrate. By blending the block copolymers with homopolymers and designing the chemical pattern rationally, complicated structures such as bends, jogs, junctions, terminations, and combined structures are fabricated. This broadens the range of technologies that block copolymer directed assembly can serve.

    4. Preparation-Condition Dependence of Hybrid SiO2-Coated CdTe Nanocrystals with Intense and Tunable Photoluminescence (pages 1258–1265)

      Ping Yang and Norio Murase

      Article first published online: 15 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901900

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      Aqueous CdTe nanocrystals (NCs) coated with a SiO2 shell containing Cd ions and a sulfur source show a drastic increase in photoluminescence (PL) efficiency (80%) with a significant red shift and spectral narrowing after reflux. Hybrid SiO2-coated NCs thus prepared exhibit different PL behaviors from those of normal CdTe NCs, including less temperature quenching and longer PL lifetime.

    5. DNA Sensing Using Nanocrystalline Surface-Enhanced Al2O3 Nanopore Sensors (pages 1266–1275)

      Bala Murali Venkatesan, Amish B. Shah, Jian-Min Zuo and Rashid Bashir

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902128

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      A new solid-state, Al2O3 nanopore sensor with enhanced surface properties for the real-time detection and analysis of individual DNA molecules is reported. Nanocrystallite nucleation during pore formation helps enhance the single-molecule sensitivity and surface-charge characteristics of these devices and enables the fabrication of nanoscale metal contacts in the pore. This technology finds broad application in drug screening, medicine, and bionanotechnology.

    6. Designing Polymers to Enable Nanoscale Thermomechanical Data Storage (pages 1276–1284)

      B. Gotsmann, A. W. Knoll, R. Pratt, J. Frommer, J. L. Hedrick and U. Duerig

      Article first published online: 22 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902241

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      Nanomechanics has been slow in entering nanotechnology because of extreme conditions resulting from scaling. This is an issue in particular for polymers, although widely used in macroscale applications. Highly repetitive nanoscale deformation cycling in combination with excellent shape retention and thermal stability is demonstrated.

    7. Correlation Between Triplet–Triplet Annihilation and Electroluminescence Efficiency in Doped Fluorescent Organic Light-Emitting Devices (pages 1285–1293)

      Yichun Luo and Hany Aziz

      Article first published online: 22 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902329

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      Three distinct formation mechanisms are determined for delayed electroluminescence (EL): type-I (trapped-charge-induced delayed EL), type-II (triplet–triplet-annihilation (TTA)-induced delayed EL), and type-III (mobile-charge-induced delayed EL). Among these three scenarios, type-II systems are found to give the highest OLED EL efficiency, a phenomenon attributed to the role of TTA in converting triplet excitons into additional singlet excitons.

  7. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
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    9. Full Papers
    1. Catalysis: Synthesis of High-Surface-Area Platinum Nanotubes Using a Viral Template (Adv. Funct. Mater. 8/2010)

      Marcin Ł. Górzny, Alex S. Walton and Stephen D. Evans

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090031

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  8. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. Synthesis of High-Surface-Area Platinum Nanotubes Using a Viral Template (pages 1295–1300)

      Marcin Ł. Górzny, Alex S. Walton and Stephen D. Evans

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902196

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      High-surface-area Pt–tobacco mosaic virus (Pt–TMV) nanotubes are synthesized using an alcohol reduction method. For the same Pt loading, Pt–TMV nanotubes have an electrochemically active surface area at least 3.7 times larger than Pt nanoparticles. The Pt–TMV system, used as a catalyst for methanol oxidation, shows 65% higher catalytic mass activity than catalyst-based on Pt nanoparticles.

    2. Dual-Function Scattering Layer of Submicrometer-Sized Mesoporous TiO2 Beads for High-Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 1301–1305)

      Fuzhi Huang, Dehong Chen, Xiao Li Zhang, Rachel A. Caruso and Yi-Bing Cheng

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902218

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      Mesoporous anatase TiO2 beads (∼830 nm) with a high surface area of 89.1 m2/g have improved the incident-photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) when used as a scattering layer on top of a 6-µm transparent TiO2 film. Dye-sensitized solar cells with a scattering layer composed of the mesoporous beads gave a photo-to-electrical conversion efficiency of 8.84% under AM 1.5 sunlight, much higher than that of the 6-µm transparent TiO2 film (6.19%) due to the beads' dual functions of light scattering and electrode participation.

    3. The Critical Role of the Underlayer Material and Thickness in Growing Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers on Metallic Substrates by Chemical Vapor Deposition (pages 1306–1312)

      Gilbert D. Nessim, Donatello Acquaviva, Matteo Seita, Kevin P. O'Brien and Carl V. Thompson

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902265

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      During thermal CVD of carbon nanofiber and nanotube growth on metal underlayers, the catalyst thin film dewets and diffuses to decorate the underlayer grain boundaries, leading to non-aligned carpets when grain sizes are large. By reducing the underlayer thickness and/or by selecting a material resistant to grain growth, vertically aligned nanofiber/nanotube growth is possible.

    4. Oxygen-Terminated Nanocrystalline Diamond Film as an Efficient Anode in Photovoltaics (pages 1313–1318)

      Candy Haley Yi Xuan Lim, Yu Lin Zhong, Stoffel Janssens, Milos Nesladek and Kian Ping Loh

      Article first published online: 15 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902204

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      The potential of using p-doped nanocrystalline diamond grown on glass as an anode for organic photovoltaics is demonstrated. The interface between polythiophene and nanocrystalline diamond enjoys good photostability and well-matched energetics, giving rise to highly efficient photocurrent conversion. Oxygenated diamond exhibits the best photocurrent conversion among all surface–treated diamond and ITO electrodes due to its large open-circuit potential.

    5. Metal-Free Alkyne Polyhydrothiolation: Synthesis of Functional Poly(vinylenesulfide)s with High Stereoregularity by Regioselective Thioclick Polymerization (pages 1319–1328)

      Cathy K. W. Jim, Anjun Qin, Jacky W. Y. Lam, Faisal Mahtab, Yong Yu and Ben Zhong Tang

      Article first published online: 15 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901943

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      A “thioclick” synthetic route to sulfur-rich polymers is developed. Regioselective alkyne polyhydrothiolations of dithiol and dipropiolates are mediated by organo bases under mild conditions, affording poly(vinylenesulfide)s with high stereo regularities in high yields. The polymer films are readily photolyzed to afford fluorescent patterns. Their high refractive indices are further enhanced (up to 2.06) by metal complexation.

    6. From Ag Nanoprisms to Triangular AuAg Nanoboxes (pages 1329–1338)

      Damian Aherne, Matthew Gara, John M. Kelly and Yurii K. Gun'ko

      Article first published online: 30 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902030

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      Galvanic replacement reactions are successfully employed to produce enclosed triangular AuAg nanoboxes from a Ag nanoprism template (left). The interior cavity is clearly revealed by TEM images of edge-oriented nanoparticles (right). These are exciting candidates for the encapsulation and transport of drugs and other interesting materials.

    7. Energy Harvesting with Single-Ion-Selective Nanopores: A Concentration-Gradient-Driven Nanofluidic Power Source (pages 1339–1344)

      Wei Guo, Liuxuan Cao, Junchao Xia, Fu-Qiang Nie, Wen Ma, Jianming Xue, Yanlin Song, Daoben Zhu, Yugang Wang and Lei Jiang

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902312

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      A nanofluidic power source that converts Gibbs free energy in the form of an ion-concentration gradient into electricity with single ion-selective nanopores is demonstrated (a). The power output from individual nanopores approaches tens of picowatts (b). A theoretical description is proposed to explain the power-generation mechanism and ion-transport behavior within the nanofluidic structure.

    8. Molecular Engineering of Blue Fluorescent Molecules Based on Silicon End-Capped Diphenylaminofluorene Derivatives for Efficient Organic Light-Emitting Materials (pages 1345–1358)

      Kum Hee Lee, Lee Kyung Kang, Jin Yong Lee, Sunwoo Kang, Soon Ok Jeon, Kyoung Soo Yook, Jun Yeob Lee and Seung Soo Yoon

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200901895

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      Highly efficient blue organic light-emitting diodes are developed using dopant materials based on a 2-diphenylaminofluoren-7-yl-vinylarene core with various silicon-substituted end-capping groups. The best luminous efficiency of 11.2 cd A−1 and highest quantum efficiency of 7.34% at 20 mA cm−2 are obtained in a device with CIE coordinates (0.15, 0.25). A deep-blue OLED with CIE coordinates (0.15, 0.14) exhibits a luminous efficiency of 3.70 cd A−1 and a quantum efficiency of 3.47% at 20 mA cm−2.

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