Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 21 Issue 1

January 7, 2011

Volume 21, Issue 1

Pages 1–198

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Feature Articles
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Full Papers
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. Nanoparticles: Correlation Between Surface Chemistry and Electrocatalytic Properties of Monodisperse PtxNi1-x Nanoparticles (Adv. Funct. Mater. 1/2011) (page 1)

      Chao Wang, Miaofang Chi, Guofeng Wang, Dennis van der Vliet, Dongguo Li, Karren More, Hsien-Hau Wang, John A. Schlueter, Nenad M. Markovic and Vojislav R. Stamenkovic

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090114

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      Bimetallic platinum–nickel alloy nanoparticles have been synthesized with different ratios of alloying components. Vojislav R. Stamenkovic and co-workers show on page 147 that the surface chemistry of these nanoparticles is in direct correlation with their electrocatalytic properties. In contact with acidic aqueous electrolytes, non-platinum surface atoms dissolve, and the formation of platinum-skeleton nanostructures at the surface is determining the catalytic behavior.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Feature Articles
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Full Papers
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. Photovoltaic Devices: High-Performance Organic Solar Cells with Spray Coated Hole-Transport and Active Layers (Adv. Funct. Mater. 1/2011) (page 2)

      Claudio Girotto, Davide Moia, Barry P. Rand and Paul Heremans

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090116

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      Claudio Girotto and co-workers show on page 64 that spray-coating of multiple organic layers can be used to fabricate solution-processed organic solar cells with nearly identical performance to the best spin-coated control devices. Specifically designed inks together with this large-area compatible technique allow for merging and settling of the atomized liquid on the substrate into highly uniform films with controllable thickness and low surface roughness.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Feature Articles
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Full Papers
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. Contents: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 1/2011) (pages 3–10)

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090117

  4. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Feature Articles
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Full Papers
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
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  5. Feature Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Feature Articles
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Full Papers
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. A Critical Look at Multilayered Polymer Capsules in Biomedicine: Drug Carriers, Artificial Organelles, and Cell Mimics (pages 14–28)

      Brigitte Städler, Andrew D. Price and Alexander N. Zelikin

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001676

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      In this Feature article, we discuss advantages and shortcomings of multilayered polymer capsules as candidate drug carriers, overview their early successes in design and performance of encapsulated microreactors and artificial organelles and detail the strategies to assembly of sub-compartmentalized vessels as cell mimic.

    2. Materials for Printable, Transparent, and Low-Voltage Transistors (pages 29–45)

      Jia Sun, Bo Zhang and Howard E. Katz

      Article first published online: 14 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001530

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      Materials useful for printable, transparent, and low-voltage transistors, have seen great recent progress, including inorganic and organic and self-assembled dielectric, semiconductor, and electrode materials. Innovations in materials designs, device architectures, and functionalities have all been realized. This Feature Article summarizes these developments and suggests directions for future progress.

  6. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Feature Articles
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Full Papers
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. 3D Microperiodic Hydrogel Scaffolds for Robust Neuronal Cultures (page 46)

      Jennifer N. Hanson Shepherd, Sara T. Parker, Robert F. Shepherd, Martha U. Gillette, Jennifer A. Lewis and Ralph G. Nuzzo

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090118

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      3D microperiodic hydrogel scaffolds with varied architecture are patterned by direct-write assembly and investigated as culture platforms for primary hippocampal neurons. Neuronal cells thrive on these scaffolds, forming differentiated, intricately branched networks. Confocal laser scanning microscopy reveals that both cell distribution and extent of neuronal process alignment depend upon scaffold architecture.

  7. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Feature Articles
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Full Papers
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. 3D Microperiodic Hydrogel Scaffolds for Robust Neuronal Cultures (pages 47–54)

      Jennifer N. Hanson Shepherd, Sara T. Parker, Robert F. Shepherd, Martha U. Gillette, Jennifer A. Lewis and Ralph G. Nuzzo

      Article first published online: 12 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001746

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      3D microperiodic hydrogel scaffolds with varied architecture are patterned by direct-write assembly and investigated as culture platforms for primary hippocampal neurons. Neuronal cells thrive on these scaffolds, forming differentiated, intricately branched networks. Confocal laser scanning microscopy reveals that both cell distribution and extent of neuronal process alignment depend upon scaffold architecture.

    2. Dynamic Electromechanical Hydrogel Matrices for Stem Cell Culture (pages 55–63)

      Han L. Lim, Jessica C. Chuang, Tuan Tran, Aereas Aung, Gaurav Arya and Shyni Varghese

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001519

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      A multifunctional synthetic matrix that can simultaneously provide electrical and mechanical cues, in addition to providing structural support and chemical cues, is developed by combining novel bidirectional polyelectrolyte hydrogels with an optimized electrochemical cell. The matrix is shown to support stem cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation in a 3D environment.

    3. High-Performance Organic Solar Cells with Spray-Coated Hole-Transport and Active Layers (pages 64–72)

      Claudio Girotto, Davide Moia, Barry P. Rand and Paul Heremans

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001562

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      We show that spray coating can be used to deposit the organic layers in high-performance solution-processed organic solar cells. By proper engineering of the inks for the hole-transport layer and the polymer:fullerene mixture, we achieve highly uniform films with optimized and controllable thickness and low surface roughness. We demonstrate that the technique yields cells with nearly identical performance to the best spin-coated control devices.

    4. Nanotechnology-Enabled Closed Loop Insulin Delivery Device: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Glucose-Regulated Insulin Release for Diabetes Control (pages 73–82)

      Claudia R. Gordijo, Khajag Koulajian, Adam J. Shuhendler, Leonardo D. Bonifacio, Hui Yu Huang, Simon Chiang, Geoffrey A. Ozin, Adria Giacca and Xiao Yu Wu

      Article first published online: 7 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001762

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      The combination of glucose sensing and triggered insulin release in a single platform is highly desirable for the development of a self-regulated insulin delivery system. The development of a small, biocompatible, implantable device for closed-loop insulin delivery in vivo is described. This system can mimic the normal function of healthy β-islet cells by quickly releasing more insulin upon hyperglycemia, holding great promise for a better control of diabetes.

    5. Anti-Estrogen-Loaded Superparamagnetic Liposomes for Intracellular Magnetic Targeting and Treatment of Breast Cancer Tumors (pages 83–92)

      Vincent Plassat, Claire Wilhelm, Véronique Marsaud, Christine Ménager, Florence Gazeau, Jack-Michel Renoir and Sylviane Lesieur

      Article first published online: 11 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001450

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      Sterically stabilized magnetic fluid-loaded liposomes (MFLs) provide an effective tool for cancer therapy. Once preloaded with the steroid anti-estrogen RU 58668, MFLs contribute to the concentration of the drug into human MCF-7 breast cancer cells under the influence of a magnetic field gradient produced by a magnet placed next to the cells (see image). The significant improvement in intracellular delivery of the drug highly strengthens its antitumor activity.

    6. A Polymer-Electrolyte-Based Atomic Switch (pages 93–99)

      Shouming Wu, Tohru Tsuruoka, Kazuya Terabe, Tsuyoshi Hasegawa, Jonathan P. Hill, Katsuhiko Ariga and Masakazu Aono

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001520

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      An electrochemical ‘atomicswitch’ device is realized using a silver-ion-conductive solid polymer electrolyte (SPE). Simple Ag/SPE/Pt structures containing PEO–AgClO4 complexes show bipolar resistive switching under bias voltage sweeping. This switching behavior results from formation and dissolution of an Ag metal filament in the SPE film by electrochemical reactions. The device also exhibits high performance in data retention and programming speed properties.

    7. Gate-Bias Controlled Charge Trapping as a Mechanism for NO2 Detection with Field-Effect Transistors (pages 100–107)

      Anne-Marije Andringa, Juliaan R. Meijboom, Edsger C. P. Smits, Simon G. J. Mathijssen, Paul W. M. Blom and Dago M. de Leeuw

      Article first published online: 15 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001560

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      The mechanism of NO2 detection is investigated using ZnO field-effect transistors. The transistor current gradually decreases upon NO2 exposure. The decrease originates from the trapping of electrons, which causes a shift of the threshold voltage towards the applied gate bias. The shift can be described by a stretched-exponential time relaxation and is observed for extremely low NO2 concentrations.

    8. Simultaneous Reduction and Surface Functionalization of Graphene Oxide by Mussel-Inspired Chemistry (pages 108–112)

      Sung Min Kang, Sungjin Park, Daewon Kim, Sung Young Park, Rodney S. Ruoff and Haeshin Lee

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001692

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      Simultaneous reduction and surface functionalization of graphene oxide were achieved via a simple one-step procedure under mild conditions. An aqueous mixture of graphene oxide and a norepinephrine, a molecule inspired by the chemical composition of mussel adhesive proteins, resulted in a robust modification of graphene oxide surfaces. The poly(norepinephrine) modification exhibited simultaneous reduction of graphene oxide and became a platform of surface-initiated polymerization and metallic nanoparticle formation.

    9. A New Prototype Two-Phase (TiNi)–(β-W) SMA System with Tailorable Thermal Hysteresis (pages 113–118)

      Pio John S. Buenconsejo, Robert Zarnetta, Dennis König, Alan Savan, Sigurd Thienhaus and Alfred Ludwig

      Article first published online: 30 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001697

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      We present an approach to inkjet print high-performance organic transistors by printing the organic semiconductor ink on a thin, continuous, and solvent-absorbing layer of insulating material. The ink spreading is effectively controlled by local dissolution of the layer, and during drying the characteristic circular morphology with high rims and inner plateau forms.

    10. White-Light Emitting Diode Array of p+-Si/Aligned n-SnO2 Nanowires Heterojunctions (pages 119–124)

      Kyung Whon Min, Yong Kwan Kim, Gunchul Shin, Seunghun Jang, Moonsup Han, Junghwan Huh, Gyu Tae Kim and Jeong Sook Ha

      Article first published online: 30 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001678

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      The characterization of p+-Si/n-SnO2 nanowireheterojunction diode arrays with ideal rectification behavior is reported. Their high UV-photosensitivity under reverse bias voltages and white-light electroluminescence at forward bias enlarge their future application in optoelectronic devices.

  8. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Feature Articles
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Full Papers
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. N-Doped CsTaWO6 as a New Photocatalyst for Hydrogen Production from Water Splitting Under Solar Irradiation (page 125)

      Aniruddh Mukherji, Roland Marschall, Akshat Tanksale, Chenghua Sun, Sean C. Smith, Gao Qing Lu and Lianzhou Wang

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201090115

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      A significant increase in solar hydrogen production of the wide bandgap semiconductor photocatalyst CsTaWO6 is achieved. Photocatalytic measurements, coupled with detailed spectroscopic studies, indicate that the increase is due to a narrowing of the overall bandgap as a result of uniform nitrogen doping.

  9. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Feature Articles
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Full Papers
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. N-Doped CsTaWO6 as a New Photocatalyst for Hydrogen Production from Water Splitting Under Solar Irradiation (pages 126–132)

      Aniruddh Mukherji, Roland Marschall, Akshat Tanksale, Chenghua Sun, Sean C. Smith, Gao Qing Lu and Lianzhou Wang

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000591

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      A significant increase in solar hydrogen production of the wide bandgap semiconductor photocatalyst CsTaWO6 is achieved. Photocatalytic measurements, coupled with detailed spectroscopic studies, indicate that the increase is due to a narrowing of the overall bandgap as a result of uniform nitrogen doping.

    2. Low-Symmetry Monoclinic Phases and Polarization Rotation Path Mediated by Epitaxial Strain in Multiferroic BiFeO3 Thin Films (pages 133–138)

      Zuhuang Chen, Zhenlin Luo, Chuanwei Huang, Yajun Qi, Ping Yang, Lu You, Chuansheng Hu, Tom Wu, Junling Wang, Chen Gao, Thirumany Sritharan and Lang Chen

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001867

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      Strain-mediated polarization rotation for BiFeO3 films is shown in the figure. Starting from the strain-free rhombohedral (R) phase, the strain-induced transition path is R to Ma by compressive strains or R to Mb by tensile strains. At large enough compressive strains, the Ma to Mc phase transition occurs and brings about a sudden increase in the c-lattice parameter. This new rotation path indicates a soft lattice for BiFeO3 and a tunable behavior by strains where the polarization rotation paths could be mediated in the same way as in those driven by electric field, chemical composition, pressure, and temperature.

    3. Formation of Well-Ordered Heterojunctions in Polymer:PCBM Photovoltaic Devices (pages 139–146)

      Ximin He, Feng Gao, Guoli Tu, David G. Hasko, Sven Hüttner, Neil C. Greenham, Ullrich Steiner, Richard H. Friend and Wilhelm T. S. Huck

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000573

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      Double nanoimprinting of organic layers allows the formation nanostructured polymer:PCBM heterojunctions with interpenetrating nanoscale columnar features as small as 25 nm. A systematic variation of the feature sizes provides a direct probe into the influence of morphology on photovoltaic device performance.

    4. Correlation Between Surface Chemistry and Electrocatalytic Properties of Monodisperse PtxNi1-x Nanoparticles (pages 147–152)

      Chao Wang, Miaofang Chi, Guofeng Wang, Dennis van der Vliet, Dongguo Li, Karren More, Hsien-Hau Wang, John A. Schlueter, Nenad M. Markovic and Vojislav R. Stamenkovic

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001138

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      Monodisperse and homogeneous Pt-Ni alloy nanoparticles of various compositions are synthesized via an organic solution approach, and applied as catalysts for electrocatalytic reduction of oxygen. By combining atomic-level microscopic analysis of composition profile and modeling of nanoparticle structure, a clear picture of the dependence of Ni dissolution from the near-surface region on the initial alloy composition is illustrated.

    5. Highly Conductive Redox Protein–Carbon Nanotube Complex for Biosensing Applications (pages 153–157)

      Chiara Baldacchini, Maria Antonia Herrero Chamorro, Maurizio Prato and Salvatore Cannistraro

      Article first published online: 30 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001650

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      Metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) functionalized with maleimide-terminated chains covalently target biomolecules with exposed thiols, controlling their orientation and preserving their functionality, which are crucial aspects for biosensing applications. Combining single-molecule scanning-probe nanoscopies, it is demonstrated that metallic SWNTs, used as linking spacers, render the electrical communication between redox proteins and gold electrodes more efficiently and reproducibly than for proteins directly connected with metal surfaces.

    6. Chemically Stable Pr and Y Co-Doped Barium Zirconate Electrolytes with High Proton Conductivity for Intermediate-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (pages 158–166)

      Emiliana Fabbri, Lei Bi, Hidehiko Tanaka, Daniele Pergolesi and Enrico Traversa

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001540

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      Pr and Y co-doped barium zirconate (BZPY) is a chemically stable electrolyte with high proton conductivity. The good sinterability of the BZPY electrolyte allows the development of an anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) based on a thin BZPY proton conducting membrane. The performed fuel-cell tests confirm that BZPY is a promising electrolyte material for intermediate-temperature SOFC applications.

    7. Organic and Inorganic Blocking Layers for Solution-Processed Colloidal PbSe Nanocrystal Infrared Photodetectors (pages 167–171)

      Galileo Sarasqueta, Kaushik Roy Choudhury, Jegadesan Subbiah and Franky So

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001328

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      A PbSe solution-processed nanocrystal-based infrared photodetector incorporating carrier blocking layers is demonstrated, and significant reduction of dark current is achieved. Good photodetector performance is achieved by reducing dark currents through selection and incorporation of organic and inorganic nanocrystal wide-bandgap materials with proper LUMO and HOMO levels to block electrons and holes under reversed bias.

    8. Fully Reversible pH-Triggered Network Formation of Amphoteric Polyelectrolyte Hydrogels (pages 172–176)

      Michael Bajomo, Ian Robb, Joachim H. G. Steinke and Alexander Bismarck

      Article first published online: 29 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000587

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      A new pH responsive hydrogel is introduced and characterized. The hydrogel is formed during the free radical copolymerization of dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) and methacrylic acid without a crosslinker. This work is, to the authors’ knowledge, the first demonstration of a hydrogel formed from these monomers alone without a permanent chemical crosslinker.

    9. One-Pot Synthesis of Au25(SG)18 2- and 4-nm Gold Nanoparticles and Comparison of Their Size-Dependent Properties (pages 177–183)

      Zhikun Wu, Jenny Chen and Rongchao Jin

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001120

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      Gold nanoparticles of different sizes are synthesized by a one-pot method. Their identical chemical composition (i.e., gold and glutathione stabilizer), synthetic history, and surface conditions validate precise comparison of their size-dependent properties, in particular the magnetic property as this could be related to contamination by trace iron impurities. The size-dependent structure and material properties of these nanoparticles may find application in biomedicine and catalysis.

    10. Electrically Adjustable, Super Adhesive Force of a Superhydrophobic Aligned MnO2 Nanotube Membrane (pages 184–190)

      Xiao-Dan Zhao, Hai-Ming Fan, Jun Luo, Jun Ding, Xiang-Yang Liu, Bing-Suo Zou and Yuan-Ping Feng

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000603

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      The adhesive force of a water droplet on a superhydrophobic MnO2 nanotube array (MTA) shows a successive and controllable increase with the application of a small negative DC bias. This remarkable adhesive property is ascribed to the change in contact geometry between the water droplet and MTA. Such a smart interfacial material has a variety of applications in biotechnology and in lab-on-chip devices.

    11. Engineering a Robust, Versatile Amphiphilic Membrane Surface Through Forced Surface Segregation for Ultralow Flux-Decline (pages 191–198)

      Wenjuan Chen, Yanlei Su, Jinming Peng, Yanan Dong, Xueting Zhao and Zhongyi Jiang

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001384

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      An amphiphilic porous membrane surface, comprising hydrophilic fouling resistant domains and hydrophobic fouling release microdomains, is explored via a “forced surface segregation” approach with specifically designed amphiphilic copolymers. The membrane fouling was exquisitely suppressed and the membranes achieved an ultralow permeation flux-decline for the diverse separations.

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