Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 21 Issue 11

June 7, 2011

Volume 21, Issue 11

Pages 1948–2161

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Feature Article
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Full Papers
    1. Electronic Textiles: Atomic Layer Deposition of Conductive Coatings on Cotton, Paper, and Synthetic Fibers: Conductivity Analysis and Functional Chemical Sensing Using “All-Fiber” Capacitors (Adv. Funct. Mater. 11/2011) (page 1948)

      Jesse. S. Jur, William J. Sweet III, Christopher J. Oldham and Gregory N. Parsons

      Version of Record online: 31 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190035

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      Electronic functionalization of complex fiber systems is important for new applications in energy systems and electronic textiles. The cover image shows a natural fibrous material with and without conductive coating. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of conductive coatings on natural and synthetic fibrous materials show high conductivity, and the values scale as expected with film thickness and bulk-material conductance. On page 1993, Jesse S. Jur and co-workers present an all-fiber-based capacitor formed by ALD on textiles that shows good sensing performance in several liquid media.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Feature Article
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Full Papers
    1. Bijel Capsules: Novel, Robust, and Versatile Bijels of Nitromethane, Ethanediol, and Colloidal Silica: Capsules, Sub-Ten-Micrometer Domains, and Mechanical Properties (Adv. Funct. Mater. 11/2011) (page 1949)

      Joe W. Tavacoli, Job H. J. Thijssen, Andrew B. Schofield and Paul S. Clegg

      Version of Record online: 31 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190036

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      Bicontinuous, interfacially jammed emulsion gels (bijels) are a class of soft solid materials in which interpenetrating domains of two immiscible fluids are stabilized by an interfacial colloidal monolayer. Bijel capsules, as presented by Joe W. Tavacoli and co-workers on page 2020, may find application in controlled release. They contain bicontinuous liquid domains where internal and external interfaces are stabilized by (different) colloidal particles. The image shows a fluorescence confocal microscopy image of such a capsule.

  3. Back Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Feature Article
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Full Papers
    1. Displays: Magnetochromatic Microcapsule Arrays for Displays (Adv. Funct. Mater. 11/2011) (page 1950)

      Cun Zhu, Wenyu Xu, Liangshui Chen, Wendong Zhang, Hua Xu and Zhong-Ze Gu

      Version of Record online: 31 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190037

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      Displays based on magnetochromatic microcapsules with narrow size distribution, controllable size, shell thickness, and morphology, are presented by Zhong-Ze Gu and co-workers on page 2043. The capsules are fabricated using a microfluidic technique and, when assembled, form multipixel arrays. Each microcapsule acts as an individual display unit, whose color can be controlled by an external magnetic field.

  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Feature Article
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Full Papers
  5. Feature Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Feature Article
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Full Papers
    1. Multifunctional Hybrid Polymer-Based Porous Materials (pages 1959–1969)

      Anna Lee, Stanislav Dubinsky, Ethan Tumarkin, Mathieu Moulin, Andrew A. Beharry and Eugenia Kumacheva

      Version of Record online: 11 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002453

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      Multifunctional Porous Hybrid Materials (PHMs) – an overview of polymerization-induced phase separation and applications of a hybrid PHM coated with gold nanorods for simultaneous detection of multiple analytes using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy.

  6. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
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    5. Contents
    6. Feature Article
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Full Papers
    1. SINGLE-ATOM MOVEMENT: Dynamics of Polar Surfaces on Ceria Nanoparticles Observed In Situ with Single-Atom Resolution (Adv. Funct. Mater. 11/2011) (page 1970)

      Günter Möbus, Zineb Saghi, Dean C. Sayle, Umananda M. Bhatta, Andrew Stringfellow and Thi X.T. Sayle

      Version of Record online: 31 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190039

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      Observing the movements of single atoms at the surface of a solid is one of the ultimate goals of microscopy. On page 1971, Günter Möbus and co-workers use atomic-resolution aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy to monitor the inherent instability of CeO2 (100) surface facets of a nanoparticle. The image series shows a hopping sequence of Ce atoms. Catalysis and other surfaceactivity-related application fields of ceria will benefit from this study.

  7. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Feature Article
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Full Papers
    1. Dynamics of Polar Surfaces on Ceria Nanoparticles Observed In Situ with Single-Atom Resolution (pages 1971–1976)

      Günter Möbus, Zineb Saghi, Dean C. Sayle, Umananda M. Bhatta, Andrew Stringfellow and Thi X.T. Sayle

      Version of Record online: 15 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002135

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      The observation of single-atom movements at the surface of a solid is one of the ultimate goals of microscopy. Using atomic-resolution aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy and exploiting the inherent instability of CeO2 (100) nanoparticle surface facets, a series of images that demonstrate a hopping sequence of Ce atoms could be recorded in 2 s intervals. Important insights into the surface activity of ceria are gained, which are of high relevance for catalysis and other surface-activity related applications.

    2. Surface Domain Structures and Mesoscopic Phase Transition in Relaxor Ferroelectrics (pages 1977–1987)

      Andrei Kholkin, Anna Morozovska, Dmitry Kiselev, Igor Bdikin, Brian Rodriguez, Pingping Wu, Alexei Bokov, Zuo-Guang Ye, Brahim Dkhil, Long-Qing Chen, Marija Kosec and Sergei V. Kalinin

      Version of Record online: 12 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002582

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      Relaxor ferroelectrics are known as an enigma of solid-state physics. Using extensive imaging and spectroscopic studies by variable-temperature and depth-resolved piezoresponse force microscopy, we propose a model explaining their behaviour by introducing two order parameters describing dynamic and static polarization. The surface of relaxors undergoes a symmetry breaking leading to the freezing of polarization fluctuations and shift of transition temperature.

    3. Charge-Separation Dynamics in Inorganic–Organic Ternary Blends for Efficient Infrared Photodiodes (pages 1988–1992)

      Dorota Jarzab, Krisztina Szendrei, Maksym Yarema, Stefan Pichler, Wolfgang Heiss and Maria A. Loi

      Version of Record online: 12 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001999

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      Significant enhancement of the charge-transfer efficiency is observed in a hybrid ternary blend composed of near-infrared-sensitive nanocrystals (NCs), hole-accepting polymer, and electron-accepting fullerene, as compared to values for the binary reference blends. This improvement is attributed to hole transfer between the NCs and the polymer, which depletes the long-lived hole population established after electron transfer from the NCs to the fullerene (see graphic).

    4. Atomic Layer Deposition of Conductive Coatings on Cotton, Paper, and Synthetic Fibers: Conductivity Analysis and Functional Chemical Sensing Using “All-Fiber” Capacitors (pages 1993–2002)

      Jesse. S. Jur, William J. Sweet III, Christopher J. Oldham and Gregory N. Parsons

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001756

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Electronic functionalization of complex fiber systems of importance for new applications in energy systems and electronic textiles. Atomic layer deposition of conductive coatings on natural and synthetic fibrous materials show similar effective conductivity values over a range of film thicknesses and demonstrates that the effective conductivity values can be directly compared for different coatings on different fiber materials. Demonstration of ALD-coated conductive fibers is shown in an all-fiber based capacitor structure and is analyzed in various liquid media (see Figure).

    5. Peptides for the Biofunctionalization of Silicon for Use in Optical Sensing with Porous Silicon Microcavities (pages 2003–2011)

      Elias Estephan, Marie-Belle Saab, Vivechana Agarwal, Frédéric J. G. Cuisinier, Christian Larroque and Csilla Gergely

      Version of Record online: 14 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002742

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      Phage display technology is used to elaborate silicon specific peptides. The peptides are biotinilated and further used to functionalize porous silicon microcavities for molecular detection of streptavidin. Use of peptides with surface recognition properties assures a 21 times improved sensing performance compared to the porous silicon devices functionalised via the silanization method.

    6. Temperature-Switchable Assembly of Supramolecular Virus–Polymer Complexes (pages 2012–2019)

      Mauri A. Kostiainen, Christian Pietsch, Richard Hoogenboom, Roeland J. M. Nolte and Jeroen J. L. M. Cornelissen

      Version of Record online: 14 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002597

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      Hot get-together party of viruses: Temperature-responsive diblock copo­lymer binds electrostatically onto the surface of viral capsids and self-assembles with the virus particles into micrometer-sized objects when the solution is heated above the cloud point temperature (Tcp) of the polymer. Below the Tcp, only free individual virus particles are observed. The assembly process is fully reversible and can sustain several heating–cooling cycles, and therefore offers a supra­molecular method to control the assembly and release of charged biomolecules.

    7. Novel, Robust, and Versatile Bijels of Nitromethane, Ethanediol, and Colloidal Silica: Capsules, Sub-Ten-Micrometer Domains, and Mechanical Properties (pages 2020–2027)

      Joe W. Tavacoli, Job H. J. Thijssen, Andrew B. Schofield and Paul S. Clegg

      Version of Record online: 2 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002562

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      Ethanediol–nitromethane and colloidal silica are exploited to fabricate a novel and robust bijel system that facilitates a number of advancements to bijel technology. These advancements include the encapsulation of the bijel phase within particle-stabilized drops (to make stimuli responsive capsules) and the downscaling of the internal size-scale of the bijel to sub-ten-micrometer proportions.

    8. Calcite Prisms from Mollusk Shells (Atrina Rigida): Swiss-cheese-like Organic–Inorganic Single-crystal Composites (pages 2028–2034)

      Hanying Li, Huolin L. Xin, Miki E. Kunitake, Ellen C. Keene, David A. Muller and Lara A. Estroff

      Version of Record online: 14 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002709

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      Annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF-STEM) and electron tomography reveal, in three dimensions, how biomacromolecules are anisotropically distributed within the calcitic prisms from Atrina rigida shells, showing an unprecedented 3-D nano-structure of a swiss-cheese-like organic-inorganic single-crystal composite.

    9. Permanent and Peripheral Embolization: Temperature-Sensitive p(N-Isopropylacrylamide-co-butyl Methylacrylate) Nanogel as a Novel Blood-Vessel-Embolic Material in the Interventional Therapy of Liver Tumors (pages 2035–2042)

      Yanbing Zhao, Chuansheng Zheng, Qin Wang, Jianlin Fang, Guofeng Zhou, Hui Zhao, Yajiang Yang, Huibi Xu, Gansheng Feng and Xiangliang Yang

      Version of Record online: 12 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002510

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      The embolization mechanisms of three different materials are investigated here. With Ivalon, collateral circulation occurs after embolization due to the large size of the microparticles; with Lipiodol, embolization is eliminated rapidly due to blood scouring and tissue clearance in peripheral blood vessels; while with PIB-I-6150, permanent and peripheral embolization is achieved through the formation of a high-strength hierarchical 3D network of nanogels.

    10. Magnetochromatic Microcapsule Arrays for Displays (pages 2043–2048)

      Cun Zhu, Wenyu Xu, Liangshui Chen, Wendong Zhang, Hua Xu and Zhong-Ze Gu

      Version of Record online: 15 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002296

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      An approach to construct displays based on magnetochromatic microcapsules has been proposed. A microfluidic technique is developed to control the capsule size, shell thickness, and morphology during the fabrication. When assembled, the microcapsules form multipixel arrays, with each microcapsule acting as an individual display unit whose color can be controlled by an external magnetic field.

    11. Templating Synthesis of SnO2 Nanotubes Loaded with Ag2O Nanoparticles and Their Enhanced Gas Sensing Properties (pages 2049–2056)

      Xing Chen, Zheng Guo, Wei-Hong Xu, Hong-Bin Yao, Min-Qiang Li, Jin-Huai Liu, Xing-Jiu Huang and Shu-Hong Yu

      Version of Record online: 28 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002701

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      Gas Sensors: Ag2O-doped SnO2 nanotubes can be prepared by using Ag@C coaxial nanocables as sacrificial templates, and show ultra-fast response (1–2 s) and ultra-fast recovery (2–4 s) towards ethanol, and response (1–4 s) and recovery (4–5 s) towards butanone.

    12. Strain-Based Temperature Memory Effect for Nafion and Its Molecular Origins (pages 2057–2066)

      Tao Xie, Kirt A. Page and Scott A. Eastman

      Version of Record online: 20 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002579

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      It is demonstrated that Nafion is capable of memorizing its deformation temperature(s) (the temperature memory effect) based on its strain recovery behaviors. The molecular origin of Nafion’s temperature memory capability is also revealed through morphological characterization by small angle neutron scattering.

    13. Formation of Bulk Heterojunctions by Alternative Thermal Deposition and Its Structure Analysis for High Efficiency Small Molecular Organic Photovoltaics (pages 2067–2071)

      Ji Whan Kim, Hyo Jung Kim, Hyun Hwi Lee, Taemin Kim and Jang-Joo Kim

      Version of Record online: 26 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002601

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      The alternative thermal deposition (ATD) process is developed to form bulk heterojunctions (BHJs) in small molecular organic photovoltaics. The ATD is a simple modification of conventional thermal evaporation. The formation of BHJs through ATD is confirmed with various X-ray analyses. In addition, efficient organic photovoltaic devices by the ATD process are demonstrated.

    14. Oscillatory Thermopower Waves Based on Bi2Te3 Films (pages 2072–2079)

      Sumeet Walia, Rodney Weber, Kay Latham, Phred Petersen, Joel T. Abrahamson, Michael S. Strano and Kourosh Kalantar-zadeh

      Version of Record online: 20 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001979

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      Exothermic chemical reactions are coupled to Bi2Te3layers that are deposited onto terracotta or alumina (Al2O3) substrates to produce self-propagating thermal waves (thermopower waves) guided along the surface (shown in the figure). Nitrocellulose is used as the highly reactive chemical. Such thermopower waves produce a power as large as 10 mW and a power per mass ratio on the order of 1 kW kg−1

    15. Green-Chemical Synthesis of Ultrathin β-MnOOH Nanofibers for Separation Membranes (pages 2080–2087)

      Xinsheng Peng and Izumi Ichinose

      Version of Record online: 5 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002628

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      A green-chemical method is shown for the large-scale synthesis of ultrafine crystalline β-MnOOH nanofibers in water at room temperature. Based on the Young–Laplace equation, dense or nanoporous β-MnOOH nanofiber/PDMS composite membranes can be developed through a downstream-side evaporation process under vacuum conditions and the membranes display desirable performance for the separation of ethanol/water mixtures, gases, proteins, and nanoparticles.

    16. Nanostructured Polymer Brushes by UV-Assisted Imprint Lithography and Surface-Initiated Polymerization for Biological Functions (pages 2088–2095)

      Edmondo M. Benetti, Canet Acikgoz, Xiaofeng Sui, Boris Vratzov, Mark A. Hempenius, Jurriaan Huskens and G. Julius Vancso

      Version of Record online: 14 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002569

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      Step-and-flash imprint lithography and controlled, surface-initiated polymerization in aqueous media are combined to prepare patterned functional brush nanostructures. The immobilization of a few tens of protein chains that are selectively attached through biotin ligands onto brush nanostructures and surrounded by a nonfouling surface is achieved.

    17. Localized Ligand Induced Electroless Plating (LIEP) Process for the Fabrication of Copper Patterns Onto Flexible Polymer Substrates (pages 2096–2102)

      Alexandre Garcia, Jérôme Polesel-Maris, Pascal Viel, Serge Palacin and Thomas Berthelot

      Version of Record online: 12 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100041

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      The ligand induced electroless plating (LIEP) process combined with cost effective patterning methods is an excellent alternative for the fabrication of large-area plastic electronics devices. These simple methods work on smooth surfaces; copper growth is localized and conformal to the mask; electrical properties are close to the bulk values and stable; and copper patterns fabricated on flexible substrates withstand substantial mechanical deformation with slight loss in performance.

    18. Smart Homopolymer Modification to Single Glass Conical Nanopore Channels: Dual-Stimuli-Actuated Highly Efficient Ion Gating (pages 2103–2107)

      Li-Xiang Zhang, Sheng-Lin Cai, Yu-Bin Zheng, Xiao-Hong Cao and Yao-Qun Li

      Version of Record online: 15 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002627

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      The integration of a smart homopolymer poly[2(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate] that undergoes both pH- and temperature-induced conformational transitions in a single glass conical nano­pore channel and manifests pH- and temperature-responsive ion-transport properties with high gating efficiency and perfect reversibility, is demonstrated for the first time.

    19. Synthesis, Characterization, and Ammonia Adsorption Properties of Mesoporous Metal–Organic Framework (MIL(Fe))–Graphite Oxide Composites: Exploring the Limits of Materials Fabrication (pages 2108–2117)

      Camille Petit and Teresa J. Bandosz

      Version of Record online: 12 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002517

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      Composites of MIL-100 and graphite oxide (GO) were prepared. The results indicate that, unlike composites involving other metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) (e.g., HKUST-1), the formation of well-defined materials is not favored. This is linked to the specific geometry of MIL-100. The attachment of the GO carbon layers to the spherical cages of MIL-100 prevents the proper formation of the MOF structure.

    20. Critical Property in Relaxor-PbTiO3 Single Crystals – Shear Piezoelectric Response (pages 2118–2128)

      Fei Li, Shujun Zhang, Zhuo Xu, Xiaoyong Wei and Thomas R. Shrout

      Version of Record online: 20 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002711

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      The shear piezoelectric behavior in relaxor-PbTiO3 (PT) single crystals is systematically investigated with regard to the crystal phase. High levels of shear piezoelectric activity, d15 or d24 >2000 pC N−1, are observed for single-domain rhombohedral (R), orthorhombic (O), and tetragonal (T) relaxor-PT crystals. These properties are investigated with respect to the temperature and electric field. The results demonstrate that the single-domain relaxor-PbTiO3 crystals are promising materials for high-performance transducers.

    21. Polymer-Stabilized Chromonic Liquid-Crystalline Polarizer (pages 2129–2139)

      Seul-Ki Park, So-Eun Kim, Dae-Yoon Kim, Shin-Woong Kang, Seunghan Shin, Shiao-Wei Kuo, Seok-Ho Hwang, Seung Hee Lee, Myong-Hoon Lee and Kwang-Un Jeong

      Version of Record online: 20 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002546

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      A robust coatable polarizer is fabricated by the self-assembly of lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals and subsequent photo-polymerizing processes. Their molecular packing structures and optical behaviors are investigated with microscopy, scattering, and spectroscopy.

    22. Influence of Hole-Transport Layers and Donor Materials on Open-Circuit Voltage and Shape of I–V Curves of Organic Solar Cells (pages 2140–2149)

      Wolfgang Tress, Karl Leo and Moritz Riede

      Version of Record online: 20 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002669

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      The influence of energy barriers (ΔE) for hole transport on the JV curve is analyzed in experiments and simulations. The investigated system consists of different combinations of organic hole-transport layers (HTLs) and donors. Depending on the kind of barrier and the configuration of the donor/acceptor heterojunction changes in the open-circuit voltage (Voc) and the formation of S-kinks are observed and explained.

    23. Carbon Nanoparticles on Carbon Fabric for Flexible and High-Performance Field Emitters (pages 2150–2154)

      Longyan Yuan, Yuting Tao, Jian Chen, Junjie Dai, Ting Song, Mingyue Ruan, Zongwei Ma, Li Gong, Kang Liu, Xianghui Zhang, Xuejiao Hu, Jun Zhou and Zhong Lin Wang

      Version of Record online: 20 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100172

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      Carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) are grown on highly flexible, highly conductive, and robust carbon fabric through a simple and low-cost flame synthesis process. Stable field emission with a threshold voltage of 2.8 MV m−1 and a high emission current density of 108 mA cm−2 are obtained for the CNPs. These results indicate that CNPs on carbon fabric have potential applications in flexible electronics devices.

    24. Direct Writing of Metal Nanoparticles by Localized Plasma Electrochemical Reduction of Metal Cations in Polymer Films (pages 2155–2161)

      Seung Whan Lee, Dong Liang, Xuan P. A. Gao and R. Mohan Sankaran

      Version of Record online: 20 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100093

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      A non-lithographic, dry approach to patterning metal nanoparticles is presented. Solutions of metal salt and polymer are spin-coated onto a substrate, dried, and exposed to a rastered microscale plasma operated at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. This platform technology enables the fabrication of transparent, flexible, patterned films of metal nanoparticles at low cost and high throughput for applications ranging from plasmonics to catalysis.

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