Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 21 Issue 16

August 23, 2011

Volume 21, Issue 16

Pages 3001–3197

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Full Papers
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Full Papers
    1. Electronic Devices on Various Substrates: Fabrication of Releasable Single-Crystal Silicon–Metal Oxide Field-Effect Devices and Their Deterministic Assembly on Foreign Substrates (Adv. Funct. Mater. 16/2011) (page 3001)

      Hyun-Joong Chung, Tae-il Kim, Hoon-Sik Kim, Spencer A. Wells, Sungjin Jo, Numair Ahmed, Yei Hwan Jung, Sang Min Won, Christopher A. Bower and John A. Rogers

      Version of Record online: 11 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190063

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      High-quality, fully formed silicon electronic devices that can be fabricated onto nearly any surface are presented by John A. Rogers and co-workers on page 3029. The cover shows a false-colored scanning electron microscopy image of an array of metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors that are fully formed on a silicon wafer. Potential applications range from large-area backplanes for display systems to stretchable components for advanced surgical devices. (Cover design: J. Sinn-Hanlon, University of Illinois)

  2. Inside Front Cover

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    3. Inside Front Cover
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    5. Contents
    6. Full Papers
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Full Papers
    1. Hybrid Materials: An Alternative Route Towards Metal–Polymer Hybrid Materials Prepared by Vapor-Phase Processing (Adv. Funct. Mater. 16/2011) (page 3002)

      Seung-Mo Lee, Vladislav Ischenko, Eckhard Pippel, Admir Masic, Oussama Moutanabbir, Peter Fratzl and Mato Knez

      Version of Record online: 11 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190064

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      A hybrid material consisting of polytetrafluoroethylene and transition metals and its mechanical properties are reported by Seung-Mo Lee, Vladislav Ischenko, Mato Knez, and co-workers on page 3047. The incorporation is based on atomic layer deposition and allows the top-down modification even of chemically resistant polymers. The resulting novel hybrid material shows physical properties significantly differing from the native polymer and promises a new approach towards functional polymers.

  3. Back Cover

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    5. Contents
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    7. Frontispiece
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    1. Binary Colloidal Monolayers: Wafer-Scale Fabrication of Ordered Binary Colloidal Monolayers with Adjustable Stoichiometries (Adv. Funct. Mater. 16/2011)

      Nicolas Vogel, Laurence de Viguerie, Ulrich Jonas, Clemens K. Weiss and Katharina Landfester

      Version of Record online: 11 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190067

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      Colloidal monolayers with high order and increased complexity beyond plain hexagonal packing geometries are useful for 2D templating of surface nanostructures and lithographic applications. On page 3064, Clemens K. Weiss and co-workers present binary colloidal monolayers that are prepared using a Langmuir trough. The stoichiometric composition of the large and small particles at the interface can be precisely adjusted to gain control over the occupation of the interstitial sites with small colloids.

  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Full Papers
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Full Papers
  5. Full Papers

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    1. Gecko-Inspired Dry Adhesive for Robotic Applications (pages 3010–3018)

      Jing Yu, Sathya Chary, Saurabh Das, John Tamelier, Noshir S. Pesika, Kimberly L. Turner and Jacob N. Israelachvili

      Version of Record online: 31 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100493

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      Gecko-inspired micrometer-sized recanular flaps composed of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) were fabricated using massively parallel micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) techniques. The adhesion and friction properties of the microflaps were tested using a surface forces apparatus (SFA). Our results demonstrate that asymmetric angled structures, as occur in geckos, are required to enable the geckos to optimize the requirements of simultaneous high friction and adhesion in the gripping stage, and low frictional-adhesion in the releasing stage.

    2. Efficient Organic Tandem Solar Cells based on Small Molecules (pages 3019–3028)

      Moritz Riede, Christian Uhrich, Johannes Widmer, Ronny Timmreck, David Wynands, Gregor Schwartz, Wolf-Michael Gnehr, Dirk Hildebrandt, Andre Weiss, Jaehyung Hwang, Sudhakar Sundarraj, Peter Erk, Martin Pfeiffer and Karl Leo

      Version of Record online: 14 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002760

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      Complementary absorbing small molecules are combined in a vacuum deposited organic tandem solar cell to efficiently harvest the sun light over the whole visible range. The devices show advantageous behavior under different illumination intensities and angles, as well as typical operating temperatures. Further device optimization leads to an independently certified efficiency of 6.07% on nearly 2 cm2.

    3. Fabrication of Releasable Single-Crystal Silicon–Metal Oxide Field-Effect Devices and Their Deterministic Assembly on Foreign Substrates (pages 3029–3036)

      Hyun-Joong Chung, Tae-il Kim, Hoon-Sik Kim, Spencer A. Wells, Sungjin Jo, Numair Ahmed, Yei Hwan Jung, Sang Min Won, Christopher A. Bower and John A. Rogers

      Version of Record online: 3 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100124

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      Materials and processing approaches are introduced that are capable of integrating high-quality, fully formed silicon electronic devices onto nearly any surface, ranging from paper and plastic, to glass, or aluminum foil. The steps involve the release of ultrathin, small-scale transistors and integrated circuits formed on the surfaces of silicon wafers, followed by their delivery to target substrates using printinglike techniques, while maintaining the electronic properties.

    4. Polyol-Mediated Synthesis and Properties of Nanoscale Molybdates/Tungstates: Color, Luminescence, Catalysis (pages 3037–3046)

      Peter Schmitt, Nadine Brem, Stephan Schunk and Claus Feldmann

      Version of Record online: 21 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100655

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      Nanometer-scale Fe2(MoO4)3, CoMoO4, NiMoO4, CuMoO4, In2(MoO4)3, and CuWO4 are prepared via a polyol-mediated synthesis and evaluated regarding their properties, such as color, luminescence, catalytical oxidation of o-xylene and photocatalytical degradation of methylene blue.

    5. An Alternative Route Towards Metal–Polymer Hybrid Materials Prepared by Vapor-Phase Processing (pages 3047–3055)

      Seung-Mo Lee, Vladislav Ischenko, Eckhard Pippel, Admir Masic, Oussama Moutanabbir, Peter Fratzl and Mato Knez

      Version of Record online: 1 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100384

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      Transition metals incorporated into polymers lead to unusual or improved physical properties that significantly differ from those of purely organic polymers. A simple and practicable incorporation of diverse transition metals into any available polymer would make an important contribution to overcome current synthetic difficulties of metal–polymer hybrid materials. Atomic layer deposition can be a promising means to easily realize the incorporation of metals into polymers for the development of new types of metal–polymer hybrid materials.<?br?>

    6. Evolution of Light Absorption and Emission Characteristics of Organic Perylene Nanoparticles through Hydrothermal Process: Application to Solar Cells (pages 3056–3063)

      Eun Hei Cho, Mi Suk Kim, Dong Hyuk Park, Hyunjung Jung, Joona Bang, Jeongyong Kim and Jinsoo Joo

      Version of Record online: 24 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100588

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      Optical and structural characteristics of perylene nanoparticles (NPs) are evolved by controlling the π–π interactions using a hydrothermal process. The light- emission colors of the NPs vary from yellow to green to light blue with increasing hydrothermal temperature. The evolution of the optical properties of the NPs is analyzed by their crystallinity and their physical dimensions. The performance of organic solar cells is correlated with the characteristic absorbances of the NPs.

    7. Wafer-Scale Fabrication of Ordered Binary Colloidal Monolayers with Adjustable Stoichiometries (pages 3064–3073)

      Nicolas Vogel, Laurence de Viguerie, Ulrich Jonas, Clemens K. Weiss and Katharina Landfester

      Version of Record online: 13 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100414

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      Binary colloidal monolayers are prepared using a Langmuir trough. The stoichiometric composition of the large and small particles at the interface can be precisely adjusted to gain control over the occupation of the interstitial sites with small colloids. Binary 2D crystals with LS2, LS6, and LS9 composition are thus obtained for a wide range of size ratios over areas only limited by the trough dimensions.

    8. Site-Specific Placement of Au Nanoparticles on Chemical Nanopatterns Prepared by Molecular Transfer Printing Using Block-Copolymer Films (pages 3074–3082)

      M. Serdar Onses, Christopher J. Thode, Chi-Chun Liu, Shengxiang Ji, Peter L. Cook, Franz J. Himpsel and Paul F. Nealey

      Version of Record online: 17 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100300

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      This study demonstrates massively parallel fabrication of nanoscale chemical patterns for the specific placement of ex-situ synthesized Au NPs. Chemical patterns are generated based on transfer of hydroxyl-terminated poly(styrene) brushes from poly(styrene-block-methyl methacrylate) block copolymer films onto a replica substrate via molecular transfer printing and fill with hydroxyl-terminated poly(2-vinyl pyridine) brushes.

    9. Identifying a Threshold Impurity Level for Organic Solar Cells: Enhanced First-Order Recombination Via Well-Defined PC84BM Traps in Organic Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells (pages 3083–3092)

      Sarah R. Cowan, Wei Lin Leong, Natalie Banerji, Gilles Dennler and Alan J. Heeger

      Version of Record online: 21 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100514

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      PC84BM traps provide a definitive measure of trap-assisted recombination in polymer:fullerene solar cells. The trap-density-dependent recombination studied here can be described by the result of bimolecular and Shockley–Read–Hall recombination. Dilute impurities act as an important loss mechanism that may be eliminated via further purification processes. Schematic illustration of the addition of PC84BM in small mass fraction to the polymer bulk-heterojunction solar cell, showing the chemical structure of PC84BM and PC60BM.

  6. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Full Papers
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Full Papers
    1. Photoelectrodes: Rapid Fabrication of an Inverse Opal TiO2 Photoelectrode for DSSC Using a Binary Mixture of TiO2 Nanoparticles and Polymer Microspheres (Adv. Funct. Mater. 16/2011) (page 3093)

      Young Gon Seo, Kyoungja Woo, Junkyung Kim, Hyunjung Lee and Wonmok Lee

      Version of Record online: 11 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190066

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      Highly reflective TiO2 inverse opal films are presented by Hyunjung Lee, Wonmok Lee, and co-workers on page 3094. A binary composite film of polystyrene/TiO2 is directly fabricated on a fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate, which shows a highly ordered opalline structure of PS embedded into the TiO2 matrix. The TiO2 inverse opal film was tested as a dye-sensitized solar cell photoelectrode and showed a relatively high photon-to-current conversion efficiency.

  7. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Full Papers
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Full Papers
    1. Rapid Fabrication of an Inverse Opal TiO2 Photoelectrode for DSSC Using a Binary Mixture of TiO2 Nanoparticles and Polymer Microspheres (pages 3094–3103)

      Young Gon Seo, Kyoungja Woo, Junkyung Kim, Hyunjung Lee and Wonmok Lee

      Version of Record online: 14 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002489

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      Induced by accelerated solvent evaporation during the colloidal self-assembly process, a binary composite film of polystyrene (PS)/TiO2 is directly fabricated on a fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate, which exhibits a highly ordered opalline structure of PS embedded into the TiO2 matrix. By thermal calcinations without delamination, the composite film was successfully converted to the inverse-opal (IO) TiO2 film, which can be directly used as a functional film such as a photoelectrode for DSSC (dye-sensitized solar cells).

    2. Mobile Ferroelastic Domain Walls in Nanocrystalline PZT Films: the Direct Piezoelectric Effect (pages 3104–3110)

      Ricardo J. Zednik, Anbusathaiah Varatharajan, Mark Oliver, Nagarajan Valanoor and Paul C. McIntyre

      Version of Record online: 4 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100445

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      Pure biaxial mechanical stress is applied to nanocrystalline PZT films, leading to complete orientation switching of ferroelastic domains. The nanometer-scale mechanisms that underlie the direct piezoelectric effect via local domain switching are identified and indicate that bulk-like ferroelastic behavior can extend to nanocrystalline films in the absence of substrate clamping.

    3. Cocatalyst-Free Photocatalysts for Efficient Visible-Light-Induced H2 Production: Porous Assemblies of CdS Quantum Dots and Layered Titanate Nanosheets (pages 3111–3118)

      Hyo Na Kim, Tae Woo Kim, In Young Kim and Seong-Ju Hwang

      Version of Record online: 4 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100453

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      Pt-free hybrid photocatalysts with a high activity for visible-light-induced H2 generation are synthesized by self-assembly between sub-nanometer-thick, 2D titanate nanosheets and CdS QDs. A strong electronic coupling between two nanospecies nearly suppresses electron-hole recombination. These 2D-nanosheet-based nanohybrids show high photocatalytic activity for H2.

    4. 3D Out-of-Plane Rotational Etching with Pinned Catalysts in Metal-Assisted Chemical Etching of Silicon (pages 3119–3128)

      Owen J. Hildreth, Devin Brown and Ching P. Wong

      Version of Record online: 3 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100279

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      Scooped-out basins, 50-nm subsurface curved horns, and vertically oriented metal thin films are some of the structures resulting from the use of pinned Ti/Au lithographically patterned structures as catalysts in metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) of silicon to induce out-of-plane rotational etching. The force and pressure of MACE are calculated to be 0.5–3.5 μN and 0.5–3.9 MPa.

    5. Ultrabright Fluorescent Silica Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles: Control of Particle Size and Dye Loading (pages 3129–3135)

      Eun-Bum Cho, Dmytro O. Volkov and Igor Sokolov

      Version of Record online: 7 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100311

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      Ultrabright fluorescent mesoporous silica nanoparticles of various sizes (20–50 nm) with different amounts of encapsulated fluorescent dye (Rhodamine 6G) are reported. The relative brightness of the particles was equivalent to the fluorescence of 30–770 individual free nondimerized R6G dye molecules in water, or to that of 1.5–39 CdSe/ZnS quantum dots.

    6. Novel Sol–Gel Nano-Glass–Ceramics Comprising Ln3+-Doped YF3 Nanocrystals: Structure and High Efficient UV Up-Conversion (pages 3136–3142)

      A. Carlos Yanes, Alejandro Santana-Alonso, Jorge Méndez-Ramos, Javier del-Castillo and Vicente D. Rodríguez

      Version of Record online: 7 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100146

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      Transparent glass–ceramics containing Lnmath image-doped YF3 nanocrystals are obtained under adequate thermal treatment of precursor sol–gel glasses: The image is an HRTEM bright-field micrograph of 90SiO2–10YF3 RE-doped nano-glass-ceramics heat-treated at 675 °C, showing the presence of YF3 nanoparticles. The right-top side inset corresponds to the power spectrum obtained from the region squared in white. The right-bottom inset corresponds to a magnified detail of the same zoomed region, showing the crystalline pattern of a YF3 nanoparticle.

    7. Water-Soluble Conjugated Polymers for Amplified Fluorescence Detection of Template-Independent DNA Elongation Catalyzed by Polymerase (pages 3143–3149)

      Fang He, Libing Liu and Lidong Li

      Version of Record online: 21 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100216

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      A series of water-soluble polyfluorenes containing DPP units are synthesized and characterized. These copolymers demonstrate intramolecular energy transfer from the fluorene units to the DPP units, which lead to red-shifted emissions. The copolymers show an obvious amplification to the fluorescence of red-emission-dye Cy5-labeled DNA, and are utilized in the detection of DNA elongation catalyzed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase and the catalytic activity of TdT.

    8. Platinum Phosphors Containing an Aryl-modified β-Diketonate: Unusual Effect of Molecular Packing on Photo- and Electroluminescence (pages 3150–3158)

      Chin-Hsien Chen, Fang-Iy Wu, Yin-Yen Tsai and Chien-Hong Cheng

      Version of Record online: 24 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100165

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      The molecular packing of FPt1 analogues shows strong correlation with their emission spectra. In the crystalline state, mCzP-FPt forms dimers having a close Pt–Pt contact (3.49 Å) and gives off a broadband orange emission; however, the other complexes without intermolecular Pt–Pt interaction (>4.50 Å) but with ππ or Pt–π interaction give structured green emissions.

    9. Electronic Properties and Structure of Assemblies of CdSe Nanocrystal Quantum Dots and Ru-Polypyridine Complexes Probed by Steady State and Time-Resolved Photoluminescence (pages 3159–3168)

      Alexey Y. Koposov, Paul Szymanski, Thomas Cardolaccia, Thomas J. Meyer, Victor I. Klimov and Milan Sykora

      Version of Record online: 20 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100415

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      Assemblies of CdSe nanocrystalline quantum dots (NQDs) and Ru-polypyridine complexes functionalized with carboxylic acid groups are prepared by the surface exchange process. Photoluminescence studies show that the composition of the resulting assemblies as well as the efficiency of electronic interaction between the NQDs and the adsorbed complexes are strongly dependent on NQD size.

    10. Lateral Phase Separation Gradients in Spin-Coated Thin Films of High-Performance Polymer:Fullerene Photovoltaic Blends (pages 3169–3175)

      Lintao Hou, Ergang Wang, Jonas Bergqvist, B. Viktor Andersson, Zhongqiang Wang, Christian Müller, Mariano Campoy-Quiles, Mats R. Andersson, Fengling Zhang and Olle Inganäs

      Version of Record online: 20 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100566

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      Spincoating of blends of a high molecular weight polymer with fullerene causes variations of the rate of solvent removal, and influences nanostructure formation. Electron tomography imaging of the 3D nanostructure of the blends close to and far from the center of rotation reveal considerable variations, accounting for the variation of photocurrent generation across spincoated layers, and the presence of “champion cells”.

    11. Confined Ferroelectric Properties in Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride-co-Chlorotrifluoroethylene)-graft-Polystyrene Graft Copolymers for Electric Energy Storage Applications (pages 3176–3188)

      Fangxiao Guan, Lianyun Yang, Jing Wang, Bing Guan, Kuo Han, Qing Wang and Lei Zhu

      Version of Record online: 15 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002015

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      Confined ferroelectric properties are observed in a series of poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-chlorotrifluoroethylene)-graft-polystyrene graft copolymers [P(VDF-CTFE)-g-PS]. Both high energy density and low dielectric/ferroelectric losses are achieved simultaneously for a hot-pressed P(VDF-CTFE)-g-PS graft copolymer film with 34 wt-% PS. This is attributed to a low polarizability PS-rich layer at the amorphous–crystalline interface, confining the ferroelectric PVDF crystal.

    12. Aerosol-Spraying Synthesis of Periodic Mesoporous Organometalsilica Spheres with Chamber Cavities as Active and Reusable Catalysts in Aqueous Organic Reactions (pages 3189–3197)

      Fang Zhang, Chunmei Kang, Yongyi Wei and Hexing Li

      Version of Record online: 4 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100504

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      Periodic mesoporous organometalsilica catalysts in uniform spheres containing chamber cavities were synthesized by aerosol-spraying assisted self-assembly in the presence of CTAB and NaCl double templates, which exhibited comparable efficiencies with the homogeneous catalysts in water-medium organic reactions and could be used repeatedly.

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