Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Advanced Functional Materials

November 8, 2011

Volume 21, Issue 21

Pages 4001–4198

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    1. Braille Displays: A 4 V Operation, Flexible Braille Display Using Organic Transistors, Carbon Nanotube Actuators, and Organic Static Random-Access Memory (Adv. Funct. Mater. 21/2011) (page 4001)

      Kenjiro Fukuda, Tsuyoshi Sekitani, Ute Zschieschang, Hagen Klauk, Kazunori Kuribara, Tomoyuki Yokota, Takushi Sugino, Kinji Asaka, Masaaki Ikeda, Hirokazu Kuwabara, Tatsuya Yamamoto, Kazuo Takimiya, Takanori Fukushima, Takuzo Aida, Makoto Takamiya, Takayasu Sakurai and Takao Someya

      Version of Record online: 27 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190095

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      A 4-V operational organic Braille display is developed by Takao Someya and coworkers on page 4019, by integrating an organic static random-access-memory (SRAM) array with a carbon nanotube (CNT)-based actuator and an organic thin film tranistor (TFT) driver. Taking advantage of new organic materials and process engineering, an actuator displacement of 300 μm has been achieved within 4-V operation in air, a size that is large enough for a blind person to recognize whether individual dots are in an up or down state.

  2. Inside Front Cover

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    1. Optics: Bioinspired Tunable Lens with Muscle-Like Electroactive Elastomers (Adv. Funct. Mater. 21/2011) (page 4002)

      Federico Carpi, Gabriele Frediani, Simona Turco and Danilo De Rossi

      Version of Record online: 27 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190096

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      A bioinspired electrically tunable lens made of dielectric elastomer “artificial muscles” is presented by Carpi and coworkers on page 4152. The cover image shows a schematic sectional view of the all-polymer device, which is inspired by the architecture of the crystalline lens and ciliary muscle of the human eye. The background image is a detail of a drawing by Leonardo da Vinci (“A study of the proportions of the eye and eyelid” - Royal Library of Turin, # 15574). In the paper, the authors show that upon electrical activation, the elastomeric artificial muscle is able to deform the fluidfilled elastomeric lens, producing a relative variation of focal length comparable to that of the human lens.

  3. Back Cover

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    1. Tissue Engineering: Stable Extracellular Matrix Protein Patterns Guide the Orientation of Osteoblast-like Cells (Adv. Funct. Mater. 21/2011) (page 4199)

      Jian-Tao Zhang, Juequan Nie, Mike Mühlstädt, Hilary Gallagher, Oliver Pullig and Klaus D. Jandt

      Version of Record online: 27 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190097

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      On page 4079, Jian-Tao Zhang, Oliver Pullig, Klaus D. Jandt, and coworkers use a facile approach, microcontact printing, to fabricate stable extracellular matrix (ECM) protein microstructures on the surfaces of implant materials. These protein structures are highly stable due to an intermediate polymer layer between the ECM proteins and the materials. Interestingly, these structures can guide the adhesion, proliferation, and organization of osteoblast-like cells. The cell morphology and alignment are controllable by the protein patterns.

  4. Contents

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    1. Controlled Fabrication of PbS Quantum-Dot/Carbon-Nanotube Nanoarchitecture and its Significant Contribution to Near-Infrared Photon-to-Current Conversion (pages 4010–4018)

      Defa Wang, Jayanta K Baral, Haiguang Zhao, Belete Atomsa Gonfa, Vo-Van Truong, My Ali El Khakani, Ricardo Izquierdo and Dongling Ma

      Version of Record online: 8 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100824

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      A novel poly(3-hexylthiophene):PbS-quantum- dot/multi-walled carbon nanotube (P3HT:PbS-QD/MWCNT) nanohybrid photovoltaic device with significantly enhanced near-infrared (NIR) photon-to-current conversion is developed by employing PbS QDs as light harvester for absorbing a wide wavelength range irradiation up to NIR, while the one-dimensional MWCNTs and the conducting polymer P3HT are used to collect and transport the photoelectrons and photoholes, respectively.

    2. A 4 V Operation, Flexible Braille Display Using Organic Transistors, Carbon Nanotube Actuators, and Organic Static Random-Access Memory (pages 4019–4027)

      Kenjiro Fukuda, Tsuyoshi Sekitani, Ute Zschieschang, Hagen Klauk, Kazunori Kuribara, Tomoyuki Yokota, Takushi Sugino, Kinji Asaka, Masaaki Ikeda, Hirokazu Kuwabara, Tatsuya Yamamoto, Kazuo Takimiya, Takanori Fukushima, Takuzo Aida, Makoto Takamiya, Takayasu Sakurai and Takao Someya

      Version of Record online: 19 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101050

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      A 4-V operational organic Braille display is demonstrated, for the first time, by integrating organic static-random-access-memory with a carbon nanotube-based actuator and organic thin-film transistor driver. Taking advantage of new organic materials and process engineering, an actuator displacement of 300 μm has been achieved within 4-V operation in air, a size that is large enough for a blind persons to recognize whether individual dots are in an up or down state.

    3. A Thermoresponsive Antimicrobial Wound Dressing Hydrogel Based on a Cationic Betaine Ester (pages 4028–4034)

      Luo Mi, Hong Xue, Yuting Li and Shaoyi Jiang

      Version of Record online: 7 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100871

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      An in situ forming multifunctional wound dressing hydrogel made up of triblock copolymers with well-controlled molecular structure was synthesized via RAFT polymerization. The physical cross-linked hydrogel is easy to apply and gives good tissue conformity. In addition, it is experimental proven to provide antimicrobial activity and healing promotion at the wound site.

    4. A Mesoporous, Silica-Immobilized-Nanoparticle Colorimetric Chemosensor for the Detection of Nerve Agents (pages 4035–4040)

      Hyun Jung Kim, Ji Ha Lee, Hyejin Lee, Jae Hong Lee, Joung Hae Lee, Jong Hwa Jung and Jong Seung Kim

      Version of Record online: 9 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100968

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      A new and an easy-to-make colorimetric azo-pyridine, and its recyclable mesoporous silica-immobilized nanoparticles for nerve-agent detection are synthesized. The binding site, comprising an azo-pyridine moiety, is capable of selectively sensing diethylchlorophosphate (DCP), one of the nerve-agent mimics of chemical-warfare agents, over a series of other phosphate compounds.

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    1. Photoluminescence: Routes to Achieving High Quantum Yield Luminescence from Gas-Phase-Produced Silicon Nanocrystals (Adv. Funct. Mater. 21/2011) (page 4041)

      Rebecca J. Anthony, David J. Rowe, Matthias Stein, Jihua Yang and Uwe Kortshagen

      Version of Record online: 27 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190092

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      Silicon nanocrystals with high photoluminescence quantum yields can be produced through nonthermal plasma synthesis when both the synthesis and the post-synthesis environment are carefully optimized. In their article on page 4042, Uwe Kortshagen and co-workers demonstrate that the injection of hydrogen into the postsynthesis region is crucial for terminating surface defects of plasmaproduced silicon nanocrystals and for achieving optimal luminescent properties.

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    1. Routes to Achieving High Quantum Yield Luminescence from Gas-Phase-Produced Silicon Nanocrystals (pages 4042–4046)

      Rebecca J. Anthony, David J. Rowe, Matthias Stein, Jihua Yang and Uwe Kortshagen

      Version of Record online: 22 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100784

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      Plasma-synthesized silicon nanocrystals with alkyl functionalization exhibit highly efficient photoluminescence depending on the immediate post-synthesis “afterglow plasma” environment. Secondary hydrogen injection into the afterglow allows for fast quenching of the particle temperature and provides a high flux of atomic hydrogen to the nanocrystal surface, two features which are essential for producing efficient optical emission from silicon nanocrystals.

    2. 2D Versus 3D Crystalline Order in Thin Films of Regioregular Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Oriented by Mechanical Rubbing and Epitaxy (pages 4047–4057)

      Lucia Hartmann, Kim Tremel, Sureeporn Uttiya, Edward Crossland, Sabine Ludwigs, Navaphun Kayunkid, Christelle Vergnat and Martin Brinkmann

      Version of Record online: 12 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101139

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      Highly oriented films of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) are prepared by mechanical rubbing and directional epitaxial crystallization and correlations between structure, nanomorphology, and the optical and charge-transport properties are highlighted. There is a strong influence of the polymer molecular weight on the orientation of the rubbed P3HT films, which is explained in terms of chain folding and entanglement.

    3. Design Guidelines For Conjugated Polymers With Light-Activated Anticancer Activity (pages 4058–4067)

      Chengfen Xing, Libing Liu, Hongwei Tang, Xuli Feng, Qiong Yang, Shu Wang and Guillermo C. Bazan

      Version of Record online: 15 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100840

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      Water-soluble conjugated polymers with a molecular design centered on the polythiophene−porphyrin dyad are effective for killing neighboring cells. These multifunctional materials that simultaneously provide therapeutic action and image the results provide new strategies for the treatment of various diseases.

    4. Electronic Granularity and the Work Function of Transparent Conducting ZnO:Al Thin Films (pages 4068–4072)

      Rafael Jaramillo and Shriram Ramanathan

      Version of Record online: 25 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101069

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      The functional properties of transparent conducting oxides are strongly controlled by the oxygen stoichiometry. Here we provide direct visual evidence for nano-scale electronic heterogeneity which arises from the oxidation state of grain boundaries in ZnO:Al. By correlating scaning probe data with photoemission spectroscpy we develop a model to describe the work function trends in this important transparent conductor.

    5. Solid-State Electrode Materials with Ionic-Liquid Properties for Energy Storage: the Lithium Solid-State Ionic-Liquid Concept. (pages 4073–4078)

      Jean Le Bideau, Jean-Baptiste Ducros, Patrick Soudan and Dominique Guyomard

      Version of Record online: 12 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100774

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      A LiFePO4/ionogel assembly of a lithium solid-state ionic-liquid (LISSIL) battery is described. The Fe atoms appear purple and the Si atoms of the ionogel appear yellow in the Figure; within a single step, the porosity of the solid-state electrode is fully wetted by the ionogel, which confines an ionic liquid, simultaneously with the formation of the ionogel-electrolyte separator layer.

    6. Stable Extracellular Matrix Protein Patterns Guide the Orientation of Osteoblast-like Cells (pages 4079–4087)

      Jian-Tao Zhang, Juequan Nie, Mike Mühlstädt, Hilary Gallagher, Oliver Pullig and Klaus D. Jandt

      Version of Record online: 29 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100739

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A facile approach is reported for the organization and patterning of osteoblast-like cells by stable ECM-protein microstructures that are created on glass and titanium substrates. These structures are highly stable due to the intermediate interaction of chitosan with the substrates and proteins. Osteoblast-like cells preferentially adhere and grow on the protein-functionalized areas. The cell morphology and distribution direction are controllable.

    7. Room Temperature Multifunctional Organophosphorus Gels and Liquid Crystals (pages 4088–4099)

      Carlos Romero-Nieto, Mercedes Marcos, Sonia Merino, Joaquín Barberá, Thomas Baumgartner and Julián Rodríguez-López

      Version of Record online: 15 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101219

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      New phosphorus-based materials prepared from dithienophosphole heterocycles display a wide array of properties, from high photoluminescence, thermochromism and electrochromism, to the ability to self-assemble into room temperature gels and columnar liquid crystals.

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    1. Functional Surfaces: A Mussel Adhesive Protein Fused with the BC Domain of Protein A is a Functional Linker Material that Efficiently Immobilizes Antibodies onto Diverse Surfaces (Adv. Funct. Mater. 21/2011) (page 4100)

      Chang Sup Kim, Yoo Seong Choi, Wooree Ko, Jeong Hyun Seo, Jieun Lee and Hyung Joon Cha

      Version of Record online: 27 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190093

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      A functional linker material based on the fusion of mussel adhesive protein with the BC domain of protein A efficiently immobilizes antibodies on diverse surfaces, as presented by Hyung Joon Cha and coworkers on page 4101. The cover shows an antibody immobilized on diverse surfaces in an oriented manner using this functional linker. This material has signifi cant potential as an immobilizing agent for the development of various immunosensors and immunoarrays.

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    1. A Mussel Adhesive Protein Fused with the BC Domain of Protein A is a Functional Linker Material that Efficiently Immobilizes Antibodies onto Diverse Surfaces (pages 4101–4108)

      Chang Sup Kim, Yoo Seong Choi, Wooree Ko, Jeong Hyun Seo, Jieun Lee and Hyung Joon Cha

      Version of Record online: 31 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100710

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      Sticky sensing surfaces: BC-MAP is a functional linker material based on the fusion of a marine mussel-derived adhesive protein and the BC domain of protein A. It can efficiently immobilize target antibodies onto diverse surfaces in an oriented manner through simple and direct surface coating. BC-MAP has significant potential as an immobilizing agent for the development of various immunosensors and immunoarrays.

    2. Nanostructuring of Azomolecules in Silica Artificial Opals for Enhanced Photoalignment (pages 4109–4119)

      Francisco Gallego-Gómez, Alvaro Blanco, Dolores Golmayo and Cefe López

      Version of Record online: 13 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101410

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      A dramatic enhancement in the photoalignment of azochromophores, efficiently distributed into three-dimensional nanostructures, is demonstrated using a direct solution-processing approach. Extremely large and fast refractive index changes (up to 0.36 in 15 ms), which, in addition, are fully reversible by thermalization, are induced with low intensity cw-irradiation. These features make the system suitable for long-duty cycle photoswitching applications, based on modulation of the photoinduced birefringence.

      Corrected by:

      Correction: Correction: Nanostructuring of Azomolecules in Silica Artifi cial Opals for Enhanced Photoalignment

      Vol. 22, Issue 2, 238, Version of Record online: 19 JAN 2012

    3. One-Dimensional Hierarchical Structures Composed of Novel Metal Oxide Nanosheets on a Carbon Nanotube Backbone and Their Lithium-Storage Properties (pages 4120–4125)

      Shujiang Ding, Jun Song Chen and Xiong Wen (David) Lou

      Version of Record online: 12 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100781

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      Enhanced lithium storage: Facile solution methods are developed to directly grow anatase TiO2 nanosheets with exposed (001) facets and SnO2 nanosheets on a carbon nanotube (CNT) backbone. Electrochemical investigation shows that these unique one-dimensional hierarchical nanostructures exhibit significantly enhanced lithium-storage properties under different testing conditions.

    4. Nanostructures from Single Amino Acid-Based Molecules: Stability, Fibrillation, Encapsulation, and Fabrication of Silver Nanoparticles (pages 4126–4136)

      Pradyot Koley and Animesh Pramanik

      Version of Record online: 8 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101465

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      This report describes the synthesis, characterization, and various potential applications of a new set of single amino acid-based molecules that can generate diverse kinds of nanostructures – such as nanorods, nanofibrils, nanotubes, and nanovesicles – depending upon the protection parameters and solvent polarity

    5. Charge Modified Cowpea Mosaic Virus Particles for Templated Mineralization (pages 4137–4142)

      Alaa A. A. Aljabali, J. Elaine Barclay, Oscar Cespedes, Abdul Rashid, Sarah S. Staniland, George P. Lomonossoff and David J. Evans

      Version of Record online: 28 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101048

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      Surface charge modification of Cowpea mosaic virus is sufficient to promote the templated mineralization of metal and metal oxide. Surface negative charge is increased by the chemical introduction of succinamate on surface lysine groups. The cobalt and iron oxide templated nanoparticles subsequently obtained are monodisperse with a diameter of ca. 32 nm.

    6. High-Temperature Performance of Alumina–Zirconia Composite Coatings Containing Amorphous Phases (pages 4143–4151)

      Fariba Tarasi, Mamoun Medraj, Ali Dolatabadi, Jorg Oberste-Berghaus and Christian Moreau

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100471

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      The effect of the amorphous phase on alumina–zirconia plasma-sprayed coatings is presented here for coatings before and after heat treatment. It is shown that nanostructure arises through the heat treatment, which improves the mechanical properties and thermal stability of the coatings.

    7. Bioinspired Tunable Lens with Muscle-Like Electroactive Elastomers (pages 4152–4158)

      Federico Carpi, Gabriele Frediani, Simona Turco and Danilo De Rossi

      Version of Record online: 15 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101253

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      An electrically tunable lens made of dielectric elastomer “artificial muscles” is presented. The device is inspired by the architecture of the crystalline lens and ciliary muscle of the human eye. Upon electrical activation, an elastomeric artificial muscle deforms a fluid-filled elastomeric lens, producing a relative variation of focal length comparable to that of the human lens. Results show that combing bioinspired design with the unique properties of dielectric elastomers as artificial muscle transducers has the potential to open new perspectives on tunable optics.

    8. Facile Fabrication of SWCNT/SnO2 Nanowire Heterojunction Devices on Flexible Polyimide Substrate (pages 4159–4165)

      Jaehyun Park, Yoonchul Kim, Gyu-Tae Kim and Jeong Sook Ha

      Version of Record online: 5 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101470

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      The facile fabrication and electrical performance of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/tin oxide nanowire (SnO2 NW) heterojunction device arrays on flexible polyimide substrates is reported.

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    1. Solar Cells: Nanosized Anatase TiO2 Single Crystals with Tunable Exposed (001) Facets for Enhanced Energy Conversion Efficiency of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (Adv. Funct. Mater. 21/2011) (page 4166)

      Xia Wu, Zhigang Chen, Gao Qing (Max) Lu and Lianzhou Wang

      Version of Record online: 27 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190094

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      A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) composed of nanosized TiO2 single crystals with tunable (001) facets for enhanced solar cell performance is developed by Gao Qing (Max) Lu, Lianzhou Wang, and coworkers on page 4167. The performance improvement is due to the increased proportion of exposed active (001) facets, which are not only favorable for dye adsorption but also effectively retard charge recombination in DSSC. SOLAR CELLS

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    1. Nanosized Anatase TiO2 Single Crystals with Tunable Exposed (001) Facets for Enhanced Energy Conversion Efficiency of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 4167–4172)

      Xia Wu, Zhigang Chen, Gao Qing (Max) Lu and Lianzhou Wang

      Version of Record online: 25 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100828

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      The correlation between nanosized anatase TiO2 single crystals with a tunable percentage of exposed (001) facets and their photoconversion efficiency was investigated. A considerable enhancement in the dye-sensitized solar cell performance was observed for photoanode consisting of nanosized TiO2 single crystals with increased percentage of exposed (001) facets. It was evident that highly exposed (001) facets of TiO2 are not only favorable for dye adsorption but also effectively retard the charge recombination rate of DSSCs.

    2. High-Mobility Air-Stable Solution-Shear-Processed n-Channel Organic Transistors Based on Core-Chlorinated Naphthalene Diimides (pages 4173–4181)

      Wen-Ya Lee, Joon Hak Oh, Sabin-Lucian Suraru, Wen-Chang Chen, Frank Würthner and Zhenan Bao

      Version of Record online: 4 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101606

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      Solution-shearing (SS) processed organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) based on core-chlorinated naphthalene diimide semiconductors with electron-withdrawing chlorine substituents and fluorocarbon chains exhibit electron mobilities as high as 0.57 cm2 V−1 s−1 and good air stability. In addition, the solution-shearing deposition was found to affect the orientation of crystalline thin films and lower the d(001)-spacing of the packing of small molecules compared to vapor-deposited thin films.

    3. Broadband Omnidirectional Diversion of Light in Hybrid Plasmonic-Photonic Heterocrystals (pages 4182–4192)

      Boyang Ding, Maria Bardosova, Martyn E. Pemble, Alexander V. Korovin, Ulf Peschel and Sergei G. Romanov

      Version of Record online: 26 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100695

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      Ultrabroadband, omnidirectional, and polarization-insensitive diversion of more than 90% of incident light is achieved by synergy of light diffraction in thin film three-dimensional colloidal photonic crystals, excitation of short living surface plasmon polaritons in the corrugated thin metal film covering the interface between photonic crystals, mismatch of eigenmodes of dissimilar crystals and structural disorder in one of the crystals.

    4. Nanoporous PtRu Alloy Enhanced Nonenzymatic Immunosensor for Ultrasensitive Detection of Microcystin-LR (pages 4193–4198)

      Qin Wei, Yanfang Zhao, Bin Du, Dan Wu, Yanyan Cai, Kexia Mao, He Li and Caixia Xu

      Version of Record online: 8 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100773

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      A unique nonenzymatic sandwich-type immunosensor based on nanoporous PtRu alloys and graphene nanosheets is demonstrated; this is a unique realization of a nonenzymatic sandwich-type immunosensor. The sensor does not rely on enzymes or electrochemical redox mediators to function, but rather on the strong catalysis performance of nanoporous PtRu alloys towards H2O2.

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