Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 21 Issue 22

November 22, 2011

Volume 21, Issue 22

Pages 4201–4396

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    1. Drug Delivery: Paclitaxel-Loaded Polymer Nanoparticles for the Reversal of Multidrug Resistance in Breast Cancer Cells (Adv. Funct. Mater. 22/2011) (page 4201)

      Yeonju Lee, Ralph Graeser, Felix Kratz and Kurt E. Geckeler

      Version of Record online: 16 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190102

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      Water-soluble paclitaxel-loaded polymer nanoparticles, synthesized by Kurt E. Geckeler and coworkers on page 4211, show a significant reversal of the chemoresistance in drug-resistant human breast cancer cell lines. The front cover illustrates different cellular interaction patterns between the paclitaxel (red) and the polymer nanoparticles (blue spheres containing red particle) on the drug-resistant P-glycoprotein (purple) expressing human breast cancer cells. Paclitaxel is continuously transported by the P-glycoprotein, however, the paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles taken up by endocytosis are able to reverse the multidrug resistance by bypassing the P-glycoprotein.

  2. Inside Front Cover

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    1. Biomedical Applications: Multifunctionalized Electrospun Silk Fibers Promote Axon Regeneration in the Central Nervous System (Adv. Funct. Mater. 22/2011) (page 4202)

      Corinne R. Wittmer, Thomas Claudepierre, Michael Reber, Peter Wiedemann, Jonathan A. Garlick, David Kaplan and Christophe Egles

      Version of Record online: 16 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190103

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      On page 4232, Christophe Egles and co-workers have designed electrospun silk fibers biofunctionalized with growth factors that promote axon regeneration in the central nervous system. The inside cover shows a merged image of the autofluorescent silk fibers (green), phalloidin labeling of the actin filaments (red), and DAPI nuclear staining (blue) in a retinal ganglion cell. The growth cones of the cells elongate along the silk fibers and change direction at silk crossroads. Nerve cells exhibit longer axonal growth when in contact with biofunctionalized fibers in comparison with unfunctionalized silk.

  3. Back Cover

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    1. Imaging: Positive and Negative Lattice Shielding Effects Co-existing in Gd (III) Ion Doped Bifunctional Upconversion Nanoprobes (Adv. Funct. Mater. 22/2011) (page 4397)

      Feng Chen, Wenbo Bu, Shengjian Zhang, Xiaohang Liu, Jianan Liu, Huaiyong Xing, Qingfeng Xiao, Liangping Zhou, Weijun Peng, Lianzhou Wang and Jianlin Shi

      Version of Record online: 16 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190104

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      On page 4285, Wenbo Bu, Jianlin Shi, and co-workers find that positive and negative lattice shielding effects coexist in lanthanide-ion-doped upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles, and can be used to advance the T1-MR contrast imaging and fluorescent imaging capabilities of watersoluble bifunctional nanocrystals. This results in highly enhanced magnetic and optical imaging modalities in comparison with previous literature reports.

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  5. Correction

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    1. You have free access to this content
      Correction: Time-of-Flight Studies of Electron-Collection Kinetics in Polymer:Fullerene Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells (page 4210)

      Anthony J. Morfa, Alexandre M. Nardes, Sean E. Shaheen, Nikos Kopidakis and Jao van de Lagemaat

      Version of Record online: 16 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190099

      This article corrects:
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    1. Paclitaxel-Loaded Polymer Nanoparticles for the Reversal of Multidrug Resistance in Breast Cancer Cells (pages 4211–4218)

      Yeonju Lee, Ralph Graeser, Felix Kratz and Kurt E. Geckeler

      Version of Record online: 6 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100853

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      Novel paclitaxel-loaded polymer nanoparticles are synthesized by supramolecular complexation in the solid state. They are highly soluble in water and taken up by wild and MDR-type breast cancer cells via adsorptive endocytosis and bypass the P-glycoprotein efflux in MDR-type cells. Their significantly enhanced cancer cell inhibition effect against MDR cells shows high potential for a new anticancer agent.

    2. A Biosensor Based on Metallic Photonic Crystals for the Detection of Specific Bioreactions (pages 4219–4227)

      Xinping Zhang, Xuemei Ma, Fei Dou, Pengxiang Zhao and Hongmei Liu

      Version of Record online: 21 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101366

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      A new optical biosensor using waveguided metallic photonic crystals is demonstrated by the sensitive testing of the immunoreaction between the HIV-1 capsid protein (p24) antigen and the monoclonal anti-p24 antibody. An enhancement of the response sensitivity of particle-plasmon resonance and the amplification of the sensor signal have been achieved by coupling between the photonic and plasmonic resonance modes.

    3. High-Throughput Fabrication of Uniform and Homogenous MOF Coatings (pages 4228–4231)

      Hasan K. Arslan, Osama Shekhah, Jonas Wohlgemuth, Matthias Franzreb, Roland A. Fischer and Christof Wöll

      Version of Record online: 9 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101592

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      Crystalline, homogenous films of MOFs with well-defined thicknesses are deposited on a modified Au substrate employing a high-throughput spray-method. The spray method not only allows such SURMOFs to be grown much faster than with the LPE-process but the dependence of layer thickness on the number of immersion cycles also provides valuable insights into the mechanism governing the layer-by-layer MOF formation process

    4. Multifunctionalized Electrospun Silk Fibers Promote Axon Regeneration in the Central Nervous System (pages 4232–4242)

      Corinne R. Wittmer, Thomas Claudepierre, Michael Reber, Peter Wiedemann, Jonathan A. Garlick, David Kaplan and Christophe Egles

      Version of Record online: 12 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100755

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      Electrospun silk fibers biofunctionalized with BDNF, CNTF or a combination of the two growth factors are designed to generate neurite-regrowth matrices that combine growth support, directionality and neurotrophic stimulation with one multifunctional biomaterial. RGCs exhibit longer axonal growth when in contact with biofunctionalized fibers in comparison with unfunctionalized silk. Altogether, silk-fibroin fibers represent a promising implant strategy for optic-nerve-trauma rescue.

    5. Biocatalytic Nanoscale Coatings Through Biomimetic Layer-by-Layer Mineralization (pages 4243–4251)

      Nicholas R. Haase, Samuel Shian, Kenneth H. Sandhage and Nils Kröger

      Version of Record online: 31 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101202

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      A method for embedding enzymes in nanoscale mineral coatings is presented. The method relies on covalently linking the enzyme with protamine (PA), a peptide capable of binding to and inducing the formation of titania and silica from aqueous precursor solutions. The factors affecting immobilization and catalytic activity of protamine-linked glucose oxidase (GOx-PA) in Si-O and Ti-O mineral nanolayers are determined.

    6. Matrix-Bound VEGF Mimetic Peptides: Design and Endothelial-Cell Activation in Collagen Scaffolds (pages 4252–4262)

      Tania R. Chan, Patrick J. Stahl and S. Michael Yu

      Version of Record online: 12 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101163

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      Spatial modification of a 2D collagen substrate with a matrix-bound vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mimetic peptide, QKCMP (CMP = collagen mimetic peptide), allows localized endothelial cell activation and network formation in a collagen matrix. Characterization and cell studies show that the peptide can bind to natural collagen and signal to endothelial cells in 2D and 3D cell constructs. QKCMP may allow spatially directed angiogenesis for tissue-engineering applications.

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    1. Thin Films: Calcination- and Etching-Free Photolithography of Inorganic Phosphor Films Consisting of Rare Earth Ion Doped Nanoparticles on Plastic Sheets (Adv. Funct. Mater. 22/2011) (page 4263)

      Satoshi Watanabe, Hiroshi Hyodo, Hirohisa Taguchi, Kohei Soga, Yoshifumi Takanashi and Mutsuyoshi Matsumoto

      Version of Record online: 16 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190100

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      Patterned inorganic phosphor films consisting of rare earth ion doped nanoparticles (RE-NPs) can be fabricated on plastic sheets using calcination- and etchingfree photolithography. On page 4264, Satoshi Watanabe and co-workers show how this technique can be used to fabricate patterned RE-NP films, not only on inorganic substrates but also on plastic sheets, with low cost and material consumption.

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    1. Calcination- and Etching-Free Photolithography of Inorganic Phosphor Films Consisting of Rare Earth Ion Doped Nanoparticles on Plastic Sheets (pages 4264–4269)

      Satoshi Watanabe, Hiroshi Hyodo, Hirohisa Taguchi, Kohei Soga, Yoshifumi Takanashi and Mutsuyoshi Matsumoto

      Version of Record online: 23 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100718

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      Low cost and material consumption: Calcination- and etching-free photolithography enable the fabrication of patterned inorganic phosphor films consisting of rare earth ion doped nanoparticles (RE-NPs) not only on inorganic substrates but also on plastic sheets. Green up- conversion luminescence appears from the RE-NPs prepared from Y2O3 doped with 1 mol% Er3+ and 0.85 mol% Yb3+.

    2. Superoleophobic Surfaces with Controllable Oil Adhesion and Their Application in Oil Transportation (pages 4270–4276)

      Xi Yao, Jun Gao, Yanlin Song and Lei Jiang

      Version of Record online: 12 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100775

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      A series of superoleophobic surfaces with controllable oil adhesion are fabricated based on a thiolate reaction. Specifically, oil droplets can thoroughly “de-adhere” from the surface of nanoneedle array without any residual even though a strong interfacial adhesive interaction occurred. In addition, the oil adhesion can also be controlled by exerting different preloads on the oil droplet. These surfaces can be used in oil droplet transportation and oil-based microreactors.

    3. Facile Preparation of PbTiO3 Nanodot Arrays: Combining Nanohybridization with Vapor Phase Reaction Sputtering (pages 4277–4284)

      Jiyoon Kim, Jongin Hong, Moonkyu Park, Wu Zhe, Dongjin Kim, Yu Jin Jang, Dong Ha Kim and Kwangsoo No

      Version of Record online: 27 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101033

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      Ferroelectric PbTiO3 nanodot arrays are fabricated on platinized silicon substrates using PbO vapor phase reaction sputtering on micellar monolayer films of polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) loaded with a TiO2 sol–gel precursor. This new fabrication route encourages their application in next-generation memory and data-storage devices with Tb inch−2 density.

    4. Positive and Negative Lattice Shielding Effects Co-existing in Gd (III) Ion Doped Bifunctional Upconversion Nanoprobes (pages 4285–4294)

      Feng Chen, Wenbo Bu, Shengjian Zhang, Xiaohang Liu, Jianan Liu, Huaiyong Xing, Qingfeng Xiao, Liangping Zhou, Weijun Peng, Lianzhou Wang and Jianlin Shi

      Version of Record online: 28 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101663

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      Positive and negative lattice shielding effects were found to co-exist in lanthanide-ion-doped upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles (UCNPs), and were used to advance the T1-MR contrast imaging and fluorescent imaging capabilities of the water soluble bifunctional nanocrystals. This resulted in highly enhanced magnetic and optical imaging modalities in comparison with previous literature reports.

    5. Novel Triclosan-Bound Hybrid-Silica Nanoparticles and their Enhanced Antimicrobial Properties (pages 4295–4304)

      Igor Makarovsky, Yonit Boguslavsky, Maria Alesker, Jonathan Lellouche, Ehud Banin and Jean-Paul Lellouche

      Version of Record online: 13 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101557

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      The design and synthesis of novel hybrid NPs (130 ± 30 nm) containing the FDA-approved antimicrobial triclosan (Irgasan), which is covalently linked within the inorganic matrix for its controlled, slow release upon interaction, is reported herein. The NPs present a smooth and spherical morphology. Preliminary results dealing with NP antimicrobial activity show an unexpected enhancement compared with the free biocide.

    6. Tristate Memory Using Ferroelectric–Insulator–Semiconductor Heterojunctions for 50% Increased Data Storage (pages 4305–4313)

      Min Hyuk Park, Hyun Ju Lee, Gun Hwan Kim, Yu Jin Kim, Jeong Hwan Kim, Jong Ho Lee and Cheol Seong Hwang

      Version of Record online: 13 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101073

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      Memory aid: A feasible structure and actual operation of a tristate memory function for high-density ferroelectric random-access memory (FeRAM) is presented that uses stacked Pb(Zr,Ti)O3/Al2O3/ZnO layers with Pt top and bottom electrodes. This unique function of the structure induces three discrete charge states that can be used to increase the memory density by 50% compared to conventional FeRAM at a given cell size.

    7. Digital-Inverter Amine Sensing via Synergistic Responses by n and p Organic Semiconductors (pages 4314–4319)

      Noah J. Tremblay, Byung Jun Jung, Patrick Breysse and Howard E. Katz

      Version of Record online: 13 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101324

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      Higher-order logic circuits utilizing organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) sensitive to amine vapors are presented The circuits utilize synergistic responses of paired p- and n-channel organic semiconductors, including a rare analyte-induced current increase by the n-channel semiconductor. This is the first step towards sensors that utilize analog signal changes in sensitive OFETs to produce direct digital readouts suitable for further logic operations.

    8. Accelerated Self-Healing Via Ternary Interpenetrating Microvascular Networks (pages 4320–4326)

      Christopher J. Hansen, Scott R. White, Nancy R. Sottos and Jennifer A. Lewis

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101553

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      Self-healing materials with embedded ternary interpenetrating microvascular networks for thermally accelerated self-healing are fabricated by direct-write assembly (scale bar = 2 mm). Characterization of a bulk epoxy healing system demonstrates rapid healing at elevated temperatures. Circulation of a thermal fluid via an embedded microvascular network locally heats damaged regions, reducing healing times by over an order of magnitude.

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    1. Biosensors: High Surface Area Flexible Chemiresistive Biosensor by Oxidative Chemical Vapor Deposition (Adv. Funct. Mater. 22/2011) (page 4327)

      Dhiman Bhattacharyya, Kris Senecal, Patrick Marek, Andre Senecal and Karen K. Gleason

      Version of Record online: 16 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190101

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      A flexible and ultralight-weight platform for chemiresistive biosensor applications is developed by conformal deposition on highsurface- area electrospun polymeric fibers using the oxidative chemical vapor deposition technique. On page 4328, Karen Gleason and co-workers demonstrate the successful detection of as low as 5 nM biotin as a proof of concept. A 500% enhancement in response is achieved when compared to a flat surface.

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    1. High Surface Area Flexible Chemiresistive Biosensor by Oxidative Chemical Vapor Deposition (pages 4328–4337)

      Dhiman Bhattacharyya, Kris Senecal, Patrick Marek, Andre Senecal and Karen K. Gleason

      Version of Record online: 8 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101071

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      A high surface area chemiresistive biosensor developed by conformal deposition of –OH functional highly conductive copolymer of EDOT and 3-thiopheneethanol by oxidative chemical vapor deposition technique. This fabrication method provides a label-free, ultra-light weight and easy to read sensor platform for potential applications in fast detection of food pathogens and other biological agents in the field of action.

    2. Quinacridone-Based Electron Transport Layers for Enhanced Performance in Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells (pages 4338–4341)

      Toan V. Pho, Heejoo Kim, Jung Hwa Seo, Alan J. Heeger and Fred Wudl

      Version of Record online: 12 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101257

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      The performance of organic photovoltaic cells is enhanced by the addition of an electron transport layer composed of a water/alcohol-soluble quinacridone derivative. An upwards of 19% enhancement in power conversion efficiency is achieved primarily through improvements in the fill factor.

    3. Multifunctional ZnO-Nanowire-Based Sensor (pages 4342–4348)

      Andreas Menzel, Kittitat Subannajui, Firat Güder, Dominik Moser, Oliver Paul and Margit Zacharias

      Version of Record online: 14 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101549

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      A multifunctional ZnO-nanowire-based device is implemented as a pH sensor, temperature sensor, and photodetector. The ZnO nanowires were directly grown by CVD on a Au finger structure. Temperature sensing, photo sensing of wavelengths ranging from UV to visible light, and pH sensing after protecting the nanowires with a thin layer of C4F8 plasma were achieved.

    4. Highly Improved Rate Capability for a Lithium-Ion Battery Nano-Li4Ti5O12 Negative Electrode via Carbon-Coated Mesoporous Uniform Pores with a Simple Self-Assembly Method (pages 4349–4357)

      Eunae Kang, Yoon Seok Jung, Gi-Heon Kim, Jinyoung Chun, Ulrich Wiesner, Anne C. Dillon, Jin Kon Kim and Jinwoo Lee

      Version of Record online: 9 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101123

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      A mesostructured spinel Li4Ti5O12 (LTO)-carbon nanocomposite (denoted as Meso-LTO-C) with large (>15 nm) and uniform pores is simply synthesized via block copolymer self-assembly. A Meso-LTO-C/Li cell then cycles stably at 10 C-rate, corresponding to only 6 min for complete charge and discharge, with a reversible capacity of 115 mA h g−1 with 90% capacity retention after 500 cycles.

    5. Fabrication of Superstrong Ultrathin Free-Standing Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films via a Wet Process (pages 4358–4363)

      Zhun Shi, Xinjiang Chen, Xuewen Wang, Ting Zhang and Jian Jin

      Version of Record online: 8 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101298

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      Superstrong, transparent, and conductive free-standing single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) ultrathin films are fabricated via vacuum filtration. The films exhibit great potential for use in flexible capacitive touch screens.

    6. Nanoporous PdNi Bimetallic Catalyst with Enhanced Electrocatalytic Performances for Electro-oxidation and Oxygen Reduction Reactions (pages 4364–4370)

      Luyang Chen, Hai Guo, Takeshi Fujita, Akihiko Hirata, Wei Zhang, Akihisa Inoue and Mingwei Chen

      Version of Record online: 8 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101227

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      The nanoporous PdNi (np-PdNi) bimetallic catalyst is fabricated by electrochemical dealloying of a Pd20Ni80 alloy. Residual Ni in the nanoporous alloy can be controlled by tuning dealloying potentials and the eletrocatalysis of the np-PdNi shows evident dependence on the Ni concentrations. The superior electrocatalytic properties of the dealloyed np-PdNi bimetallic catalyst appear to arise from the combined effect of unique bicontinuous nanoporosity and bimetallic synergistic action.

    7. A Novel Nanoparticle-Based Disposable Electrochemical Immunosensor for Diagnosis of Exposure to Toxic Organophosphorus Agents (pages 4371–4378)

      Donglai Lu, Jun Wang, Limin Wang, Dan Du, Charles Timchalk, Richard Barry and Yuehe Lin

      Version of Record online: 13 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100616

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      New and improved countermeasures are needed for rapid identification of victims to nerve agents. Hence, a novel nanoparticle-based disposable electrochemical immunosensor has been developed for the on-site evaluation of exposure to organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents utilizing phosphorylated cholinesterase (ChE) as a biomarker (OP-ChE adducts) in blood.

    8. Manipulation of the Open-Circuit Voltage of Organic Solar Cells by Desymmetrization of the Structure of Acceptor–Donor–Acceptor Molecules (pages 4379–4387)

      Dora Demeter, Theodulf Rousseau, Philippe Leriche, Thomas Cauchy, Riccardo Po and Jean Roncali

      Version of Record online: 19 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101508

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      Breaking the symmetry of acceptor–donor–acceptor conjugated systems used as molecular donors in heterojunction organic solar cells modifies the polarity of the system and produces an increase of the ionization potential in the solid state and thus a large increase in cell voltage.

    9. Synthesis of Highly Luminescent and Anion-Exchangeable Cerium-Doped Layered Yttrium Hydroxides for Sensing and Photofunctional Applications (pages 4388–4396)

      Yang Xiang, Xue-Feng Yu, Ding-Fei He, Zhengbo Sun, Zhijian Cao and Qu-Quan Wang

      Version of Record online: 13 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101808

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      Anion-exchangeable Ce-doped layered yttrium hydroxides are synthesized through a polyethylenimine-assisted hydrothermal route, in which the Ce3+ dopants induce smaller particle sizes and bright blue luminescence. A switched on/off sensing technique for redox couples is demonstrated based on the Ce3+ [LEFT RIGHT ARROW] Ce4+ redox process, and the products are used to fabricate a photofunctional material for singlet oxygen production.

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