Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 21 Issue 23

December 6, 2011

Volume 21, Issue 23

Pages 4401–4594

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    1. Functional Thin Films: Controllable Underwater Oil-Adhesion-Interface Films Assembled from Nonspherical Particles (Adv. Funct. Mater. 23/2011) (page 4401)

      Yu Huang, Mingjie Liu, Jingxia Wang, Jinming Zhou, Libin Wang, Yanlin Song and Lei Jiang

      Article first published online: 30 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190109

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      The cover shows controllable underwater oil-adhesion films assembled from nonspherical latex particles. On page 4436, Jingxia Wang, Yanlin Song, and co-workers show how the underwater oil adhesion force of films could be effectively controlled from high adhesion to low adhesion when the films are assembled from latex particles of spherical, cauliflower-like and single-cavity structure, respectively. This offers significant insight for the design and creation of novel underwater anti-fouling materials.

  2. Inside Front Cover

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    1. Gas Sensors: The Role of NiO Doping in Reducing the Impact of Humidity on the Performance of SnO2-Based Gas Sensors: Synthesis Strategies, and Phenomenological and Spectroscopic Studies (Adv. Funct. Mater. 23/2011) (page 4402)

      Hae-Ryong Kim, Alexander Haensch, Il-Doo Kim, Nicolae Barsan, Udo Weimar and Jong-Heun Lee

      Article first published online: 30 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190110

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      The loading of NiO provides a new strategy to achieve humidity-independent SnO2 gas sensors. When NiO is loaded to hierarchical SnO2 nanostructures, the humidity dependence of the gas sensing characteris-tics, such as gas sensitivity, response speed, recovery speed, and resistance in air, are decreased to a negli-gible level. On page 4456, Nicolae Barsan, Jong-Heun Lee, and co-workers confirmed that NiO plays the key role of a strong humidity absorber and protects the SnO2 from the influence of water-derived species.

  3. Back Cover

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    1. Organic Light-Emitting Diodes: The Effect of Ketone Defects on the Charge Transport and Charge Recombination in Polyfluorenes (Adv. Funct. Mater. 23/2011) (page 4595)

      Martijn Kuik, Gert-Jan A. H. Wetzelaer, Jurre G. Laddé, Herman T. Nicolai, Jurjen Wildeman, Jörgen Sweelssen and Paul W. M. Blom

      Article first published online: 30 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190111

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      Polyfluorenes are widely studied for applications in polymer light-emitting diodes. Unfortunately, blue-light-emitting polyfluorenes suffer from rapid degradation at ambient conditions, resulting in green emission. On page 4502, Paul W. M. Blom and co-workers study the effect of ketone defects on the charge transport and recombination properties of such polyfluorenes. Charge transport is strongly hindered by both electron and hole trap-ping on these ketone defects. Additionally, the green emission is shown to originate from a trap-assisted recombination process.

  4. Contents

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    1. Contents: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 23/2011) (pages 4403–4410)

      Article first published online: 30 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190105

  5. Correction

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    1. You have free access to this content
      Correction: Sustained Release of a Monoclonal Antibody from Electrochemically Prepared Mesoporous Silicon Oxide (page 4410)

      Jennifer S. Andrew, Emily J. Anglin, Elizabeth C. Wu, Michelle Y. Chen, Lingyun Cheng, William R. Freeman and Michael J. Sailor

      Article first published online: 30 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190106

      This article corrects:

      Sustained Release of a Monoclonal Antibody from Electrochemically Prepared Mesoporous Silicon Oxide

      Vol. 20, Issue 23, 4168–4174, Article first published online: 7 SEP 2010

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    1. Photofluidization of Azopolymer: Monolithic, Hierarchical Surface Reliefs by Holographic Photofluidization of Azopolymer Arrays: Direct Visualization of Polymeric Flows (Adv. Funct. Mater. 23/2011) (page 4411)

      Hong Suk Kang, Seungwoo Lee and Jung-Ki Park

      Article first published online: 30 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190107

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      The structural features of monolithically ordered, hierarchical surface reliefs can be deterministically controlled by localized or co-operative holographic photofluidization of azopolymer. The observations of morphological evolution, presented by Seungwoo Lee, Jung-Ki Park, and co-workers on page 4412, address a long-standing problem: the origin of holography-induced surface relief grating formation onto azopolymer film in terms of azopolymeric photoflows and directional photofluidization.

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    1. Monolithic, Hierarchical Surface Reliefs by Holographic Photofluidization of Azopolymer Arrays: Direct Visualization of Polymeric Flows (pages 4412–4422)

      Hong Suk Kang, Seungwoo Lee and Jung-Ki Park

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101203

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      Directional photofluidization allows a facile fabrication of various large-area, hierarchically ordered monolithic surface-relief gratings (SRGs) with precisely controlled structural features. Furthermore, the use of a micrometer-scale periodic line pattern rather than a flat thin film, which has been generally used in conventional SRG studies, provides a powerful way to quantify the direction of flows of azopolymer during SRG formation.

    2. Preparation and Characterization of Molecularly Imprinted Polymeric Nanoparticles for Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) (pages 4423–4429)

      Chunyan Wang, Mark Howell, Payal Raulji, Yvonne Davis and Subhra Mohapatra

      Article first published online: 28 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100946

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      Molecularly imprinted polymeric nanoparticles (MIPNPs) for atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) are prepared by precipitation polymerization in the presence of the template, NH2–SLRRSS–CONH2, which is a short peptide from ANP. This unique MIPNP contains cavities that can recognize and bind ANP in a cell-culture medium or in human-plasma samples.

    3. Graphene Intermediate Layer in Tandem Organic Photovoltaic Cells (pages 4430–4435)

      Shi Wun Tong, Yu Wang, Yi Zheng, Man-Fai Ng and Kian Ping Loh

      Article first published online: 28 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101376

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      A tandem photovoltaic cell based on a MoO3-modified graphene intermediate layer (IML) is demonstrated. In comparison to a single photovoltaic cell, tandem cells with a MoO3-modified graphene IML show a nearly doubled Voc and Jsc in series connection and parallel connection, respectively.

    4. Controllable Underwater Oil-Adhesion-Interface Films Assembled from Nonspherical Particles (pages 4436–4441)

      Yu Huang, Mingjie Liu, Jingxia Wang, Jinming Zhou, Libin Wang, Yanlin Song and Lei Jiang

      Article first published online: 21 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101598

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      Sticky films: A controllable underwater oil-adhesion interface assembled from nonspherical latex particles is presented. This fabrication of functional films with special oil-adhesion properties will provide new insight for design and creation of novel functional films.

    5. Molecular Weight-Induced Structural Transition of Liquid-Crystalline Polymer Semiconductor for High-Stability Organic Transistor (pages 4442–4447)

      Do Hwan Kim, Jiyoul Lee, Jeong-Il Park, Jong Won Chung, Wi Hyoung Lee, Gaurav Giri, Byungwook Yoo, Bonwon Koo, Joo Young Kim, Yong Wan Jin, Kilwon Cho, Bang-Lin Lee and Sangyoon Lee

      Article first published online: 21 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101021

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      Polymer transistors with high bias-stability comparable to amorphous silicon are realized by optimizing the molecular weight of copolymer semiconductor on dielectric surface. Thermally structural transition from liquid-crystalline to semi-crystalline phases strongly in thin films affects the device performances (charge-carrier mobility and electrical bias-stability) as well as the molecular ordering and the morphological features.

    6. Using a Functional Nanogold Membrane Coupled with Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry to Detect Lead Ions in Biofluids (pages 4448–4455)

      Yin-Chun Liu, Cheng-Kang Chiang, Huan-Tsung Chang, Yen-Fei Lee and Chih-Ching Huang

      Article first published online: 21 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101248

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      A matrix-free strategy based on pulsed-LDI from nitrocellulose membranes modified with AuNPs is developed for the quantification of Pb2+ ions in complicated biofluids with sub-nanomolar sensitivity. This approach provides high sensitivity and selectivity toward Pb2+ ions, resulting in clean mass spectra with fewer, weaker signals from AuNP-associated interfering agents, in contrast to noisy spectra obtained using other AuNP-assisted LDI approaches.

    7. The Role of NiO Doping in Reducing the Impact of Humidity on the Performance of SnO2-Based Gas Sensors: Synthesis Strategies, and Phenomenological and Spectroscopic Studies (pages 4456–4463)

      Hae-Ryong Kim, Alexander Haensch, Il-Doo Kim, Nicolae Barsan, Udo Weimar and Jong-Heun Lee

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101154

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      The humidity dependenceof the gas-sensing characteristics in a SnO2-based sensor is reduced to a negligible level by doping with NiO. NiO-doped-SnO2 hierarchical nanostructures show highly sensitive, ultrafast response and recovery speeds with little dependence on humidity. The NiO plays the roles of a humidity absorber and a catalytic promoter.

    8. High-Performance Integrated ZnO Nanowire UV Sensors on Rigid and Flexible Substrates (pages 4464–4469)

      Suo Bai, Weiwei Wu, Yong Qin, Nuanyang Cui, Dylan J. Bayerl and Xudong Wang

      Article first published online: 20 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101319

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      ZnO nanowire (NW)-based UV sensors are fabricated in large scale by integrating multiple NWs connected in parallel via the contact printing method. The flexible sensors display a very high photoresponse current of 14.1 mA and on/off current ratio of 120 000.

    9. Dual Phase-Controlled Synthesis of Uniform Lanthanide-Doped NaGdF4 Upconversion Nanocrystals Via an OA/Ionic Liquid Two-Phase System for In Vivo Dual-Modality Imaging (pages 4470–4477)

      Meng He, Peng Huang, Chunlei Zhang, Hengyao Hu, Chenchen Bao, Guo Gao, Rong He and Daxiang Cui

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101040

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      A novel OA/ionic liquid two-phase system combining the merits of thermal decomposition method, the IL-based strategy, and the two-phase approach is introduced to synthesize high-quality lanthanide-doped NaGdF4 upconversion nanocrystals with different crystal-phases in OA-phase and IL-phase through a one-step controllable reaction. The synthesized lanthanide-doped NaGdF4 upconversion nanocrystals are effective for dual-mode UCL imaging and X-ray imaging in vivo.

  8. Frontispiece

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    1. Organic Transistors: Supramolecular Order of Solution-Processed Perylenediimide Thin Films: High-Performance Small-Channel n-Type Organic Transistors (Adv. Funct. Mater. 23/2011) (page 4478)

      Simone Fabiano, He Wang, Claudia Piliego, Cherno Jaye, Daniel A. Fischer, Zhihua Chen, Bruno Pignataro, Antonio Facchetti, Yueh-Lin Loo and Maria Antonietta Loi

      Article first published online: 30 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190108

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      The non-contact dynamic scanning force microscopy image of a solution-processed perylenediimide thin film shows a layer-by-layer structure with closed molecular planes, upon annealing. Antonio Facchetti, Yueh-Lin Loo, Maria A. Loi, and co-workers show, on page 4479, that the strong intermolecular π–π stacking interactions induce long-range supramolecular order, comparable to that of highly crystalline vapor-deposited films. Correlations between molecular orientation and device performance are highlighted in high-performance small-channel n-type organic transistors.

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    1. Supramolecular Order of Solution-Processed Perylenediimide Thin Films: High-Performance Small-Channel n-Type Organic Transistors (pages 4479–4486)

      Simone Fabiano, He Wang, Claudia Piliego, Cherno Jaye, Daniel A. Fischer, Zhihua Chen, Bruno Pignataro, Antonio Facchetti, Yueh-Lin Loo and Maria Antonietta Loi

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101427

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      The exceptional supramolecular order of solution-processed perylenediimide thin films is demonstrated. Investigation of their self-assembly on different surfaces upon annealing reveals long-range molecular packing and orientation comparable to those of highly oriented vapor-deposited small molecules. By studying charge transport and injection properties of the resulting field-effect transistors, fundamental correlations between molecular orientation and device performance are highlighted.

    2. Origin of the Ultra-nonlinear Switching Kinetics in Oxide-Based Resistive Switches (pages 4487–4492)

      Stephan Menzel, Matthias Waters, Astrid Marchewka, Ulrich Böttger, Regina Dittmann and Rainer Waser

      Article first published online: 26 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101117

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      A strong nonlinearity is revealed by switching kinetics studies of strontium titanate memristive devices. Based on electrothermal finite element method simulations of the temperature distribution in these devices, thermal enhancement of oxygen vacancies inside a disc region is identified as the dominating factor in this nonlinearity. Design rules for optimized cell design are provided.

    3. Doping Rules and Doping Prototypes in A2BO4 Spinel Oxides (pages 4493–4501)

      Tula R. Paudel, Andriy Zakutayev, Stephan Lany, Mayeul d'Avezac and Alex Zunger

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101469

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      First-principle defect calculations reveal that cation anti-sites dominate doping in spinel oxides. Based on their ionization level we found four doping types (DTs). Most of the DT-1 spinels are compensated (c) n- or p- or insulators, while DT-2 are exclusively p-type (p), DT-3 are exclusively n-type (n) and DT-4 are mostly intrinsic (i). A number of compounds belonging to DT-1, DT-2, and DT-4 is presented.

    4. The Effect of Ketone Defects on the Charge Transport and Charge Recombination in Polyfluorenes (pages 4502–4509)

      Martijn Kuik, Gert-Jan A. H. Wetzelaer, Jurre G. Laddé, Herman T. Nicolai, Jurjen Wildeman, Jörgen Sweelssen and Paul W. M. Blom

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100374

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      The consequences of ketone defects in poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) on charge transport and recombination are investigated by analyzing light-emitting diodes, hole-only, and electron-only devices. Charge transport is observed to be strongly hindered by both electron and hole trapping on these ketone defects. The green emission from ketone defects is shown to originate from a trap-assisted recombination process.

    5. Liquid-Crystalline Perylene Diester Polymers with Tunable Charge-Carrier Mobility (pages 4510–4518)

      Mathis-Andreas Muth, Miguel Carrasco-Orozco and Mukundan Thelakkat

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101694

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      Altering the π-system of perylene imide in side-chain homopolymers permits the tuning of electronic character (p-type to n-type semiconductor) and improved optical absorption. The highly soluble polymers PPDB and PPDI exhibit liquid-crystalline mesophases over a broad temperature range. These properties make the two novel compounds interesting for optoelectronic applications and can potentially help with optimization of morphology and device performance of organic photovoltaic cells.

      Corrected by:

      Correction: Correction: Liquid-Crystalline Perylene Diester Polymers with Tunable Charge-Carrier Mobility

      Vol. 23, Issue 24, 3023, Article first published online: 18 JUN 2013

    6. Photoelectric Cooperative Induced Wetting on Aligned-Nanopore Arrays for Liquid Reprography (pages 4519–4526)

      Dongliang Tian, Jin Zhai, Yanlin Song and Lei Jiang

      Article first published online: 20 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101008

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      Photoelectric coooperative induced patterned wetting on superhydrophobic aligned-TiO2/AAO-nanopore array films with a high mechanical strength and excellent controllability for multiple transfer printing is demonstrated. This work is new progress in liquid reprography, and is promising for gearing up the application of photoelectric cooperative liquid reprography.

    7. Improved Performance of Polymer:Polymer Solar Cells by Doping Electron-Accepting Polymers with an Organosulfonic Acid (pages 4527–4534)

      Sungho Nam, Minjung Shin, Hwajeong Kim, Chang-Sik Ha, Moonhor Ree and Youngkyoo Kim

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101215

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      Better use of sunlight: The performance of polymer:polymer solar cells is improved by doping an electron-accepting polymer with an organosulfonic acid.

    8. In Situ Spectroscopic Analysis of Sub-Second Switching Polymer Electrochromes (pages 4535–4542)

      David Y. Liu, Andrew D. Chilton, Pengjie Shi, Michael R. Craig, Steven D. Miles, Aubrey L. Dyer, Vincent W. Ballarotto and John R. Reynolds

      Article first published online: 20 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101605

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      A novel electronic spectroscopy instrument to analyze solution processable electrochromic polymer exhibits rapid switching times on the order of 400–700 ms with high transmittance contrasts over 40 Δ%T. The spectrometer detector is capable of rapid data acquisation to track the electrochromic change, with one spectrum collected every 2 ms, in order to elucidate properties of sub-second switching electrochromes.

    9. Exploiting Microphase-Separated Morphologies of Side-Chain Liquid Crystalline Polymer Networks for Triple Shape Memory Properties (pages 4543–4549)

      Suk-kyun Ahn and Rajeswari M. Kasi

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101369

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      A new strategy to achieve triple shape memory properties is reported by using side-chain liquid-crystalline (SCLC) type random terpolymer networks that exhibit smectic mesophases. Unique microphase separated morphologies within smectic layers divided into backbone-rich and mesogen-rich domains are exploited and the importance of motional decoupling between these two domains for the resulting shape-memory behavior is highlighted.

    10. Nanolaminates Utilizing Size-Dependent Homogeneous Plasticity of Metallic Glasses (pages 4550–4554)

      Ju-Young Kim, Dongchan Jang and Julia R. Greer

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101164

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      Nanolaminates with alternating layers of Cu50Zr50 metallic glasses and nanocrystalline Cu are synthesized and it is found that that samples with an optimal composition of 112-nm-thick metallic-glass layers and 16-nm-thick Cu layers demonstrate a maximum strength of 2.513 GPa. This is 33% greater than that predicted by the rule-of-mixtures and 25% better than that of pure Cu50Zr50 metallic glass.

    11. Microtribology of Aqueous Carbon Nanotube Dispersions (pages 4555–4564)

      Kai Kristiansen, Hongbo Zeng, Peng Wang and Jacob N. Israelachvili

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101478

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      The tribological behavior of aqueous carbon nanotubes dispersions was studied using a surface forces apparatus and shows promising lubricant additive properties. The friction coefficient is in the range 0.30–0.55. The lateral sliding promotes an accumulation, rather than squeezing out, of nanotubes between the surfaces, that reduces the surface adhesion, and – more importantly – protects the surfaces from becoming damaged (wear).<?br?>

    12. Combination of Graphene Oxide and Thiol-Activated DNA Metallization for Sensitive Fluorescence Turn-On Detection of Cysteine and Their Use for Logic Gate Operations (pages 4565–4572)

      Youhui Lin, Yu Tao, Fang Pu, Jinsong Ren and Xiaogang Qu

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101584

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      The first example of a turn-on fluorescent sensor for cysteine and logic gates is constructed by exploring the combination of graphene oxide (GO) and DNA metallization. The protocol relies on the large fluorescence enhancement resulting from the cysteine-mediated DNA hybridization and the different binding affinities of GO to single- and double-stranded DNA.

    13. Optimal Size of Nanoparticles for Magnetic Hyperthermia: A Combined Theoretical and Experimental Study (pages 4573–4581)

      Boubker Mehdaoui, Anca Meffre, Julian Carrey, Sébastien Lachaize, Lise-Marie Lacroix, Michel Gougeon, Bruno Chaudret and Marc Respaud

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101243

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      The heating power of metallic iron magnetic nanoparticles with diameters ranging from 5.5 to 28 nm is measured in an alternating applied magnetic field with a frequency of 54 kHz and an amplitude ranging from 8 to 60 mT. The optimal size is visible as a maximum in the curve. Optimized nanoparticles display losses of 8 mJ g−1 at this frequency.

    14. Water-Based Isotropically Conductive Adhesives: Towards Green and Low-Cost Flexible Electronics (pages 4582–4588)

      Cheng Yang, Wei Lin, Zhongyu Li, Rongwei Zhang, Haoran Wen, Bo Gao, Guohua Chen, Ping Gao, Matthew M. F. Yuen and Ching Ping Wong

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101433

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      This paper describes the preparation, characterization and high performance of water-based isotropically conductive adhesives (WBICAs) as a novel, green, versatile, ultralow-cost, and printable conductive composite. The WBICA-supported LED and RFID chips are demonstrated. Their unique water-based and room- temperature-curable characters render them superior in mass producing flexible electronic devices on ubiquitous substrates e.g. paper, textile, and wood.

    15. Enhancement Of Dielectric Permittivity And Electromechanical Response In Silicone Elastomers: Molecular Grafting Of Organic Dipoles To The Macromolecular Network (pages 4589–4594)

      Björn Kussmaul, Sebastian Risse, Guggi Kofod, Rémi Waché, Michael Wegener, Denis N. McCarthy, Hartmut Krüger and Reimund Gerhard

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100884

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      A novel method is established for permittivity enhancement of a silicone matrix for dielectric elastomer actuators by molecular level modifications of the elastomer matrix. A push-pull dipole is synthesized to be compatible with the silicone crosslinking chemistry, allowing direct grafting to the crosslinker molecules, which results in an improvement of actuation strain by a factor of six.

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