Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 21 Issue 24

December 20, 2011

Volume 21, Issue 24

Pages 4597–4797

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Full Papers
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    1. Superhydrophobic Surfaces: Nanograssed Micropyramidal Architectures for Continuous Dropwise Condensation (Adv. Funct. Mater. 24/2011) (page 4597)

      Xuemei Chen, Jun Wu, Ruiyuan Ma, Meng Hua, Nikhil Koratkar, Shuhuai Yao and Zuankai Wang

      Version of Record online: 13 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190115

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      A surface with nanograssed micropyramidal arrays that allows for enhanced drop nucleation and departure simultaneously is successfully developed by harnessing the hierarchical roughness and heterogeneous wetting. On page 4617, Nikhil Koratkar, Shuhuai Yao, Zuankai Wang, and co-workers show that the surface yields a global superhydrophobity as well as local wettable patches (smooth structure). Synergistic co-operation between the hierarchical structure contributes directly to a continuous process of nucleation, coalescence, departure, and re-nucleation, enabling sustained drop-wise condensation over prolonged periods.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Full Papers
    7. Frontispiece
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    1. Optoelectronic Devices: Controlling Polarization Dependent Reactions to Fabricate Multi-Component Functional Nanostructures (Adv. Funct. Mater. 24/2011) (page 4598)

      David Conklin, Tae-Hong Park, Sanjini Nanayakkara, Michael J. Therien and Dawn A. Bonnell

      Version of Record online: 13 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190116

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      Ferroelectric nanolithography provides a pathway for the direct assembly of patterned metal nano-particle arrays. On page 4712, David Conklin, Dawn A. Bonnell, and co-workers show that the density of the arrays is controlled by the photon flux and the size of the nanoparticles is controlled by the interface. Nanoparticle arrays can be functionalized by a range of active molecules, in this case opti-cally active porphyrin complexes, to produce hybrid optoelectronic devices.

  3. Back Cover

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
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    1. Solar Cells: Structural and Electronic Properties of Semiconductor-Sensitized Solar-Cell Interfaces (Adv. Funct. Mater. 24/2011) (page 4798)

      Christopher E. Patrick and Feliciano Giustino

      Version of Record online: 13 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190117

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      On page 4663, Christopher E. Patrick and Feliciano Giustino investigate the interface between TiO2 and Sb2S3 found in semiconductor-sensitized solar cells by means of first principle calculations. An atomistic model of the TiO2 and Sb2S3 interface is proposed and the interfacial energy-level alignment and ideal open-circuit voltage are determined. The analysis of other isostructural sensitizers indicates that anti-monselite (Sb2Se3) holds potential for delivering higher energy conversion efficiencies than the TiO2/Sb2S3 system.

  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Full Papers
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Full Papers
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
  5. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
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    1. Scanned Pipette Techniques for the Highly Localized Electrochemical Fabrication and Characterization of Conducting Polymer Thin Films, Microspots, Microribbons, and Nanowires (pages 4607–4616)

      Cosmin Laslau, David E. Williams, Bhuvaneswari Kannan and Jadranka Travas-Sejdic

      Version of Record online: 4 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101081

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      Various applications of scanned pipette techniques to conducting polymers are demonstrated. Micrometer-scale fabrication is shown, as is micrometer-scale cyclic voltammetry and voltammetric–amperometric mapping, for both PANI and PEDOT conducting polymer systems, and for a variety of morphologies: thin films, microspots, microribbons, extruded microstructures, and nanowires.

    2. Nanograssed Micropyramidal Architectures for Continuous Dropwise Condensation (pages 4617–4623)

      Xuemei Chen, Jun Wu, Ruiyuan Ma, Meng Hua, Nikhil Koratkar, Shuhuai Yao and Zuankai Wang

      Version of Record online: 20 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101302

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A surface with nanograssed micropyramid arrays that allows for enhanced drop nucleation and departure simultaneously is successfully developed by harnessing the heterogeneous wetting and hierarchical roughness. The surface yields a global superhydrophobity as well as local smooth (wettable) patches. Synergistic co-operation between the hierarchical structures contributes directly to a continuous process of nucleation, coalescence, departure, and re-nucleation enabling sustained dropwise condensation over prolonged periods.

    3. Self-Healing of an Epoxy Resin Using Scandium(III) Triflate as a Catalytic Curing Agent (pages 4624–4631)

      Tim S. Coope, Ulrich F. J. Mayer, Duncan F. Wass, Richard S. Trask and Ian P. Bond

      Version of Record online: 13 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101660

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      A novel Lewis acid-catalysed self-healing system is investigated for implementation in epoxy-based fibre reinforced polymer composite materials. Healing is initiated when microcapsules are ruptured at the onset of crack propagation. Results show that a material recovery value of greater than 80% fracture strength is achieved when using a TDCB geometry.

  6. Frontispiece

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    1. Superhyrophobic Materials: Polyester Materials with Superwetting Silicone Nanofilaments for Oil/Water Separation and Selective Oil Absorption (Adv. Funct. Mater. 24/2011) (page 4632)

      Junping Zhang and Stefan Seeger

      Version of Record online: 13 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190113

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      Following rapid development over the last decade, superhydrophobic coatings have become very promising for practical applications. Superhydrophobic polyester textiles coated with silicone nanofilaments are fabricated by chemical vapor deposition of trichloromethylsilane as described by Junping Zhang and Stefan Seeger on page 4699. The coated textiles feature superwetting properties, flexibility, excellent reusability, oil/water separation efficiency, and selective oil absorption capacity, making them excellent candidates for, e.g., practical oil absorption.

  7. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
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    1. Enhanced Performance of I2-Free Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Conductive Polymer up to 6.8% (pages 4633–4639)

      Jeonghun Kim, Jong Kwan Koh, Byeonggwan Kim, Sung Hoon Ahn, Hyungju Ahn, Du Yeol Ryu, Jong Hak Kim and Eunkyoung Kim

      Version of Record online: 10 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101520

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      Transparent mesoporous TiO2 films with high porosity and good connectivity for improvement of cell performance are introduced to iodine-free solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells with conductive polymers. Highly conductive polymers as hole-transporting materials can effectively penetrate the TiO2 pores, and can be polymerized by heating at mild temperatures. The fabricated devices exhibit one of the highest energy-conversion efficiencies (up to 6.8% in N719 dye) yet reported, which is a result of their enhanced light absorption and good hole conductivity.

    2. Quantitative Analysis of Bulk Heterojunction Films Using Linear Absorption Spectroscopy and Solar Cell Performance (pages 4640–4652)

      Sarah T. Turner, Patrick Pingel, Robert Steyrleuthner, Edward J. W. Crossland, Sabine Ludwigs and Dieter Neher

      Version of Record online: 19 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101583

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      P3HT aggregate morphology in P3HT:PCBMthin films is studied by analyzing the optical properties with a model developed by F. C. Spano. Films with non-optimized (CF cast) and nearly optimized initial morphologies (DCB cast, solvent-annealed) are thermally annealed directly at the target temperatures. Changes in the energetic disorder (σ), excitonic bandwidth (W) and degree of P3HT crystallinity are related to the glass transition range (light grey) and to the solar cell device performance.

    3. Enhanced Relaxometric Properties of MRI “Positive” Contrast Agents Confined in Three-Dimensional Cubic Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles (pages 4653–4662)

      Rémy Guillet-Nicolas, Jean-Luc Bridot, Yongbeom Seo, Marc-André Fortin and Freddy Kleitz

      Version of Record online: 20 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101766

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      A new approach to develop positive (T1-weighted) contrast agents for MRI applications is proposed. This approach is based on GdSixOy nanospheres exhibiting 3D interconnected mesopore network. These paramagnetic GdSixOy-MSNs provide significant contrast enhancement at very low Gd concentrations. High 1H relaxivities and low r2/r1 ratios were achieved. This establishes the impact of pore morphology on MR-relaxivity, in line with enhanced diffusivity of water in 3D networks.

    4. Structural and Electronic Properties of Semiconductor-Sensitized Solar-Cell Interfaces (pages 4663–4667)

      Christopher E. Patrick and Feliciano Giustino

      Version of Record online: 28 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101103

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The interface between TiO2 and Sb2S3 found in semiconductor-sensitized solar cells is investigated by means of first-principles calculations. An atomistic model of the TiO2/Sb2S3 interface is proposed, and the interfacial energy-level alignment and ideal open-circuit voltage are determined. The analysis of other isostructural sensitizers indicates that antimonselite (Sb2Se3) holds potential for delivering higher energy conversion efficiencies than the TiO2/Sb2S3 system.

    5. Self-Assembly of Tunable Nanocrystal Superlattices Using Poly-(NIPAM) Spacers (pages 4668–4676)

      Matthias Karg, Thomas Hellweg and Paul Mulvaney

      Version of Record online: 24 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101115

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      Nanocrystal superlattices from gold-poly-N-isopropylacrylamide (Au-PNIPAM) core– shell particles are prepared within a broad range of concentrations in aqueous dispersions. These superlattices show strong Bragg diffraction in the visible, tunable by the particle volume fraction as well as temperature. Structural changes (melting/recrystallization) upon changes in temperature are highly reversible.

    6. Electrochemical Synthesis of Magnetostrictive Fe–Ga/Cu Multilayered Nanowire Arrays with Tailored Magnetic Response (pages 4677–4683)

      Sai Madhukar Reddy, Jung Jin Park, Suok-Min Na, Mazin M. Maqableh, Alison B. Flatau and Bethanie J. H. Stadler

      Version of Record online: 24 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101390

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      Magnetostrictive Fe–Ga/Cu multilayered nanowires are synthesized using citrate-based electrochemistry, resulting in strong <110> textured growth. Coercivity versus applied field angle data reveal that, at high angles, the magnetization reversal mechanisms are different in continuous (curve A) to those of multilayered structures (curves B–E). This is attributed to mixed mode reversal involving vortex and coherent rotation modes in continuous wires.

    7. Surface-Modified Low-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (pages 4684–4690)

      Young Beom Kim, Timothy P. Holme, Turgut M. Gür and Fritz B. Prinz

      Version of Record online: 4 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101058

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      Quantum simulations to calculate the relative activation energies for oxygen incorporation into yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and yttria-doped ceria (YDC) are reported. In addition, the epitaxial growth of thin YDC interlayers on YSZ substrates experimentally demonstrated, which shows improvement in the performance of surface-modified solid oxide fuel cells in terms of power density and electrode interface resistance.

    8. Title: Using Alignment and 2D Network Simulations to Study Charge Transport Through Doped ZnO Nanowire Thin Film Electrodes (pages 4691–4697)

      Sujay Phadke, Jung-Yong Lee, Jack West, Peter Peumans and Alberto Salleo

      Version of Record online: 30 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100873

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      Solution processed Gallium doped ZnO nanowires are aligned on substrates using an innovative shear coating technique. Nanowire alignment has shown improvement in ZnO nanowire transparent electrode conductivity. 2D network simulations in conjunction with electrical measurements have revealed different regimes of operation of nanowire thin films and provided a guideline for improving electrical performance of nanowire electrodes.

  8. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Full Papers
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Full Papers
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. Solar Cells: Enhanced Performance of I2-Free Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Conductive Polymer up to 6.8% (Adv. Funct. Mater. 24/2011) (page 4698)

      Jeonghun Kim, Jong Kwan Koh, Byeonggwan Kim, Sung Hoon Ahn, Hyungju Ahn, Du Yeol Ryu, Jong Hak Kim and Eunkyoung Kim

      Version of Record online: 13 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190114

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An iodine-free solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (ssDSSC) with 6.8% efficiency can be fabricated using conductive polymers and organized mesoporous TiO2. On page 4633, Eunkyoung Kim, Jong Hak Kim, and co-workers show the effects of polymer conductivity and transmittance of the interfacial TiO2 layer on energy conversion efficiency. This method can be used for the fabrication of various photovoltaic cells.

  9. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Full Papers
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Full Papers
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. Polyester Materials with Superwetting Silicone Nanofilaments for Oil/Water Separation and Selective Oil Absorption (pages 4699–4704)

      Junping Zhang and Stefan Seeger

      Version of Record online: 13 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101090

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Superhydrophobic and superoleophilic polyester materials are prepared by one-step growth of silicone nanofilaments onto the textile via chemical vapor deposition of trichloromethylsilane. Owing to the superwetting properties and flexibility of the coated textile, excellent reusability, oil/water separation efficiency and selective oil absorption capacity are observed, which make it a very promising material, e.g., for practical oil absorption.

    2. Transparent Self-Healing Polymers Based on Encapsulated Plasticizers in a Thermoplastic Matrix (pages 4705–4711)

      Aaron C. Jackson, Jonathan A. Bartelt and Paul V. Braun

      Version of Record online: 4 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101574

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      An optically transparent thermoplastic self-healing system based on a poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix containing dibutylphthalate filled capsules is reported. Index matching minimizes light scatter from the capsules or healed material in the polymer film. Healing occurs via a solvent welding mechanism initiated by release of dibutylphthalate from ruptured capsules. After healing, the optical properties, protective capabilities, and mechanical strength of the polymer film are recovered.

    3. Controlling Polarization Dependent Reactions to Fabricate Multi-Component Functional Nanostructures (pages 4712–4718)

      David Conklin, Tae-Hong Park, Sanjini Nanayakkara, Michael J. Therien and Dawn A. Bonnell

      Version of Record online: 4 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101673

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      The mechanisms of nucleation and growth of nanoparticles formed by polarization dependent photo-reduction on a ferroelectric surface are determined. The effects of photon flux, chemistry, and concentration on particle size and separation are quantified. This new understanding leads to control of the deposition required to demonstrate the fabrication of novel metal nanoparticle/porphyrin optoelectronic devices that exploit surface plasmons to produce enhanced photocurrent.

    4. Enhancement of Green Emission from InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Wells via Coupling to Surface Plasmons in a Two-Dimensional Silver Array (pages 4719–4723)

      Cheng-Hsueh Lu, Chia-Chun Lan, Yen-Lin Lai, Yun-Li Li and Chuan-Pu Liu

      Version of Record online: 4 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101814

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      A higher internal quantum efficiency and a higher light extraction efficiency are simultaneously achieved by engraving an array of nanoholes into the p-GaN cladding layer, followed by partial filling with silver. The technique offers a practical approach to overcoming the limitation of the exponentially decayed surface plasmon field and to controlling the effective coupling energy. It is feasible for high-power lighting applications.

    5. Ferromagnetic Cobalt Nanoparticles and Their Immobilization on Monomolecular Films and Chemical Templates (pages 4724–4735)

      Jianli Zhao, Marina Spasova, Zi-An Li and Michael Zharnikov

      Version of Record online: 26 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101570

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      Monodisperse Co nanoparticles, stabilized by an organic coating, are synthesized and immobilized on a variety of self-assembled monolayers and chemical templates. The particles have an average diameter of ∼10 nm and consist of hcp cobalt covered by a thin (∼1 nm) oxide film. They exhibit pronounced ferromagnetic properties with a blocking temperature above 380 K stemming from the high magnetocrystalline anisotropy.

    6. A Biologically Active Surface Enzyme Assembly that Attenuates Thrombus Formation (pages 4736–4743)

      Zheng Qu, Sharmila Muthukrishnan, Murali K. Urlam, Carolyn A. Haller, Sumanas W. Jordan, Vivek A. Kumar, Ulla M. Marzec, Yaseen Elkasabi, Joerg Lahann, Stephen R. Hanson and Elliot L. Chaikof

      Version of Record online: 26 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101687

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      A biologically active thrombomodulin surface assembly to limit interfacial thrombin production was generated on the lumen of clinical ePTFE vascular grafts by site-specific covalent immobilization. Therapeutic capacity of this biomimetic surface engineering approach to attenuate thrombus formation was demonstrated in a clinically relevant in vivo model of prosthetic graft thrombosis.

    7. Organic Light-Emitting Diode Sensing Platform: Challenges and Solutions (pages 4744–4753)

      Rui Liu, Yuankun Cai, Joong-Mok Park, Kai-Ming Ho, Joseph Shinar and Ruth Shinar

      Version of Record online: 11 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101536

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      One approach to alleviate issues associated with the organic light-emitting diode (OLED)-based sensing platform: A 2-D uniform 2 μm-pitch microlens array (μLA) integrated with the OLED and an O2 sensing film leads to a ∼2.1–3.8 fold enhancement of the photoluminescence (PL) signal, enabling a more accurate determination of the (bio)analyte-dependent PL decay time, and hence its concentration. It also enables operation of the OLEDs at lower voltages, which enhances their operational lifetime.

    8. The Effect of Methyl Functionalization on Microporous Metal-Organic Frameworks' Capacity and Binding Energy for Carbon Dioxide Adsorption (pages 4754–4762)

      Hui Liu, Yonggang Zhao, Zhijuan Zhang, Nour Nijem, Yves J. Chabal, Heping Zeng and Jing Li

      Version of Record online: 12 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101479

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      Methyl-group-functionalized microporous metal frameworks can lead to significantly enhanced CO2 adsorption capacity despite the reduction of surface area and pore volume caused by addition of the methyl group.

    9. Electrostatically Templated Self-Assembly of Polymeric Particles: The Role of Friction and Shape Complementarity (pages 4763–4768)

      Paul J. Wesson and Bartosz A. Grzybowski

      Version of Record online: 18 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101160

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      In electrostatically templated self-assembly, dielectric particles are attracted towards nonconductive regions of a patterned gold electrode. This method aligns and centers dielectric spheres on circular adsorption sites, but, due to edge effects and greater friction, produces poor quality assemblies of disks.

    10. Epoxy Ring Opening Phase Transfer as a General Route to Water Dispersible Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 Nanoparticles and Their Application as Positive MRI Contrast Agents (pages 4769–4775)

      Tsedev Ninjbadgar and Dermot F. Brougham

      Version of Record online: 31 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101371

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      A general method for producing water dispersible superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles is presented utilizing ring opening reactions between surface-bound epoxy-ligands and amine functionalities. PEG or arginine stabilized suspensions exhibit high r1 values of 17 s−1 mM−1, and low r2/r1 ratios of 3.3–3.8. This demonstrates high magnetization and excellent water dispersibility of the nanocrystals, as required for applications as positive MRI contrast agents.

    11. Inverted Organic Solar Cells with Sol–Gel Processed High Work-Function Vanadium Oxide Hole-Extraction Layers (pages 4776–4783)

      Kirill Zilberberg, Sara Trost, Jens Meyer, Antoine Kahn, Andreas Behrendt, Dirk Lützenkirchen-Hecht, Ronald Frahm and Thomas Riedl

      Version of Record online: 28 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101402

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      Inverted organic solar cells employing a solution processed V2O5 (sV2O5) hole-extraction-layer on top of the active organic layer are demonstrated. Even without any post-deposition treatment, the electronic structure of the sV2O5 layers is similar to that of thermally evaporated V2O5 (eV2O5) layers which have been exposed to ambient air. Optimized devices with sV2O5 layers show power conversion efficiencies similar to that of devices with eV2O5 layers.

    12. Solution-Processed Metallic Nanowire Electrodes as Indium Tin Oxide Replacement for Thin-Film Solar Cells (pages 4784–4787)

      Johannes Krantz, Moses Richter, Stefanie Spallek, Erdmann Spiecker and Christoph J. Brabec

      Version of Record online: 24 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100457

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      Solution-processed silver nanowire (Ag NW) films are introduced as transparent electrodes for thin-film solar cells. Ag NWs are processed by doctor blade-coating at moderate temperatures and their morphological, optical, and electrical characteristics are presented. Additionally Ag NW electrodes are applied for a direct comparison with indium tin oxide electrode layers in poly(3-hexylthiophen-2,5-diyl):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) organic solar cells with comparable performances.

    13. Injectable Collagen–Genipin Gel for the Treatment of Spinal Cord Injury: In Vitro Studies (pages 4788–4797)

      Daniel Macaya, Karen K. Ng and Myron Spector

      Version of Record online: 18 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101720

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      The addition of genipin (0.25–1 mM) to soluble type I collagen imparts substantial dose dependent increases in shear modulus immediately after gelation, as compared to collagen alone. This range of genipin concentrations is chosen because it is compatible with mesenchymal and neural stem cell encapsulation and survival within the gel.

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