Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 21 Issue 3

February 8, 2011

Volume 21, Issue 3

Pages 401–597

  1. Cover Picture

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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
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    1. Thin-Film Electrodes: Microscopic and Nanoscopic Three-Phase-Boundaries of Platinum Thin Film Electrodes on YSZ Electrolyte (Adv. Funct. Mater. 3/2011) (page 401)

      Thomas Ryll, Henning Galinski, Lukas Schlagenhauf, Pierre Elser, Jennifer L. M. Rupp, Anja Bieberle-Hutter and Ludwig J. Gauckler

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190000

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      The cover image shows a percolating Pt network on Si|Si3N4 obtained by thermally induced agglomeration of a 100-nm-thick Pt film. on page 565, Thomas Ryll, Ludwig J. Gauckler, and co-workers correlate the micro-structural characteristics of Pt films and networks with their activity for oxygen reduction on the solid electrolyte yttria-stabilized zirconia. Microstructural features such as grain boundaries and triple junctions are of particular importance.

  2. Inside Front Cover

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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Feature Article
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    8. Full Papers
    1. Electro-optical Materials: Switching of Electrically Responsive, Light-Sensitive Colloidal Suspensions of Anisotropic Pigment Particles (Adv. Funct. Mater. 3/2011) (page 402)

      Alexey Eremin, Ralf Stannarius, Susanne Klein, Jana Heuer and Robert M. Richardson

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190001

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      Alexey Eremin and co-workers present, on page 556, colloidal suspensions of anisotropic pigment particles in a nonpolar solvent. The particles spontaneously form a nematic-like state at an unusually low concentration of the suspended particles. Additionally, the material exhibits optical switching in an electric field. Different switching regimes for various driving frequencies and varying illumination light intensity are presented. The image shows a false-color scanning electron microscopy image of the pigment particles and a polarizing microscopy image of a ten-micrometer layer of the suspension.

  3. Contents

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    1. Contents: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 3/2011) (pages 403–409)

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190002

  4. Feature Article

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    1. Organic–Organic Heterojunction Interfaces: Effect of Molecular Orientation (pages 410–424)

      Wei Chen, Dong-Chen Qi, Han Huang, Xingyu Gao and Andrew T. S. Wee

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000902

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      Organic–organic heterojunctions (OOHs) are critical features in organic light-emitting diodes, ambipolar organic field-effect-transistors and organic solar cells. Recent progress in the understanding of interface energetics at small molecule OOH interfaces is reviewed in this Feature Article, focusing on the orientation-dependent energy-level alignments and their implications on device operations.

  5. Full Papers

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    1. Color Tunable Poly (N-Isopropylacrylamide)-co-Acrylic Acid Microgel–Au Hybrid Assemblies (pages 425–433)

      Courtney D. Sorrell, Matthew C. D. Carter and Michael J. Serpe

      Article first published online: 26 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001714

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      Color tunable etalons are fabricated by drying thermoresponsive microgels onto a thin Au film (mirror); another thin Au mirror is evaporated onto the monolithic microgel film. When the assemblies are immersed in aqueous solution, they respond to temperature by exhibiting marked shifts in reflectance wavelength. The color tunability is completely reversible and the films are extremely robust.

    2. A Biocompatible Arginine-Based Polycation (pages 434–440)

      Blaine J. Zern, Hunghao Chu, Adeboye O. Osunkoya, Jin Gao and Yadong Wang

      Article first published online: 14 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000969

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      The design of PAGS and the control polymers that probe the importance of endogenous cations and their degradability in terms of biocompatibility is studied. The biocompatibility is shown to diminish when L-arginine is substituted with D-arginine or when the biodegradable ester linker is changed to a biostable ether linker.

    3. Analysis of Ce- and Yb-Doped TAGS-85 Materials with Enhanced Thermoelectric Figure of Merit (pages 441–447)

      E. M. Levin, B. A. Cook, J. L. Harringa, S. L. Bud’ko, R. Venkatasubramanian and K. Schmidt-Rohr

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001307

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      Doping of TAGS-85 (Ag6.52Sb6.52Ge36.96Te50.00), a well-known thermoelectric material with 1 at% Ce or Yb, yields a dilute magnetic semiconductor system. This system has non-interacting localized magnetic moments and an enhanced thermoelectric power factor and figure of merit.

    4. Structural and Electrical Properties of Atomic Layer Deposited Al-Doped ZnO Films (pages 448–455)

      Do-Joong Lee, Hyun-Mi Kim, Jang-Yeon Kwon, Hyoji Choi, Soo-Hyun Kim and Ki-Bum Kim

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001342

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      Layer-by-layer Al-doped ZnO films are deposited by atomic layer deposition to study the extrinsic doping mechanism of a transparent conducting oxide. A combined understanding of structural and electrical properties of these films based on an effective field model suggests that doubly charged donors, such as oxygen vacancies and zinc interstitials, would be formed by extrinsic doping of Al atoms.

    5. Patterning of YVO4:Eu3+ Luminescent Films by Soft Lithography (pages 456–463)

      Wenxin Wang, Ziyong Cheng, Piaoping Yang, Zhiyao Hou, Chunxia Li, Guogang Li, Yunlu Dai and Jun Lin

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001467

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      Ordered, uniform square (see figure) and circle arrays of luminescent YVO4:Eu3+ patterns are fabricated by microtransfer molding and microcontact printing processes, respectively. No deformation nor swelling can be seen in the resulting luminescent patterns. Upon UV irradiation and electron-beam excitation, both types of patterns emit strong red light because of the presence of Eu3+ (5D07F2) in the YVO4 host.

  6. Full Paper

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    1. Site-Selectively Coated, Densely-Packed Microprojection Array Patches for Targeted Delivery of Vaccines to Skin (pages 464–473)

      Xianfeng Chen, Holly J. Corbett, Sally R. Yukiko, Anthony P. Raphael, Emily J. Fairmaid, Tarl W. Prow, Lorena E. Brown, Germain J. P. Fernando and Mark A. F. Kendall

      Article first published online: 15 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000966

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      Densely packed microprojection arrays are site-selectively coated by dipping them in a solution of high viscosity. This technique provides microprojection arrays with desired coating attributes for vaccine delivery. It is universal for a wide range of molecules, provides quick release in skin, has high delivery efficiency, has the ability to induce potent immune responses, and is simple making it suitable for mass production.

  7. Full Papers

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    1. Photoinduced Electron Transfer in Dye-Sensitized SnO2 Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors (pages 474–479)

      Hsing-Chen Wu, Yuan-Chang Huang, I-Kang Ding, Chun-Cing Chen, Yi-Han Yang, Chia-Chang Tsai, Chii-Dong Chen and Yit-Tsong Chen

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001521

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      Photoaction and photoluminescence spectra of dye-sensitized SnO2 nanowire field-effect transistors (dye/SnO2-NW FET) have been employed to study electron transfer from photoexcited dyes (chlorophyll or fluorescein) to the SnO2-NW FET via a photoinduced electron transfer cycle. This study provides an understanding of electron injection and electron–hole recombination as well as optimizing the performance of nanowire-based dye-sensitized solar cells.

    2. High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells Based on Preformed Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Nanowires (pages 480–486)

      Jong Soo Kim, Ji Hwang Lee, Jong Hwan Park, Chiyeoung Shim, Myungsun Sim and Kilwon Cho

      Article first published online: 23 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000971

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      The preparation of self-assembled P3HT nanowires embedded in PCBM network structures is investigated, with a particular focus on the effect of ageing time of the nanowire precursor solution. Using the optimized ageing conditions for the formation of preformed P3HT nanowires, a compositionally graded OPV cell is fabricated that uses a thermally annealed, pure P3HT layer as the buffer layer.

    3. Novel Film-Casting Method for High-Performance Flexible Polymer Electrodes (pages 487–493)

      Byoung Hoon Lee, Sung Heum Park, Hyungcheol Back and Kwanghee Lee

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000589

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      High-performance flexible polymer electronic devices are demonstrated using electrodes fabricated with a new film-casting method, involving polyaniline doped with camphorsulfonic acid (PANI:CSA). The lowered sheet resistance of the PANI:CSA electrodes resulted in excellent device performance compared with the devices fabricated using a conventional spin-casting method. The flexible polymer light-emitting diodes produced an enhanced brightness of 6000 cd m−2, and the flexible polymer solar cells exhibited a higher power conversion efficiency of 2%.

    4. Pushing the Functionality of Diamond Nanoparticles to New Horizons: Orthogonally Functionalized Nanodiamond Using Click Chemistry (pages 494–500)

      Thomas Meinhardt, Daniel Lang, Holger Dill and Anke Krueger

      Article first published online: 30 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001219

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      Multifunctional diamond nanoparticles are produced by applying click chemistry to prefunctionalized diamond materials of different origin. Orthogonal grafting and multiple labeling with dyes are achieved. the broad applicability of this grafting approach for the multiple bioconjugation of nanodiamond is demonstrated.

    5. V2O5 Nanowires with an Intrinsic Peroxidase-Like Activity (pages 501–509)

      Rute André, Filipe Natálio, Madalena Humanes, Jana Leppin, Katja Heinze, Ron Wever, H.-C. Schröder, Werner E. G. Müller and Wolfgang Tremel

      Article first published online: 30 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001302

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      V2O5 nanowires show an intrinsic catalytic activity towards classical peroxidase of substrates such as 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 3,3,5,5,-tetramethylbenzadine (TMB) in the presence of H2O2. The Michaelis–Menten kinetics of the ABTS oxidation over these nanowires reveal behavior that is similar to that of their natural vanadium-dependent haloperoxidase (V-HPO) counterparts. The nanostructured vanadium-based material can be re-used up to 10 times and retains its catalytic activity making it a promising mimic of peroxidase catalysts.

    6. Photoswitchable Superabsorbency Based on Nanocellulose Aerogels (pages 510–517)

      Marjo Kettunen, Riitta J. Silvennoinen, Nikolay Houbenov, Antti Nykänen, Janne Ruokolainen, Jani Sainio, Viljami Pore, Marianna Kemell, Mikael Ankerfors, Tom Lindström, Mikko Ritala, Robin H. A. Ras and Olli Ikkala

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001431

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      Photoswitching between a water-superabsorbing state and a water-repellent state is demonstrated using highly porous, native nanocellulose aerogels coated with a thin TiO2 film by chemical vapor deposition. The nanofibril aggregations and porosity at different length scales are compared to those of similarly treated nanocellulose films and filter paper references.

    7. Systematic Control of Nucleation Density in Poly(3-Hexylthiophene) Thin Films (pages 518–524)

      Edward J. W. Crossland, Khosrow Rahimi, Günter Reiter, Ullrich Steiner and Sabine Ludwigs

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001682

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      Controlled solvent swelling and deswelling of precast poly(3-hexylthiophene) thin films is a tool for unprecedented control over crystalline morphology in polymer semiconductors. Microscopic crystalline states remaining undissolved in the highly swollen state act as self-seeding nucleii for subsquent recrystallization and permit free choice of nucleation density over many orders of magnitude.

    8. Structural and Electrical Characterization of ZnO Films Grown by Spray Pyrolysis and Their Application in Thin-Film Transistors (pages 525–531)

      George Adamopoulos, Aneeqa Bashir, William P. Gillin, Stamatis Georgakopoulos, Maxim Shkunov, Mohamed A. Baklar, Natalie Stingelin, Donal D. C. Bradley and Thomas D. Anthopoulos

      Article first published online: 12 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001089

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      The evolution of the structural and electronic properties of ZnO films grown by spray pyrolysis as a function of deposition temperature is reported. It is established that higher deposition temperatures lead to the formation of larger ZnO crystalline domains and the fabrication of n-channel thin-film transistors with significantly improved operating characteristics.

    9. Properties of Flame Sprayed Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9-δ Electrolyte Thin Films (pages 532–539)

      Nikolaos I. Karageorgakis, Andre Heel, Jennifer L. M. Rupp, Myriam H. Aguirre, Thomas Graule and Ludwig J. Gauckler

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001622

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      Nanoindentation measurements performed on nanocrystalline sub-micrometer thin films of Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9-δ (CGO) reveal a strong influence of the annealing temperature, or equally grain size, on the mechanical properties of the films. The flame-deposited CGO films, exhibiting a dense, smooth, and particle-free microstructure, are evaluated as potential candidates for micro-SOFS (solid oxide fuel cells) and are investigated in terms of isothermal grain growth, microstrain relaxation, and electrical conductivity.

    10. Highly Ordered Nanometer-Scale Chemical and Protein Patterns by Binary Colloidal Crystal Lithography Combined with Plasma Polymerization (pages 540–546)

      Gurvinder Singh, Hans J. Griesser, Kristen Bremmell and Peter Kingshott

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001340

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      Binary colloidal crystal lithography integrated with plasma polymerization, a versatile approach, is developed to generate highly ordered chemical nanopatterned surfaces. Several types of 2D to 3D patterned surface have been fabricated over large areas by appropriately tuning the binary colloidal mask morphology. The amine groups of the patterned surface are activated to induce the covalent binding of poly(ethylene-glycol) molecules for specific protein adsorption.

    11. Adhesion Selectivity Using Rippled Surfaces (pages 547–555)

      Shilpi Vajpayee, Krishnacharya Khare, Shu Yang, Chung-Yuen Hui and Anand Jagota

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001652

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      When complementary rippled surfaces are in full contact, a significant increase in adhesion is found with increasing amplitude. The microscopy image shows a crack propagating from left to right through an interface between rippled surfaces. Ahead of the crack, no features indicating that complementary surfaces can be pressed into full conformal contact are observed. To the left, behind the crack front, the rippled surface of one of the crack flanks is observed. Shape complementarity results in highly selective adhesion.

    12. Switching of Electrically Responsive, Light-Sensitive Colloidal Suspensions of Anisotropic Pigment Particles (pages 556–564)

      Alexey Eremin, Ralf Stannarius, Susanne Klein, Jana Heuer and Robert M. Richardson

      Article first published online: 30 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001573

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Colloidal suspensions of anisotropic pigment particles in a nonpolar solvent spontaneously form a nematic-like state at unusually low concentration of the suspended particles. Additionally, this material exhibits optical switching in an electric field. Different switching regimes have been found for various driving frequencies and varying illumination light intensity.

    13. Microscopic and Nanoscopic Three-Phase-Boundaries of Platinum Thin-Film Electrodes on YSZ Electrolyte (pages 565–572)

      Thomas Ryll, Henning Galinski, Lukas Schlagenhauf, Pierre Elser, Jennifer L. M. Rupp, Anja Bieberle-Hutter and Ludwig J. Gauckler

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001729

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      The electrochemical performance of agglomerated as well as dense Pt thin film electrodes on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is correlated with microstructural characteristics. In addition to the microscopic three-phase-boundary (tpb), the electrode conductivity is significantly governed by defects like grain boundaries acting as nanoscopic tpbs. This results in high electrode performances of electrode thin films mostly regarded as dense.

    14. A Novel Buffering Technique for Aqueous Processing of Zinc Oxide Nanostructures and Interfaces, and Corresponding Improvement of Electrodeposited ZnO-Cu2O Photovoltaics (pages 573–582)

      Kevin P. Musselman, Andrew Marin, Andreas Wisnet, Christina Scheu, Judith L. MacManus-Driscoll and Lukas Schmidt-Mende

      Article first published online: 7 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001956

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      A novel buffering technique is presented for treatment of functional ZnO films and nanostructures in aqueous solutions. Buffering the solutions with sacrificial zinc species is found to prevent dissolution of the ZnO and unwanted precipitate formation. Bilayer and nanowire Cu2O–ZnO solar cells electrodeposited from buffered solutions display a greater resistance to unwanted recombination at their heterointerface and enhanced performance.

    15. A Universal, Label-Free, and Sensitive Optical Enzyme-Sensing System for Nuclease and Methyltransferase Activity Based on Light Scattering of Carbon Nanotubes (pages 583–590)

      Chao Zhao, Konggang Qu, Yujun Song, Jinsong Ren and Xiaogang Qu

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001745

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      A label-free, enzyme-responsive nanosystem that uses a DNA/single-walled carbon nanotube assembly as the substrate is demonstrated for the sensitive, universal detection of restriction and nonrestriction endonucleases as well as methyltransferases in a homogeneous solution on the basis of light scattering of carbon nanotubes.

    16. Selective Artificial Receptors Based on Micropatterned Surface-Imprinted Polymers for Label-Free Detection of Proteins by SPR Imaging (pages 591–597)

      Gergely Lautner, Jevgeni Kaev, Jekaterina Reut, Andres Öpik, Jörg Rappich, Vitali Syritski and Róbert E. Gyurcsányi

      Article first published online: 7 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001753

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      A novel concept to generate micropatterned surface-imprinted polymers for protein recognition by photolithography is introduced. The avidin-imprinted poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS) bands prepared directly on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging chips enable the label-free monitoring of the binding events. The surface-imprinted microstructures discriminate among functional homologues of avidin.

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