Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 21 Issue 4

February 22, 2011

Volume 21, Issue 4

Pages 601–797

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Feature Article
    6. Full Papers
    1. Self-Sharpening Teeth: Self-Sharpening Mechanism of the Sea Urchin Tooth (Adv. Funct. Mater. 4/2011)

      Christopher E. Killian, Rebecca A. Metzler, Yutao Gong, Tyler H. Churchill, Ian C. Olson, Vasily Trubetskoy, Matthew B. Christensen, John H. Fournelle, Francesco De Carlo, Sidney Cohen, Julia Mahamid, Andreas Scholl, Anthony Young, Andrew Doran, Fred H. Wilt, Susan N. Coppersmith and Pupa U. P. A. Gilbert

      Article first published online: 14 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190003

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      The cover image presents five white teeth at the center of a sea urchin held upside down. In the tidal pool in the background, several urchins are sheltered in holes they bored into the rock substrate, using their remarkable self-sharpening teeth. on page 682 Pupa Gilbert and co-workers describe the self-sharpening mechanism of the sea urchins' teeth; a strategy that may be used for the top-down or bottom-up fabrication of lamellar materials, to be used for mechanical functions at the nano- and micrometer scale. (Photo: Pupa Gilbert)

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Feature Article
    6. Full Papers
    1. Photoconduction: Very Large Photoconduction Enhancement Upon Self-Assembly of a New Triindole Derivative in Solution-Processed Films (Adv. Funct. Mater. 4/2011)

      Francisco Gallego-Gómez, Eva M. García-Frutos, José M. Villalvilla, José A. Quintana, Enrique Gutierrez-Puebla, Angeles Monge, María A. Díaz-García and Berta Gómez-Lor

      Article first published online: 14 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190004

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      A new triindole derivative exhibiting spontaneous organization into ordered nanostructures in solution-processed cast films has been synthesized by Francisco Gallego-Gómez, María A. Díaz-García, Berta Gómez-Lor, and co-workers on page 738. In the amorphous state, films show large photoconductivity without sensitizing the triindole. Upon self-assembly, an enormous improvement in the photocurrent, by up to four orders of magnitude, is observed. The simplicity of fabrication gives this readily available organic system great potential for use in plastic optoelectronic devices.

  3. Back Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Feature Article
    6. Full Papers
    1. Organic Light-Emitting Diodes: Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with a White-Emitting Molecule: Emission Mechanism and Device Characteristics (Adv. Funct. Mater. 4/2011)

      Se Hun Kim, Sanghyuk Park, Ji Eon Kwon and Soo Young Park

      Article first published online: 21 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190006

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      Versatile tuning of emission colors of an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is successfully demonstrated by Soo Young Park and co-workers on page 644, who present a very special white-light-emitting molecule (W1) comprising blue and yellow emitting segments of independent emission. Blue, yellow, and white emissions are generated in the hole-dominated, electron-dominated, and charge-balanced OLED devices of W1, respectively.

  4. Feature Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Feature Article
    6. Full Papers
    1. Smectic Liquid Crystal Defects for Self-Assembling of Building Blocks and Their Lithographic Applications (pages 610–627)

      Yun Ho Kim, Dong Ki Yoon, Hyeon Su Jeong, Oleg D. Lavrentovich and Hee-Tae Jung

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001303

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      Smectic liquid crystalline materials have recently been suggested as a new class of soft building blocks that form a liquid crystal (LC) film containing an ordered, periodic array of smectic LC defects by controlling the surface anchoring and the elastic properties of LC molecules. Several lithographic applications are introduced in this Feature Article and chosen figures.

  5. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Feature Article
    6. Full Papers
    1. Study of the Piezoelectric Power Generation of ZnO Nanowire Arrays Grown by Different Methods (pages 628–633)

      Mohammed Riaz, Jinhui Song, Omer Nur, Zhong Lin Wang and Magnus Willander

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001203

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      The piezoelectric power generation from ZnO nanowire arrays grown on different substrates using high and low temperature methods is studied. The growth method, crystal quality, density, length, and diameter (aspect ratio) of the nanowires are found to affect the piezoelectric behavior.

    2. Harnessing “Click”-Type Chemistry for the Preparation of Novel Electronic Materials (pages 634–643)

      Michal Firstenberg, Kammasandra Nanjunda Shivananda, Irit Cohen, Olga Solomeshch, Vladislav Medvedev, Nir Tessler and Yoav Eichen

      Article first published online: 14 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001893

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      Sequence-independent or “click”-type chemistry is applied for the preparation of novel π-conjugated oligomers. A variety of bi-functional monomers for Wittig–Horner olefination are developed and applied in a sequential protection–deprotection process for the preparation of structurally similar π-conjugated oligomers. Selected oligomers are incorporated as the organic semiconductors in light-emitting diodes and a field-effect transistor, demonstrating the potential of the approach.

    3. Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with a White-Emitting Molecule: Emission Mechanism and Device Characteristics (pages 644–651)

      Se Hun Kim, Sanghyuk Park, Ji Eon Kwon and Soo Young Park

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001779

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      The white-emitting molecule, W1, is demonstrated to generate different emission colors (blue, yellow, and white) in organic light-emitting diode (OLED) devices. The emission color is shown to be highly stable. A charge trapping mechanism is proposed to explain the color tunability of W1.

    4. Controlled Folding of 2D Au–Polymer Brush Composites into 3D Microstructures (pages 652–657)

      Tim S. Kelby, Ming Wang and Wilhelm T.S. Huck

      Article first published online: 13 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001744

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      2D objects that fold into 3D micro­structures in response to a stimulus are fabricated by a simple, repeatable process based on microcontact printing, poly-mer brush growth, and etching. Using a simple bilayer model, the bending of these objects can be predicted as a function of the substrate thickness, and hence the bending can be controlled by the fabrication parameters.

    5. Tin Dioxide Sensing Layer Grown on Tubular Nanostructures by a Non-Aqueous Atomic Layer Deposition Process (pages 658–666)

      Catherine Marichy, Nicola Donato, Marc-Georg Willinger, Mariangela Latino, Dmitry Karpinsky, Seung-Ho Yu, Giovanni Neri and Nicola Pinna

      Article first published online: 13 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001572

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      A new low temperature atomic layer deposition process of nanocrystalline tin dioxide films is developed and applied for the coating of tubular nanostructures. This approach allows the coating of inner and outer surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with a highly conformal film of controllable thickness, at temperature as low as 75°C. The obtained heterostructures show enhanced gas sensing responses.

    6. Multiluminescent Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Nanotubular Structures: One-Pot Fabrication of Tricolor (Blue–Red–Purple) Luminescent Parallepipedic Organic Superstructure Grafted with Europium Complexes (pages 667–673)

      Supratim Basak and Rajadurai Chandrasekar

      Article first published online: 13 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002270

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      A bottom-up one-pot fabrication technique to access a tricolour luminescence (blue–red–purple) in organic/inorganic hybrid parallepipedic nanotubular structures by adopting a solvent-assisted step-wise self-assembly technique is presented, that is, the formation of a parallepipedic nanotubular superstructure with rectangular cavity from blue-emitting ligand molecules in THF/water followed by coating of the inner and outer surface of the tubes by using red-emitting Eu(III) ions.

    7. Guest-Molecule-Directed Assembly of Mesostructured Nanocomposite Polymer/Organoclay Hydrogels (pages 674–681)

      Jessica E. Martin, Avinash J. Patil, Michael F. Butler and Stephen Mann

      Article first published online: 14 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002138

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      New multifunctional nanocomposite polymer hydrogels with mesostructured crosslinking units are prepared by in situ self-assembly of organoclay sheets and guest-drug or protein molecules within a poly(vinylpyrrolidone) matrix. The mesostructured hydrogels are mouldable, swellable, and self-adhesive, and exhibit sustained drug release compared with their exfoliated counterparts.

    8. Self-Sharpening Mechanism of the Sea Urchin Tooth (pages 682–690)

      Christopher E. Killian, Rebecca A. Metzler, Yutao Gong, Tyler H. Churchill, Ian C. Olson, Vasily Trubetskoy, Matthew B. Christensen, John H. Fournelle, Francesco De Carlo, Sidney Cohen, Julia Mahamid, Andreas Scholl, Anthony Young, Andrew Doran, Fred H. Wilt, Susan N. Coppersmith and Pupa U. P. A. Gilbert

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001546

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      Five white, calcitic teeth are at the center of a sea urchin, shown upside down. Using these teeth sea urchins can bore into rocks, whereby the teeth are seen to self-sharpen with use rather than dull. Here, the self-sharpening mechanism is described, in which the continuously growing teeth wear at pre-determined locations near the tip, and thus renew and maintain a sharp tip profile.

    9. Design of Catalytically Active Cylindrical and Macroporous Gold Microelectrodes (pages 691–698)

      Stéphane Reculusa, Matthias Heim, Feng Gao, Nicolas Mano, Serge Ravaine and Alexander Kuhn

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001761

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      Porous goldelectrodes with a cylindrical geometry are synthesized through electrochemical deposition into a colloidal template on a microwire. Their diameter and pore sizes are homogeneous over large distances and can be precisely controlled. These materials present very interesting features, such as a high surface-to-volume ratio, and are successfully tested as miniaturized electrocatalytic devices for the reduction of oxygen.

    10. Achieving Highly Efficient Fluorescent Blue Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Through Optimizing Molecular Structures and Device Configuration (pages 699–707)

      Chang-Gua Zhen, Yan-Feng Dai, Wen-Jin Zeng, Zhun Ma, Zhi-Kuan Chen and John Kieffer

      Article first published online: 18 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002165

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      An external quantum efficiency of 9.4% from pure blue organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) with color coordinates of (0.15, 0.14) is achieved using highly efficient and stable fluorescent organic emitters designed from first-principles calculations. The efficiency of these low-cost solution-processed pure blue OLEDs maintains >5% even at very high current density of 110 mA cm−2.

    11. Imidazolium Polyesters: Structure–Property Relationships in Thermal Behavior, Ionic Conductivity, and Morphology (pages 708–717)

      Minjae Lee, U. Hyeok Choi, David Salas-de la Cruz, Anuj Mittal, Karen I. Winey, Ralph H. Colby and Harry W. Gibson

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001878

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      A series of di(hydroxyalkyl) imidazolium ionic liquids and main-chain imidazolium polyesters are synthesized and characterized. The structure-property relationships for thermal behavior, ionic conductivity, and X-ray scattering morphology are investigated. C11–sebacate–C11 spacers create semicrystalline morphologies with high ionic conductivity.

    12. Synthesis and Characterization of New Thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione Derivatives for Photovoltaic Applications (pages 718–728)

      Ahmed Najari, Serge Beaupré, Philippe Berrouard, Yingping Zou, Jean-Rémi Pouliot, Charlotte Lepage-Pérusse and Mario Leclerc

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001771

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      The synthesis and characterization of new electroactive and photoactive copolymers based on benzodithiophene (BDT) and thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione (TPD) units are described. The copolymers are synthesized with or without thiophene spacers in order to tune the electronic properties and to control the morphology of the active layer in bulk heterojunction solar cells. The potential of these new materials in photovoltaic devices is investigated.

    13. Understanding the Mechanical Properties of Antheraea Pernyi Silk—From Primary Structure to Condensed Structure of the Protein (pages 729–737)

      Chengjie Fu, David Porter, Xin Chen, Fritz Vollrath and Zhengzhong Shao

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001046

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      The ranked position of forcibly reeled A. pernyi silk, in terms of its various properties such as elasticity, supercontraction and the effect of water on modulus etc, is found to correlate with the primary structure of silk protein in the animal silk family. Therefore, an interpretation of how the primary structure determines the mechanical properties of animal silks via its condensed structure is proposed.

    14. Very Large Photoconduction Enhancement Upon Self-Assembly of a New Triindole Derivative in Solution-Processed Films (pages 738–745)

      Francisco Gallego-Gómez, Eva M. García-Frutos, José M. Villalvilla, José A. Quintana, Enrique Gutierrez-Puebla, Angeles Monge, María A. Díaz-García and Berta Gómez-Lor

      Article first published online: 18 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000956

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      Large photoconduction enhancement from small molecules: A new carbazole-related small molecule exhibiting self-assembly into ordered nanostructures in solution-processed cast films has been synthesized and its charge-photogeneration and -transport properties have been investigated.

    15. A Simple and Effective Modification of PCBM for Use as an Electron Acceptor in Efficient Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells (pages 746–755)

      John A. Mikroyannidis, Antonis N. Kabanakis, S. S. Sharma and Ganesh D. Sharma

      Article first published online: 13 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001807

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      A simple, low-cost and effective approach of modifying PCBM and improving its absorption is reported. The modified PCBM, F, is an excellent acceptor for BHJ solar cells. The solar cell based on P3HT:F shows a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.23%, while that based on P3HT:PCBM shows a PCE of about 2.93%. A maximum PCE of 5.25% is achieved with the P3HT:F blend deposited from a mixture of solvents and subsequent thermal annealing.

    16. Organic D-A-π-A Solar Cell Sensitizers with Improved Stability and Spectral Response (pages 756–763)

      Weihong Zhu, Yongzhen Wu, Shutao Wang, Wenqin Li, Xin Li, Jian Chen, Zhong-sheng Wang and He Tian

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001801

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      Four D-A-π-A configuration organic dyes containing benzothiadiazole are developed for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The stability and spectral response of indoline dye-based DSSCs are improved by the strong electron-withdrawing benzothiadiazole unit in the conjugation bridge. The incident-photon-conversion efficiency of WS-2 reaches nearly 850 nm with power conversion efficiency as high as 8.7% in liquid electrolyte and 6.6% in ionic-liquid electrolyte.

    17. Investigation of Energy Transfer in Organic Photovoltaic Cells and Impact on Exciton Diffusion Length Measurements (pages 764–771)

      Wade A. Luhman and Russell J. Holmes

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001928

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      Energy transfer in organic photovoltaic materials is theoretically and experimentally investigated. Förster radii for many commonly used donor–acceptor material combinations are extracted that correlate well with theoretical calculations. Independent diffusion length measurements with varying degrees of energy transfer are performed to obtain an average exciton diffusion length for boron subphthalocyanine chloride (SubPc) of 7.7 nm.

    18. Structural Origin of the Strain-Hardening of Spider Silk (pages 772–778)

      Ning Du, Zhen Yang, Xiang Yang Liu, Yang Li and Hong Yao Xu

      Article first published online: 14 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001397

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      The structural response of spider dragline fiber to stretching is distinct from that of silkworm silk. The unfolding of the intramolecular β-sheets in spider silk fibrils gives rise to strain-hardening behavior, enabling efficient energy buffering and absorption when an abseiling spider escapes from a predator.

    19. Structural Origins of Silk Piezoelectricity (pages 779–785)

      Tuna Yucel, Peggy Cebe and David L. Kaplan

      Article first published online: 13 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002077

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      Uniaxially oriented silk films exhibit high shear piezoelectric coefficient values. A combination of a high degree of silk II, β-sheet crystallinity and crystallite orientation are prerequisites for a strong piezoelectric effect in silk. Further understanding of the structural origins of silk piezoelectricity provides important options for future biotechnological and biomedical applications of this protein.

    20. Inkjet-Printed Organic Electrodes for Bottom-Contact Organic Field-Effect Transistors (pages 786–791)

      Jing Zhang, Yan Zhao, Zhongming Wei, Yimeng Sun, Yudong He, Chong-an Di, Wei Xu, Wenping Hu, Yunqi Liu and Daoben Zhu

      Article first published online: 19 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001583

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      The mobilities of bottom-contact OFET devices are dramatically improved by novel organic-doped quasi-graphite electrodes. The difference in the characteristics can be directly correlated with drastic structural and morphological differences across the channel/electrode contact edge of both n- and p-type devices.

    21. Cu2O Nanocrystal-Templated Growth of Cu2S Nanocages with Encapsulated Au Nanoparticles and In-Situ Transmission X-ray Microscopy Study (pages 792–797)

      Chun-Hong Kuo, Yi-Ting Chu, Yen-Fang Song and Michael H. Huang

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002108

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      Cubic and octahedral Cu2O nanocrystals and Au–Cu2O core–shell heterostructures are used as sacrificial templates for the growth of Cu2S nanocages and Au–Cu2S core–cage structures with excellent preservation of the template morphologies. The entire hollowing process via the Kirkendall effect is recorded using in-situ transmission X-ray microscopy. Intermediate structures with remaining central Cu2O portions and bridging arms to the surrounding cages are observed.

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