Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 21 Issue 6

March 22, 2011

Volume 21, Issue 6

Pages 1008–1200

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    1. Biosensors: Control of Nanoscale Environment to Improve Stability of Immobilized Proteins on Diamond Surfaces (Adv. Funct. Mater. 6/2011) (page 1008)

      Adarsh D. Radadia, Courtney J. Stavis, Rogan Carr, Hongjun Zeng, William P. King, John A. Carlisle, Aleksei Aksimentiev, Robert J. Hamers and Rashid Bashir

      Version of Record online: 18 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190011

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      Immunoassays for the detection of bacterial pathogens rely on the selectivity and stability of biorecognition elements, such as antibodies tethered to sensor surfaces. on page 1040, Robert J. Hamers, Rashid Bashir, and co-workers show that covalent linking of antibodies to diamond surfaces leads to substantial improvements in the biological activity of proteins. The results can be easily extended to the functionalization of micro- and nanodi-mensional sensors and structures of biomedical diagnostic and therapeutic interest.

  2. Inside Front Cover

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    1. Photovoltaic Devices: Highly Conductive PEDOT:PSS Electrode with Optimized Solvent and Thermal Post-Treatment for ITO-Free Organic Solar Cells (Adv. Funct. Mater. 6/2011) (page 1009)

      Yong Hyun Kim, Christoph Sachse, Michael L. Machala, Christian May, Lars Müller-Meskamp and Karl Leo

      Version of Record online: 18 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190012

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      Organic photovoltaic solar cells, a promising, renewable power source, require the development of flexible, transparent, and highly conductive electrodes. Yong Hyun Kim, Lars Müller-Meskamp, and co-workers, on page 1076, have optimized thin films of the conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS [poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)] by extended solvent treatment and proved a mechanism of selective PSS removal. The resulting electrode was successfully integrated into evaporated, organic solar cells, yielding efficiencies similar to that of indium tin oxide devices on small areas.

  3. Back Cover

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    1. Drug Delivery: Wavelength-Selective Light-Induced Release from Plasmon Resonant Liposomes (Adv. Funct. Mater. 6/2011) (page 1010)

      Sarah J. Leung, Xenia M. Kachur, Michael C. Bobnick and Marek Romanowski

      Version of Record online: 18 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190013

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      Use of nanotechnology for biomedical applications requires a combination of therapeutic functions with biologically relevant mechanisms for degradation or elimination of structures. on page 1113, Marek Romanowski and co-workers present wavelength-controlled light-induced release from plasmon resonant liposomes. A tunable plasmon resonance band is obtained by depositing various amounts of gold onto the surface of 100-nm-diameter liposomes. Laser light induces selective release of content from liposomes resonant at matching wavelenghts, while avoiding release from off-resonant liposomes. This illumination scheme is a biologically safe mechanism towards drug delivery, microfluidic, and sensor applications.

  4. Contents

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  5. Feature Article

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    1. Assemblies of Functional Peptides and Their Applications in Building Blocks for Biosensors (pages 1018–1026)

      Roberto de la Rica, Christophe Pejoux and Hiroshi Matsui

      Version of Record online: 1 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001419

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      Recent applications of functional peptide nanotubes, self-assembled from short peptides with recognition elements, are highlighted as building blocks to develop sensors. Peptide nanotubes with high aspect ratios are excellent building blocks for directed assembly into device configurations, and their combining structures with the nanometric diameters and the micrometric lengths enables to bridge the “nanoworld” and the “microworld”.

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    1. Highly Luminescent Organosilane-Functionalized Carbon Dots (pages 1027–1031)

      Fu Wang, Zheng Xie, Hao Zhang, Chun-yan Liu and Ying-ge Zhang

      Version of Record online: 25 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002279

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      Bright dots: The first use of an organosilane as a coordinating solvent to synthesize highly luminescent (quantum yield = 47%) amorphous carbon dots (CDs) in one minute is reported. The CDs, which benefit from surface methoxysilyl groups, have a diameter of ≈0.9 nm and can easily be fabricated into fluorescent films or monoliths by heating them at 80 ºC for 24 h. Moreover, the non-water-stable CDs can be further transformed into water-soluble CDs/silica particles, which are biocompatible with and nontoxic to the selected cell lines in our preliminary evaluation.

    2. Network Polydiacetylene Films: Preparation, Patterning, and Sensor Applications (pages 1032–1039)

      Joosub Lee, Oktay Yarimaga, Cheol Hee Lee, Yang-Kyu Choi and Jong-Man Kim

      Version of Record online: 8 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002042

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      Functional polydiacetylene (PDA) network films prepared on solid substrates show diverse chromatic features that can be employed as solvatochromic chemosensors and thermochromic fluorescence indicators. The thermofluorescence change of PDA networks is demonstrated to be an effective method by which to obtain the microscale temperature distribution of thermal systems.

    3. Control of Nanoscale Environment to Improve Stability of Immobilized Proteins on Diamond Surfaces (pages 1040–1050)

      Adarsh D. Radadia, Courtney J. Stavis, Rogan Carr, Hongjun Zeng, William P. King, John A. Carlisle, Aleksei Aksimentiev, Robert J. Hamers and Rashid Bashir

      Version of Record online: 8 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002251

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      Covalent linking of antibodies to diamond surfaces leads to substantial improvements in biological activity of proteins over extended time, approaching 2 weeks, even after exposure to buffer solutions at 37°C. Results from ELISA, XPS, fluorescence microscopy, and MD simulations indicate that the highly stable surface chemistry makes it possible to achieve significant improvements in biomolecule stability.

    4. Sensing Nucleic Acids with Dimer Nanoclusters (pages 1051–1057)

      Cheng Chi, Mathew M. Maye, Andrea L. Stadler, Daniel van der Lelie and Oleg Gang

      Version of Record online: 25 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002152

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      Dimer nanoclusters are demonstrated as sensors for the detection of single-stranded DNA. The detection is based on dimer disassembly, which is triggered by the specific binding of analyte DNA strands. The sensor demonstrates a high target specificity, down to a single-base mismatch, even in the presence of a high concentration of interference DNA. The disassembly process is well described by a two-step kinetic model.

    5. Bioinspired Strong and Highly Porous Glass Scaffolds (pages 1058–1063)

      Qiang Fu, Eduardo Saiz and Antoni P. Tomsia

      Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002030

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      Natural materials achieve their exceptional strength through complex hierarchical designs and anisotropic structures that are extremely difficult to replicate synthetically. We emulate nature’s design by direct-ink-write assembly of glass inks into anisotropic constructs similar to biological materials. The strength of these scaffolds is ∼100 times that of polymer scaffolds and 4–5 times that of ceramic and glass scaffolds with comparable porosities.

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    1. Highly Dispersed Palladium–Polypyrrole Nanocomposites: In-Water Synthesis and Application for Catalytic Arylation of Heteroaromatics by Direct C–H Bond Activation (pages 1064–1075)

      Veronika A. Zinovyeva, Mikhail A. Vorotyntsev, Igor Bezverkhyy, Denis Chaumont and Jean-Cyrille Hierso

      Version of Record online: 22 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001912

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      A straightforward synthesis of palladium-polypyrrole composites in water is established as a cost-effective and non-toxic process to produce highly dispersed novel hybrid nanomaterials of high palladium content. The palladium aggregates of 2 nm average size are highly efficient catalysts for direct arylation of heteroaromatics with bromoarenes. The remarkable activity of the composites may be due to the extremely homogenous distribution of small-sized metal nanoparticles at the surface and within the polymeric material. Additionally, easy recovery and recycling of the composites is described.

  8. Full Papers

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    1. Highly Conductive PEDOT:PSS Electrode with Optimized Solvent and Thermal Post-Treatment for ITO-Free Organic Solar Cells (pages 1076–1081)

      Yong Hyun Kim, Christoph Sachse, Michael L. Machala, Christian May, Lars Müller-Meskamp and Karl Leo

      Version of Record online: 15 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002290

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      Highly conductive PEDOT:PSS films [PEDOT:PSS = poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)] have been optimized by a solvent and thermal post-treatment method, and applied as an electrode for small-molecule organic solar cells with a ZnPc:C60 bulk heterojunction. The solar cell with the optimized PEDOT:PSS electrode can reach an efficiency of 2.54%, as high as that of a solar cell with indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode.

    2. Specific Near-IR Absorption Imaging of Glioblastomas Using Integrin-Targeting Gold Nanorods (pages 1082–1088)

      Jihye Choi, Jaemoon Yang, Joseph Park, Eunjung Kim, Jin-Suck Suh, Yong-Min Huh and Seungjoo Haam

      Version of Record online: 11 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002253

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      A new class of targeted imaging agents employing PEGylated gold nanorods (PGNRs) conjugated with cRGD for αvβ3 integrin-specific tumor-cell targeting is reported. Molecular imaging of cRGD-PGNRs accurately predicts αvβ3 integrins and may warrant clinical exploration to predict early tumor angiogenesis.

    3. Very High Performance Alkali Anion-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (pages 1089–1094)

      Kazuya Matsumoto, Tsuyohiko Fujigaya, Hiroyuki Yanagi and Naotoshi Nakashima

      Version of Record online: 11 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001806

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      Anion-exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFCs) are fabricated using platinum-loaded polyelectrolyte-wrapped carbon nanotubes as an electrocatalyst. Cell-performance tests reveal that the ultrathin polyelectrolyte-wrapping layer produces ion conductivity to the fuel cell after doping and shows extremely high power density.

    4. Ovonic Memory Switching in Multimaterial Fibers (pages 1095–1101)

      Sylvain Danto, Zachary Ruff, Zheng Wang, John D. Joannopoulos and Yoel Fink

      Version of Record online: 25 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002252

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      Reversible ovonic memory switching in thermally drawn fibers and the temperature dependence of the threshold voltage is demonstrated. The fibers contain a high Te-content, amorphous semiconductor in contact with metallic electrodes (GGT: Ga10Ge15Te75, GAST: Ge22As18Se15Te45). The electrically induced glass–crystal filamentary phase transitions of the semiconductor enable the fibers to cycle between a high resistance and a low resistance state.

    5. Wafer-Level Self-Organized Copolymer Templates for Nanolithography with Sub-50 nm Feature and Spatial Resolutions (pages 1102–1112)

      Sivashankar Krishnamoorthy, Krishna Kumar Manipaddy and Fung Ling Yap

      Version of Record online: 25 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002380

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      Ordered 2D dot array templates for nanolithography with features and spatial resolutions down to the sub-50 nm scale that exhibit high pattern integrity across 100 mm Si wafers are demonstrated using self-organized copolymer reverse micelles. Novel processing imparts excellent lithographic capability for templates containing features with a sub-10 nm separation or thickness.

    6. Wavelength-Selective Light-Induced Release from Plasmon Resonant Liposomes (pages 1113–1121)

      Sarah J. Leung, Xenia M. Kachur, Michael C. Bobnick and Marek Romanowski

      Version of Record online: 8 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002373

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      Color-Coded Delivery: The deposition of gold nanoclusters onto the surface of liposomes yields spectrally tunable plasmon resonant nanocapsules that are biodegradable and selectively release their contents upon illumination with light of a matching wavelength. Release is induced through a biologically safe mechanism, a train of low-level laser pulses, enabling applications in drug delivery, micro­fluidics, and sensors.

    7. Mapping of Domain Orientation and Molecular Order in Polycrystalline Semiconducting Polymer Films with Soft X-Ray Microscopy (pages 1122–1131)

      Benjamin Watts, Torben Schuettfort and Christopher R. McNeill

      Version of Record online: 15 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001918

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      The domain structure of a polycrystalline semiconducting polymer is analyzed using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. Combining images taken at different rotations of the film with respect to the X-ray beam allows us to map backbone orientation, orientational order, and the out-of-plane molecular tilt angle.

    8. Carbon-Nanotube-Templated Microfabrication of Porous Silicon-Carbon Materials with Application to Chemical Separations (pages 1132–1139)

      Jun Song, David S. Jensen, David N. Hutchison, Brendan Turner, Taylor Wood, Andrew Dadson, Michael A. Vail, Matthew R. Linford, Richard R. Vanfleet and Robert C. Davis

      Version of Record online: 23 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001851

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      Carbon-nanotube-templated microfabrication (CNT-M) creates structured silicon-carbon materials with control over length scales from 10 nm to over 100 μm. This electron microscopy image shows the precise control over the 3D microscale features that is possible with CNT-M. The nanoscale porosity is also controlled and, when coupled with microscale patterning, results in the fabrication of high-performance chemical-separations media.

    9. Soft Nanolithography by Polymer Fibers (pages 1140–1145)

      Deyu Tu, Stefano Pagliara, Andrea Camposeo, Giovanni Potente, Elisa Mele, Roberto Cingolani and Dario Pisignano

      Version of Record online: 1 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001901

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      Soft nanolithography by polymer fibers is used to pattern nanogap electrodes on metal surfaces and nanochannels in elastomeric materials . Nanochannel replication into conjugated polymers allows the deposition of active fibers across electrodes for realizing polymer field effect transistors with channel length and width as low as a few hundreds of nanometers.

  9. Frontispiece

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    1. PATTERNED POLYMERS: Fabrication of Multiscale Gradient Polymer Patterns by Direct Molding and Spatially Controlled Reflow (Adv. Funct. Mater. 6/2011) (page 1146)

      Jae Joon Chae, Sung Hoon Lee and Kahp Y. Suh

      Version of Record online: 18 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190015

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      Patterning methods that are capable of fabricating multiscale patterns in a single step over a large area are becoming increasingly more important to meet fast adoptions and requirements in applications such as photonics, electronics, or biomedical devices. A spatially controlled reflow process is presented by Kahp Y. Suh and co-workers on page 1147, to fabricate multiscale gradient patterns by heating one or both sides of a substrate either parallel or perpendicular to the as-formed line pattern. The image shows such a multiscale pattern along with cross-section-al scanning electron microscopy images at three different regions.

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    1. Fabrication of Multiscale Gradient Polymer Patterns by Direct Molding and Spatially Controlled Reflow (pages 1147–1153)

      Jae Joon Chae, Sung Hoon Lee and Kahp Y. Suh

      Version of Record online: 22 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001687

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      A spatially controlled reflow process to fabricate multiscale gradient patterns by locally heating single or both sides of the substrate either in parallel or perpendicular to the as-formed line pattern is reported. A simple theoretical model is derived to explain reflow behaviors based on a leveling kinetics of the polymer melt. Also, gradient polymer channels are used for microfluidic experiments by bonding to a glass substrate.

    2. High-Performance Micro-Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Fabricated on Nanoporous Anodic Aluminum Oxide Templates (pages 1154–1159)

      Chang-Woo Kwon, Ji-Won Son, Jong-Ho Lee, Hyun-Mi Kim, Hae-Weon Lee and Ki-Bum Kim

      Version of Record online: 9 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002137

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      A novel fabrication method for high-performance micro-solid oxide fuel cells (μ-SOFCs) on nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide supports is reported. Gas-tight electrolyte layers are obtained by microstructure modification using atomic layer deposition (ALD). This type of μ-SOFC shows a maximum power density of 350 mW cm−2 at 500 °C

    3. Highly Interconnected Porous Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Viruses as a Sacrificial Template (pages 1160–1167)

      Yong Man Lee, Young Hun Kim, Jun Haeng Lee, Jong Hyeok Park, Nam-Gyu Park, Woo-Seok Choe, Min Jae Ko and Pil J. Yoo

      Version of Record online: 22 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001774

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      Highly interconnected and porous TiO2 nanostructures have been developed for a high performance photoelectrode of dye-sensitized solar cells using viruses as a sacrificial template. The improved transport ability of electrons and electrolyte through the one-dimensional structures of the virus template results in increased current density and photoconversion efficiency.

    4. Bipolar Tetraarylsilanes as Universal Hosts for Blue, Green, Orange, and White Electrophosphorescence with High Efficiency and Low Efficiency Roll-Off (pages 1168–1178)

      Shaolong Gong, Yonghua Chen, Jiajia Luo, Chuluo Yang, Cheng Zhong, Jingui Qin and Dongge Ma

      Version of Record online: 10 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002066

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      A series of tetraarylsilane compounds are designed and synthesized by incorporating electron-donating arylamine and electron-accepting benzimidazole or oxadiazole into one molecule via a silicon-bridge linkage mode. The applicability of these materials as universal hosts for blue, green, and orange phosphors, and finally for all-phosphor white OLEDs is demonstrated.

    5. Multifunctional Nanoparticles Composed of A Poly( dl-lactide-coglycolide) Core and A Paramagnetic Liposome Shell for Simultaneous Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Targeted Therapeutics (pages 1179–1186)

      Zhenyu Liao, Hanjie Wang, Xiaodong Wang, Peiqi Zhao, Sheng Wang, Wenya Su and Jin Chang

      Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002314

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      A multifunctional nanoscale platform that is self-assembled from a hydrophobic poly(dl-lactide-coglycolide) core and a hydrophilic paramagnetic folate coated PEGylated lipid shell (PEG=polyethylene glycol; see graphic) is designed for simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging and targeted therapeutics.

    6. Charge-Generating Mode Control in High-Performance Transparent Flexible Piezoelectric Nanogenerators (pages 1187–1193)

      Hyun-Kyu Park, Keun Young Lee, Ju-Seok Seo, Jin-A Jeong, Han-Ki Kim, Dukhyun Choi and Sang-Woo Kim

      Version of Record online: 15 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002099

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      Mode control of output power generation in transprent flexible nanogenerators between DC-type and AC-type on the basis of the morphology of ZnO nanorods has been demonstrated. By using IZTO with higher work function and improved conductivity, the Schottky barrier between the electrode and ZnO nanorods was increased and the series resistance of the device decreased, achieving an enhancement of over 100% in the output performance of the piezoelectric charge generation.

    7. A Catalytic and Positively Thermosensitive Molecularly Imprinted Polymer (pages 1194–1200)

      Songjun Li, Yi Ge and Anthony P. F. Turner

      Version of Record online: 25 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001906

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      A catalytic and positively thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymer is reported. This unique imprinted polymer was composed of 4-nitrophenyl phosphate- imprinted networks of PTFMA and PVI, which contains catalytically active sites. The temperature-sensitive complexation and dissociation interactions between PVI and PTFMA regulated access of the reactants to the imprinted networks, thereby inducing the positively thermosensitive catalysis.

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