Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 21 Issue 8

April 22, 2011

Volume 21, Issue 8

Pages 1328–1532

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Feature Article
    7. Full Papers
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. Organic Thin-Film Transistors: Simultaneous Modification of Bottom-Contact Electrode and Dielectric Surfaces for Organic Thin-Film Transistors Through Single-Component Spin-Cast Monolayers (Adv. Funct. Mater. 8/2011) (page 1328)

      Orb Acton, Manish Dubey, Tobias Weidner, Kevin M. O’Malley, Tae-Wook Kim, Guy G. Ting, Daniel Hutchins, J. E. Baio, Tracy C. Lovejoy, Alexander H. Gage, David G. Castner, Hong Ma and Alex K.-Y. Jen

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190020

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are of increasing interest for use in electronic devices such as, for example, organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). on page 1476 Alex K.-Y. Jen and co-workers introduce an efficient spin-coating process, which simultaneously forms SAMs on bottom-contact electrode and dielectric surfaces of OTFTs. Rational selection of the SAM used in this process leads to greatly enhanced performance of both n-channel- and p-channel-based OTFTs.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Feature Article
    7. Full Papers
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. Tailored Assembly of Carbon Nanostructures: Tailored Assembly of Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene (Adv. Funct. Mater. 8/2011) (page 1329)

      Sun Hwa Lee, Duck Hyun Lee, Won Jun Lee and Sang Ouk Kim

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190021

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      Various assembly strategies of carbon nanotubes and graphene into complex three-dimensional structures are reviewed by Sang Ouk Kim and co-workers on page 1338. The featured novel approaches and relevant further research are promising towards the optimized utilization of graphitic carbon materials and the expansion of potential areas of application.

  3. Back Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Feature Article
    7. Full Papers
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. Drug Delivery: Bio-inspired Heterostructured Bead-on-String Fibers That Respond to Environmental Wetting (Adv. Funct. Mater. 8/2011) (page 1330)

      Xuelin Tian, Hao Bai, Yongmei Zheng and Lei Jiang

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190022

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      Inspired by the geometric structure of ecribellate spider capture silk and its spinning characteristic, Yongmei Zheng and co-workers, on page 1398 fabricate bead-on-string heterostructured fibers with alternating hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface characteristics by combining electrospinning and electrospraying strategies. The fibers are capable of “intellectually” responding to environmental wetting and may bring about new properties and applications such as water collecting projects or microdevices

  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Feature Article
    7. Full Papers
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
  5. Feature Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Feature Article
    7. Full Papers
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. Tailored Assembly of Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene (pages 1338–1354)

      Sun Hwa Lee, Duck Hyun Lee, Won Jun Lee and Sang Ouk Kim

      Version of Record online: 28 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002048

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      The current research status of tailored assembly of carbon nanotubes and graphene into functional three-dimensional nanoarchitectures is reviewed in this Feature Article. Carbon nanotubes and graphene have been self-assembled into various complex architectures from solvent dispersion or directed catalytic growth. The introduced novel approaches would contribute to the optimized utilization of graphitic carbon materials and the expansion of releveant fields of application.

  6. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Feature Article
    7. Full Papers
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. Room-Temperature Phase Demixing in Bulk Heterojunction Layers of Solution-Processed Organic Photodetectors: the Effect of Active Layer Ageing on the Device Electro-optical Properties (pages 1355–1363)

      Panagiotis E. Keivanidis, Frédéric Laquai, Ian A. Howard and Richard H. Friend

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002214

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      Demixing of the components in photoactive F8BT:PDI blend films influences PL quenching efficiency (Φq). High Φq values correspond to intimately mixed systems. Room-temperature ambient ageing negatively affects both the Φq of the F8BT:PDI layer and the device EQE, indicating an ageing-induced deterioration of the F8BT/PDI interfaces. The effect is attributed to a physico-chemical transition from a kinetically entrapped metastable state to an equilibrated state of mixing in the binary composite.

    2. Direct View on Nanoionic Proton Mobility (pages 1364–1374)

      Wing K. Chan, Lucas A. Haverkate, Wouter J. H. Borghols, Marnix Wagemaker, Stephen J. Picken, Ernst R. H. van Eck, Arno P. M. Kentgens, Mark R. Johnson, Gordon J. Kearley and Fokko M. Mulder

      Version of Record online: 24 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001933

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      Nanostructured composites of TiO2 or SiO2 and the superprotonic conductor CsHSO4 (see graphic) show greatly enhanced proton mobility and H insertion into nanofillers.

    3. Molecular Stacking Induced by Intermolecular C–H···N Hydrogen Bonds Leading to High Carrier Mobility in Vacuum-Deposited Organic Films (pages 1375–1382)

      Daisuke Yokoyama, Hisahiro Sasabe, Yukio Furukawa, Chihaya Adachi and Junji Kido

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001919

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      Molecular stacking induced by intermolecular C–H···N hydrogen bonds improves the carrier mobility in vacuum-deposited organic films. Electron transport materials having the pyridine rings properly for intermolecular hydrogen bonds are singularly oriented to the horizontal direction in the films. The subsequent molecular stacking and the permanent dipole moment of the molecules significantly affect the charge transport characteristics in organic light-emitting diodes.

    4. Evolution of Structure, Optoelectronic Properties, and Device Performance of Polythiophene:Fullerene Solar Cells During Thermal Annealing (pages 1383–1390)

      Tao Wang, Andrew J. Pearson, David G. Lidzey and Richard A. L. Jones

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002300

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      Four distinct processes are identified during thermal annealing of P3HT:PCBM thin films using spectroscopic ellipsometry: the evaporation of residual solvent above glass transition temperature of the blend, the volume relaxation of non-equilibrium conformation formed through spin-casting, the crystallization and phase separation of the P3HT and PCBM domains. These processes contribute to the improved device efficiency generated upon thermal annealing.

    5. A Mesoporous Iron-Based Fluoride Cathode of Tunnel Structure for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries (pages 1391–1397)

      Chilin Li, Lin Gu, Jianwei Tong, Susumu Tsukimoto and Joachim Maier

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002213

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      A novel fluoride-based cathode (FeF3·0.33H2O) for lithium batteries is characterized by a self-assembled mesoporous morphology connected with a high specific surface area and a one-dimensional tunnel structure produced by continuous hexagonal cavities. The high Li-intercalation activity of carbon-free FeF3·0.33H2O is attributed to electrolyte-infiltratable mesoporosity, wide Li+-insertable channels, and appropriate transport properties.

    6. Bio-inspired Heterostructured Bead-on-String Fibers That Respond to Environmental Wetting (pages 1398–1402)

      Xuelin Tian, Hao Bai, Yongmei Zheng and Lei Jiang

      Version of Record online: 15 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002061

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Inspired by the geometric structure of ecribellate spider capture silk and its spinning characteristics, we propose a one-step electrohydrodynamic method to fabricate bead-on-string heterostructured fibers (BSHFs) by combining electro-spinning and electrospraying strategies. It is demonstrated that the BSHFs are capable of responding to environmental change. The elastic BSHFs with alternating hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces may bring about a myriad of new applications.

    7. Structural Determinants of the Sign of the Pyroelectric Effect in Quasi-Amorphous SrTiO3 Films (pages 1403–1410)

      Victor Shelukhin, David Ehre, Etay Lavert, Ellen Wachtel, Yishay Feldman, Alexander Tagantsev and Igor Lubomirsky

      Version of Record online: 22 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001613

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      The magnitude and direction of the permanent electric polarization in the non-crystalline, polar phase (termed quasi-amorphous) of SrTiO3 in Si\SiO2\Me\SrTiO3\Me, (Me = Cr or W), Si\SrRuO3\SrTiO3 and Si\SrTiO3 layered structures were investigated. It was found that both parameters are determined by the out-of-plane gradient of the in-plane strain in the SrTiO3 layer during pulling through the temperature gradient.

    8. Release Properties of Pressurized Microgel Templated Capsules (pages 1411–1418)

      Stephan Schmidt, Paulo A. L. Fernandes, Bruno G. De Geest, Mihaela Delcea, Andre G. Skirtach, Helmuth Möhwald and Andreas Fery

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002200

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      Pressurized giant microcapsules with an internal osmotic pressure show rapid and direction specific release of encapsulated material. The release kinetics and spread distance can be tuned by encapsulating different concentration of pressure generating polymer. This has been independently confirmed by shell opening via nanoindentation and laser radiation as well as nano-mechanical testing.

    9. Comparison of the Operation of Polymer/Fullerene, Polymer/Polymer, and Polymer/Nanocrystal Solar Cells: A Transient Photocurrent and Photovoltage Study (pages 1419–1431)

      Zhe Li, Feng Gao, Neil C. Greenham and Christopher R. McNeill

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002154

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      Transient photocurrent and photovoltage techniques are used to examine the operation of polymer/fullerene, polymer/polymer, and polymer/nanocrystal solar cells. By comparing charge transport and recombination dynamics, we highlight fundamental differences in the operation of these devices.

    10. Doping of Organic Semiconductors Using Molybdenum Trioxide: a Quantitative Time-Dependent Electrical and Spectroscopic Study (pages 1432–1441)

      Michael C. Gwinner, Riccardo Di Pietro, Yana Vaynzof, Kathryn J. Greenberg, Peter K. H. Ho, Richard H. Friend and Henning Sirringhaus

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002696

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      The mechanism and efficiency of MoO3-induced p-type doping of organic semiconductors is investigated and quantified by means of simultaneous electrical and spectroscopic measurements on lateral diodes. It is demonstrated that changes in the MoO3 energy levels over time outside vacuum have severe consequences on the charge transfer and device performance.

    11. Rapid Room-Temperature Synthesis of Metal–Organic Framework HKUST-1 Crystals in Bulk and as Oriented and Patterned Thin Films (pages 1442–1447)

      Jin-Liang Zhuang, Doris Ceglarek, Sangeetha Pethuraj and Andreas Terfort

      Version of Record online: 17 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002529

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      Patterned fall-out: A precipitation route to the formation of HKUST-1 provides access to bulk material within 10 min. The approach can be extended to the formation of dense, highly oriented surface films without or with lateral patterns.

    12. Concentration Polarization of Salt-Containing Liquid Electrolytes (pages 1448–1455)

      Joachim Maier

      Version of Record online: 17 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002153

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      The concentration polarization of liquid Li electrolytes is treated for bulk and boundary layers, with a special focus on the presence of ion pairs.

  7. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Feature Article
    7. Full Papers
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. Magnetic Nanoparticles: A Versatile Method for the Reductive, One-Pot Synthesis of Bare, Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Magnetite Nanoparticles (Adv. Funct. Mater. 8/2011) (page 1456)

      Vinith Yathindranath, Leila Rebbouh, David F. Moore, Donald W. Miller, Johan van Lierop and Torsten Hegmann

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190024

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      The fast, biocompatible, and versatile synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles is presented by Torsten Hegmann and co-workers, on page 1457. The nanoparticles can be synthesized in bare (uncoated) form, ready for subsequent monolayer capping steps, or coated in situ with hydropho-bic or hydrophilic capping agents. The image shows the starting material in solution and the nanoparticle product attracted to the flask's inner wall by rare earth magnets in front of a transmission electron microscopy background image featuring bare magnetite nanoparticles. (Image design: V. Yathindranath and T. Hegmann)

  8. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Feature Article
    7. Full Papers
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. A Versatile Method for the Reductive, One-Pot Synthesis of Bare, Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Magnetite Nanoparticles (pages 1457–1464)

      Vinith Yathindranath, Leila Rebbouh, David F. Moore, Donald W. Miller, Johan van Lierop and Torsten Hegmann

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002111

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      A versatile, reductive, one-pot synthesis for iron oxide nanoparticles provides a fast and up-scalable route to pure magnetite-phase (Fe3O4) nanoparticles. The particles can be bare, ready for post-synthesis modifications, or capped in situ with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic coatings under virtually identical conditions in just a few minutes. The reaction uses no toxic solvents or ligands, and the hydrophilic coatings such as L-arginine and L-glutamic acid provide easy access for bioconjugation.

    2. Doxorubicin Nanocarriers Based on Magnetic Colloids with a Bio-polyelectrolyte Corona and High Non-linear Optical Response: Synthesis, Characterization, and Properties (pages 1465–1475)

      Aristides Bakandritsos, George Mattheolabakis, George Chatzikyriakos, Tamas Szabo, Vasilis Tzitzios, Dimitris Kouzoudis, Stelios Couris and Konstantinos Avgoustakis

      Version of Record online: 17 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002112

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      Hybrid colloids are synthesized, endowed with high loading capacity for the anticancer agent of doxorubicin and pronounced non-linear optical and magnetic response. They also display high pH responsiveness due to the nature of the bio-polyelectrolyte corona. The unloaded nanocarriers are cytocompatible, while the drug retains its activity after loading into the nanocarriers.

    3. Simultaneous Modification of Bottom-Contact Electrode and Dielectric Surfaces for Organic Thin-Film Transistors Through Single-Component Spin-Cast Monolayers (pages 1476–1488)

      Orb Acton, Manish Dubey, Tobias Weidner, Kevin M. O’Malley, Tae-Wook Kim, Guy G. Ting, Daniel Hutchins, J. E. Baio, Tracy C. Lovejoy, Alexander H. Gage, David G. Castner, Hong Ma and Alex K.-Y. Jen

      Version of Record online: 8 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002035

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An efficient process is developed by spin-coating a single-component, self-assembled monolayer (SAM) to simul-taneously modify the bottom-contact electrode and dielectric surfaces of organic thin-fi lm transistors (OTFTs). Rational selection of the SAM used in this process leads to greatly enhanced performance of both n-channel and p-channel based OTFTs.

    4. Reduction of Tungsten Oxide: A Path Towards Dual Functionality Utilization for Efficient Anode and Cathode Interfacial Layers in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (pages 1489–1497)

      Maria Vasilopoulou, Leonidas C. Palilis, Dimitra G. Georgiadou, Antonios M. Douvas, Panagiotis Argitis, Stella Kennou, Labrini Sygellou, Georgios Papadimitropoulos, Ioannis Kostis, Nikos A. Stathopoulos and Dimitris Davazoglou

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002171

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      The dual functionality of tungsten oxide for application as an efficient electron and hole injection/transport layer in hybrid PLEDs is demonstrated. When a thin tungsten oxide layer in its fully oxidized state (WO3) was inserted at the ITO anode/polymer interface and a thin layer of a partially reduced tungsten oxide (WO2.5) was used at the polymer/Al cathode interface, significantly improved current densities, luminances, and efficiencies were achieved.

    5. Effective PEGylation of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for High Performance In Vivo Cancer Imaging (pages 1498–1504)

      Dongfang Liu, Wei Wu, Jingjing Ling, Song Wen, Ning Gu and Xizhi Zhang

      Version of Record online: 7 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001658

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      A facile and effective strategy for synthesizing PEGylated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) is established. Abundant carboxylic groups are first introduced to the surface of SPIONs via the multiple coordination interaction between SPIONs and short chain poly(acrylic acid). α, ω-diamino PEG molecules are then linked to the SPIONs via amidation of the carboxylic groups. The synthesized PEGylated SPIONs exhibit high efficiency in tumor imaging by magnetic resonance imaging at a relatively low dose of SPIONs.

    6. Charge Transport and Recombination in Polyspirobifluorene Blue Light-Emitting Diodes (pages 1505–1510)

      Herman T. Nicolai, André Hof, Jasper L. M. Oosthoek and Paul W. M. Blom

      Version of Record online: 1 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002293

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      The characterization of a blue light–emitting polyspirobifluorene polymer is reported. The polymer, which serves as the backbone for a white-emitting copoly­mer, is investigated with both steady-state current–voltage measurements and transient electroluminescence measurements. The measurements are combined with a numerical simulation of the light-emitting diode, which reveals a shift of the recombination zone with increasing bias.

    7. Internally Referenced Remote Sensors for HF and Cl2 Using Reactive Porous Silicon Photonic Crystals (pages 1511–1525)

      Anne M. Ruminski, Giuseppe Barillaro, Charles Chaffin and Michael J. Sailor

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002037

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      Simple visual detectors for corrosive gases are constructed from chemically reactive porous silicon-based photonic crystals. A portion of the porous nanostructure is filled and capped with an inert polymer that acts as an internal reference. Reaction with the corrosive agents (HF(aq) or Cl2(g)) causes the uncapped region of the photonic crystal to undergo a distinctive color change.

    8. All-Carbon Nanotube-Based Flexible Field-Emission Devices: From Cathode to Anode (pages 1526–1532)

      Hee Jin Jeong, Hae Deuk Jeong, Ho Young Kim, Jun Suk Kim, Seung Yol Jeong, Joong Tark Han, Dae Suk Bang and Geon-Woong Lee

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001469

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      All-carbon nanotube-based flexible field-emission devices were fabricated by the combination of a highly transparent conducting single-walled carbon nanotube thin film as an anode and a highly efficient carbon nanotube/tetraethylorthosilicate hybrid thin film as a cathode. The devices showed stable emission properties with extremely bright electron emission patterns upon bending.

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