Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 21 Issue 9

May 10, 2011

Volume 21, Issue 9

Pages 1536–1740

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Feature Article
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Full Papers
    1. Silver Stars: Silver–Polymer Composite Stars: Synthesis and Applications (Adv. Funct. Mater. 9/2011) (page 1536)

      Kimberly A. Homan, Jeffrey Chen, Adriane Schiano, Mona Mohamed, Katherine A. Willets, Sankaran Murugesan, Keith J. Stevenson and Stanislav Emelianov

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190025

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      Colloidal “silver stars” grown from poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanosphere templates are presented by Stanislav Emelianov and co-workers on page 1673. The stars are synthesized via a facile two-step silver reduction method. The high surface area and nanoscopic, fractal features of these stars are exploited in applications such as catalysis and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Feature Article
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Full Papers
    1. Titania Nanotubes: Protein-Enabled Layer-by-Layer Syntheses of Aligned, Porous-Wall, High-Aspect-Ratio TiO2 Nanotube Arrays (Adv. Funct. Mater. 9/2011) (page 1537)

      John D. Berrigan, Tae-Sik Kang, Ye Cai, James R. Deneault, Michael F. Durstock and Kenneth H. Sandhage

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190026

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      The secondary electron image of protein-enabled titania nanotubes shows the interconnected networks of pores and titania nanoparticles. Such nanostructures are presented by Kenneth H. Sandhage and co-workers on page 1693. They are the result of protein incorporation within the coating during processing which creates voids in the nanotube walls after heat treatment due to organic pyrolysis.

  3. Back Cover

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    5. Contents
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    7. Frontispiece
    8. Full Papers
    1. Microcapsules: Packing of Emulsion Droplets: Structural and Functional Motifs for Multi-Cored Microcapsules (Adv. Funct. Mater. 9/2011) (page 1538)

      Shin-Hyun Kim, Hyerim Hwang, Che Ho Lim, Jae Won Shim and Seung-Man Yang

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190027

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      Multicompartment microcapsules with a unique con-figuration are presented by Shin-Hyun Kim, and Seung-Man Yang, and co-workers on page 1608. Photocurable densely confined core droplets within an oily shell droplet rearrange into a unique configuration that minimizes the interfacial energy. Photopolymerization of the shell phase results in microcapules that are capable of isolating active materials and releasing them in a controlled manner using well-defined nanohole arrays or photothermal nanoscopic silver architectures on thin membranes.

  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
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    5. Contents
    6. Feature Article
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Full Papers
    1. Contents: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 9/2011) (pages 1539–1546)

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190028

  5. Feature Article

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    5. Contents
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    8. Full Papers
    1. Hybrid Colloidal Heterostructures of Anisotropic Semiconductor Nanocrystals Decorated with Noble Metals: Synthesis and Function (pages 1547–1556)

      Aleksandar Vaneski, Andrei S. Susha, Jessica Rodríguez-Fernández, Maximilian Berr, Frank Jäckel, Jochen Feldmann and Andrey L. Rogach

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002444

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      Synthesis, morphology, optical properties and application aspects of anisotropic semiconductor nanocrystals decorated with metals are reviewed, with a focus on colloidal CdS–Pt nanostructures for photocatalytic hydrogen generation from water.

  6. Frontispiece

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    1. BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS: Compact and Stable Quantum Dots with Positive, Negative, or Zwitterionic Surface: Specific Cell Interactions and Non-Specific Adsorptions by the Surface Charges (Adv. Funct. Mater. 9/2011) (page 1557)

      Joonhyuck Park, Jutaek Nam, Nayoun Won, Ho Jin, Sungho Jung, Sungwook Jung, So-Hye Cho and Sungjee Kim

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201190029

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      Quantum dot (QD) ligand chemistry provides zwitterionic surfaces that are colloidally stable and show minimal nonspecific adsorptions. A mixed QD surface ligand system allows simple and stable bioconjugation, while retaining the advantages of an antifouling zwitterionic surface. Antifouling QD-antibody conjugates are presented by Sungjee Kim and co-workers on page 1558 showing very specific targeting of cell membrane receptors.

  7. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
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    5. Contents
    6. Feature Article
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Full Papers
    1. Compact and Stable Quantum Dots with Positive, Negative, or Zwitterionic Surface: Specific Cell Interactions and Non-Specific Adsorptions by the Surface Charges (pages 1558–1566)

      Joonhyuck Park, Jutaek Nam, Nayoun Won, Ho Jin, Sungho Jung, Sungwook Jung, So-Hye Cho and Sungjee Kim

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001924

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      A new type of quantum dot (QD) ligand chemistry is introduced that can provide positive, negative, or zwitterionic surfaces. The non-specific and specific interactions of QDs through their surface charge are investigated with a focus on cellular adsorptions and endocytosis. Zwitterionic QDs are colloidally stable and show minimal non-specific adsorptions. A mixed QD surface ligand system is also introduced, which allows simple and stable bioconjugations whilst retaining the advantage that zwitterionic QDs prevent molecules from attaching to the surface.

    2. Neutron Diffraction Investigations of Magnetism in BiFeO3 Epitaxial Films (pages 1567–1574)

      William Ratcliff II, Daisuke Kan, Wangchun Chen, Shannon Watson, Songxue Chi, Ross Erwin, Garry J. McIntyre, Sylvia C. Capelli and Ichiro Takeuchi

      Article first published online: 22 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002125

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      Multiferroics are materials which undergo both magnetic and ferroelectric ordering. Such materials are rare, and BiFeO3 is one of the only ones which has shown room temperature coupling between an applied electric field and its magnetic domain structure (in bulk single crystals). While previous work has found G-type magnetic ordering in thin films, in contrast to the spiral magnetic structure found in single crystals, our current work shows that it is possible to recover a modulated magnetic structure in thin films. This opens the possibility of creating new devices based upon modulated magnetic structures.

    3. Reversible Electroaddressing of Self-assembling Amino-Acid Conjugates (pages 1575–1580)

      Yi Liu, Eunkyoung Kim, Rein V. Ulijn, William E. Bentley and Gregory F. Payne

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002020

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      pH-responsive Fmoc-phenylalanine can be reversibly assembled (i.e., electrodeposited) in response to anodic signals and disassembled (i.e., dissolved) in response to cathodic signals. Fmoc-phenylalanine assembly/disassembly on patterned electrode addresses is rapid, spatially-controllable, programmable, and can be achieved in a covered microfluidic channel. Reversible electroaddressing should be especially useful for enlisting localized electrical signals in lab-on-a-chip applications.

    4. Operating Modes of Sandwiched Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells (pages 1581–1586)

      Martijn Lenes, Germà Garcia-Belmonte, Daniel Tordera, Antonio Pertegás, Juan Bisquert and Henk J. Bolink

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002587

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      Using fast but resolutive electrical measurement techniques, the electronic transport mechanism in sandwiched LECs is monitored as a function of the operation time. The results indicate that the formation of doped transport layers adjacent to the electrodes reduces the extent of the central neutral light-emitting layer where electronic transport is limited by space-charge.

    5. Collective Motion of Conducting Filaments in Pt/n-Type TiO2/p-Type NiO/Pt Stacked Resistance Switching Memory (pages 1587–1592)

      Kyung Min Kim, Seul Ji Song, Gun Hwan Kim, Jun Yeong Seok, Min Hwan Lee, Jung Ho Yoon, Jucheol Park and Cheol Seong Hwang

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002282

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      In stacking n-type TiO2 and p-type NiO films, the location of filament rupture and rejuvenation for resistance switching can be arbitrarily crontolled to within an area between the interface with the metal electrode and the TiO2/NiO interface by using an appropriate switching sequence. This collective motion of nano-filaments can be practically used to reduce reset switching time from ∼100 μs to ∼150 ns.

    6. The Control of Shrinkage and Thermal Instability in SU-8 Photoresists for Holographic Lithography (pages 1593–1601)

      Robert G. Denning, Christopher F. Blanford, Henning Urban, Harpal Bharaj, David N. Sharp and Andrew J. Turberfield

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002653

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      The performance of SU-8 photoresists in low-exposure contrast applications can be enhanced by a simple modification to the composition of the resin. Once an initial structure has been established by washing in a developer, its thermal stability can be greatly increased by using a polyfunctional amine to introduce additional cross-linking.

    7. An Electrically Tuned Solid-State Thermal Memory Based on Metal–Insulator Transition of Single-Crystalline VO2 Nanobeams (pages 1602–1607)

      Rongguo Xie, Cong Tinh Bui, Binni Varghese, Qingxin Zhang, Chorng Haur Sow, Baowen Li and John T. L. Thong

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002436

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      A solid-state thermal memory that can store and retain thermal information with temperature states was demonstrated based on metal–insulator transition of VO2 nanobeams. We show that the application of a voltage bias can substantially tune the characteristics of the thermal memory, to an extent that the output HIGH/LOW temperature difference can be amplified over two orders of magnitude.

    8. Packing of Emulsion Droplets: Structural and Functional Motifs for Multi-Cored Microcapsules (pages 1608–1615)

      Shin-Hyun Kim, Hyerim Hwang, Che Ho Lim, Jae Won Shim and Seung-Man Yang

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002316

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      Multi-cored microcapsules with unique configurations are prepared by a single-step encapsulation technique that uses an optofluidic platform to efficiently and precisely encapsulate a specific number of emulsion droplets in photocurable shell droplets. The capsule structures are capable of isolating active materials and releasing them in a controlled manner using well-defined nanohole arrays or photothermal nanoscopic silver architectures on thin membranes.

    9. H-Aggregation Strategy in the Design of Molecular Semiconductors for Highly Reliable Organic Thin Film Transistors (pages 1616–1623)

      Seul-ong Kim, Tae Kyu An, Jun Chen, Il Kang, So Hee Kang, Dae Sung Chung, Chan Eon Park, Yun-Hi Kim and Soon-Ki Kwon

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002367

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      A novel synthetic strategy to induce H-aggregation between adjacent molecules in the thin film state is described. H-aggregation occurs when molecules stack side-by-side and results in a large area π-stacking between adjacent molecules. The large π-overlap area in H-type aggregation materials can produce high-performance transistors. In addition, H-aggregation induces uniform morphologies in thin films and reproducible transistor performances.

    10. Stimuli Responsive Delivery Vehicles for Cardiac Microtissue Transplantation (pages 1624–1630)

      S. Pedron, S. van Lierop, P. Horstman, R. Penterman, D. J. Broer and E. Peeters

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002708

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      Thermoresponsive cell delivery vehicles prepared by photolithography and conventional 2D cell culturingtechniques are applied on top of flat bilayer systems. In the rolled up state at room temperature, the cell delivery constructs offer a protective environment for cells. After delivery, the wraps unroll in response to temperature and expose the delivered cells to the damaged tissue.

    11. Uniform π-System Alignment in Thin Films of Template-Grown Dicarbonitrile-Oligophenyls (pages 1631–1642)

      Florian Klappenberger, Dirk Kühne, Matthias Marschall, Stefan Neppl, Wolfgang Krenner, Alexei Nefedov, Thomas Strunskus, Karin Fink, Christof Wöll, Svetlana Klyatskaya, Olaf Fuhr, Mario Ruben and Johannes V. Barth

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001940

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      The packing of dicarbonitrile-para-oligophenyls in thin films grown by organic molecular beam epitaxy (OMBE) differs from their technologically interesting para-oligophenyl counterparts. The functionalization of the molecules unifies the orientation of the molecular planes within the entire film via a template effect in contrast to the herringbone ordering adopted by the pure phenyl variants and represents a novel method of controlling thin-film properties.

    12. Degradable Conjugated Polymers: Synthesis and Applications in Enrichment of Semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (pages 1643–1651)

      Wei Zhi Wang, Wei Feng Li, Xiao Yong Pan, Chang Ming Li, Lain-Jong Li, Yu Guang Mu, John A Rogers and Mary B. Chan-Park

      Article first published online: 22 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002278

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      Sufficiently pure single-walled carbon nanotubes enriched with semiconducting tubes can be obtained by the following steps: firstly, raw HiPCO (high-pressure CO) single-walled nanotubes are dispersed and homogenized, via probe sonication, in a hydrofluoric acid-degradable disilane-containing conjugated polymer/toluene solution. This is followed by centrifugation to suspend mainly semiconducting species in the supernatant. These supernatant chiral species are then treated with HF to degrade polymers, giving predominantly semiconducting SWNTs.

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      Ultrathin TiN Membranes as a Technology Platform for CMOS-Integrated MEMS and BioMEMS Devices (pages 1652–1656)

      M. Birkholz, K.-E. Ehwald, P. Kulse, J. Drews, M. Fröhlich, U. Haak, M. Kaynak, E. Matthus, K. Schulz and D. Wolansky

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002062

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      Suspended TiN membranes of only 50 nm thickness are successfully prepared with compensated residual stress gradients and a built-in tensile strain. Preparations are performed within a standard complementarymetal-oxide-semiconductor technological process and optimized for low voltage operation. These TiN actuators pave the way for embedded microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and BioMEMS devices, in particular for live science applications.

    14. The Consequences of Interface Mixing on Organic Photovoltaic Device Characteristics (pages 1657–1665)

      David M. Huang, Scott A. Mauger, Stephan Friedrich, Simon J. George, Daniela Dumitriu-LaGrange, Sook Yoon and Adam J. Moulé

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002014

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      Upon heating an organic solar cell, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) reacts with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (HPSS) to form a mixed interface layer in which charge transport is controlled by p-doped P3HT. A byproduct of the reaction is hydrogen gas.

    15. Electrochemically Stimulated Release from Liposomes Embedded in a Polyelectrolyte Multilayer (pages 1666–1672)

      Norma Graf, Francesco Albertini, Tristan Petit, Erik Reimhult, Janos Vörös and Tomaso Zambelli

      Article first published online: 22 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002283

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      Triggered release of an entrapped dye from vesicles embedded in a polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM), as a consequence of the electrochemically induced local pH change in the vicinity of the electrode, is reported. The PEM was first deposited on an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode, followed by the deposition of lipid vesicles filled with a fluorescent dye.

    16. Silver–Polymer Composite Stars: Synthesis and Applications (pages 1673–1680)

      Kimberly A. Homan, Jeffrey Chen, Adriane Schiano, Mona Mohamed, Katherine A. Willets, Sankaran Murugesan, Keith J. Stevenson and Stanislav Emelianov

      Article first published online: 7 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001556

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      A star is born: Dendritic silver stars are synthesized on poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanosphere templates (see figure). Simple variations in reduction technique allow for production of myriad morphologies and sizes ranging from 500 nm to 7 μm. The high surface area and nanoscopic, fractal features of these stars are exploited in applications such as catalysis and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    17. High-Performance, Phosphorescent, Top-Emitting Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with p–i–n Homojunctions (pages 1681–1686)

      Qiang Wang, Youtian Tao, Xianfeng Qiao, Jiangshan Chen, Dongge Ma, Chuluo Yang and Jingui Qin

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002229

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      High performance, p–i–n homojunction green, orange, and red TOLEDs based on an ambipolar organic material o-CzOXD are demonstrated. By electrical doping, the carrier injection and transporting characteristics are greatly improved. High efficiency p–i–n homojunction TOLEDs with saturated intrinsic emission of the emitting materials and weak angular dependence of the emission are realized. This novel and powerful structure should provide feasible routes to practical and useful OLED devices.

    18. Influence of Phase Segregation on Recombination Dynamics in Organic Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells (pages 1687–1692)

      Andreas Baumann, Tom J. Savenije, Dharmapura Hanumantharaya K. Murthy, Martin Heeney, Vladimir Dyakonov and Carsten Deibel

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002358

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      Recombination dynamics of charge carriers in organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells were studied by combining transient charge extraction and time-resolved microwave conductivity, the latter as a local probe. We observe a charge-carrier decay order of above two for temperatures below 300 K, which can be rationalized by a release of trapped charges. This mechanism can be explained by invoking a delayed bimolecular-recombination process.

    19. Protein-Enabled Layer-by-Layer Syntheses of Aligned, Porous-Wall, High-Aspect-Ratio TiO2 Nanotube Arrays (pages 1693–1700)

      John D. Berrigan, Tae-Sik Kang, Ye Cai, James R. Deneault, Michael F. Durstock and Kenneth H. Sandhage

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002676

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      An aqueous protein-enabled layer-by-layer deposition process is used for the first time to fabricate aligned, high-aspect-ratio nanotube arrays with walls composed of interconnected pores (for enhanced molecular loading) and interconnected titania nanocrystals for structured electrode applications, such as dye-sensitized solar cells.

    20. Real-Time Investigation of Crystallization and Phase-Segregation Dynamics in P3HT:PCBM Solar Cells During Thermal Annealing (pages 1701–1708)

      Tiziano Agostinelli, Samuele Lilliu, John G. Labram, Mariano Campoy-Quiles, Mark Hampton, Ellis Pires, Jonathan Rawle, Oier Bikondoa, Donal D. C. Bradley, Thomas D. Anthopoulos, Jenny Nelson and J. Emyr Macdonald

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002076

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      The evolution of morphology in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) bulk-heterojunction solar cells during thermal annealing is studied by in situ grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, ellipsometry, and field-effect-transistor measurements. We conclude that the solar-cell performance initially improves thanks to the crystallization of the polymer chains, and then to the diffusion and aggregation of fullerene molecules.

    21. Ultrathin Transparent Au Electrodes for Organic Photovoltaics Fabricated Using a Mixed Mono-Molecular Nucleation Layer (pages 1709–1716)

      Helena M. Stec, Rebecca J. Williams, Tim S. Jones and Ross A. Hatton

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002021

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      Ultrathin (∼8 nm), exceptionally smooth and robust gold films with a sheet resistance of ∼11 Ω per square are fabricated using a mixed mono-molecular nucleation layer deposited from the vapour phase. Using microsphere lithography, a random array of apertures is introduced, raising the transparency to levels sufficient for the use of the films as window electrodes in organic photovoltaics.

    22. Battery Performance and Photocatalytic Activity of Mesoporous Anatase TiO2 Nanospheres/Graphene Composites by Template-Free Self-Assembly (pages 1717–1722)

      Na Li, Gang Liu, Chao Zhen, Feng Li, Lili Zhang and Hui-Ming Cheng

      Article first published online: 15 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002295

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      Composites of well-dispersed mesoporous anatase TiO2 nanospheres on graphene sheets were synthesized via a simple template-free self-assembly route. This material exhibits excellent performance when used as an anode material in high-rate lithium ion batteries, as a photo­catalyst for degradation of pollutants, and in splitting water to produce hydrogen.

    23. Morphological Stabilization by In Situ Polymerization of Fullerene Derivatives Leading to Efficient, Thermally Stable Organic Photovoltaics (pages 1723–1732)

      Yen-Ju Cheng, Chao-Hsiang Hsieh, Pei-Jung Li and Chain-Shu Hsu

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002502

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      Two styryl-functionalized fullerene derivatives, PCBS and PCBSD, have been designed, synthesized, and used to dope a polymer-blend system. The optimized morphology of the blend induced at the first stage (at 110°C) is stabilized by in situ polymerization of PCBS or PCBSD at the second stage (at 150°C). Devices based on this strategy shotw high performance with exceptional thermal stability.

    24. Fabrication of Silica Nanoparticles with Both Efficient Fluorescence and Strong Magnetization and Exploration of Their Biological Applications (pages 1733–1740)

      Faisal Mahtab, Yong Yu, Jacky W. Y. Lam, Jianzhao Liu, Bei Zhang, Ping Lu, Xixiang Zhang and Ben Zhong Tang

      Article first published online: 22 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002572

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      The sol–gel reaction of tetraethoxysilane and silole-functionalized siloxane in the presence of magnetite nanoparticles furnishes magnetic fluorescent silica nanoparticles (MFSNPs) with core–shell structures. The MFSNPs are monodispersed and colloidally stable. They are superparamagnetic and emit strong green light in high efficiency upon UV irradiation. They can function as fluorescent visualizers for intracellular imaging and protein carriers.

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