Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 22 Issue 13

July 10, 2012

Volume 22, Issue 13

Pages 2657–2875

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    1. Lithium Ion Batteries: N-Doped Graphene-SnO2 Sandwich Paper for High-Performance Lithium-ion Batteries (Adv. Funct. Mater. 13/2012) (page 2657)

      Xi Wang, Xinqiang Cao, Laure Bourgeois, Hasigaowa Guan, Shimou Chen, Yeteng Zhong, Dai-Ming Tang, Huiqiao Li, Tianyou Zhai, Liang Li, Yoshio Bando and Dmitri Golberg

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201290077

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      On page 2682 Xi Wang, Huiqiao Li, Tianyou Zhai and co-workers report a new facile route to fabricate N-doped graphene-SnO2 sandwich paper with the aid of the 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane anion (TCNQ-). If used in lithiumion batteries (LIBs), the material exhibits a large capacity, high rate capability, and excellent cycling stability because of its unique features.

  2. Inside Front Cover

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    1. Drug Delivery: Up-Conversion Luminescent and Porous NaYF4:Yb3+, Er3+@SiO2 Nanocomposite Fibers for Anti-Cancer Drug Delivery and Cell Imaging (Adv. Funct. Mater. 13/2012) (page 2658)

      Zhiyao Hou, Chunxia Li, Ping'an Ma, Ziyong Cheng, Xuejiao Li, Xiao Zhang, Yunlu Dai, Dongmei Yang, Hongzhou Lian and Jun Lin

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201290078

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      Up-conversion luminescent and porous NaYF4:Yb3+, Er3+@SiO2 nanocomposite fibers are prepared via an electrospinning process. As reported by Ping'an Ma, Jun Lin, and co-workers on page 2713, the fibers can be used as anticancer drug delivery host carriers and the drug release shows sustained, pH-sensitive release patterns. The fiber fragments loaded with drug show near-infrared up-conversion emission and this can be applied in the field of cell imaging.

  3. Back Cover

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    1. Solar Cells: Heterojunction Engineering of CdTe and CdSe Quantum Dots on TiO2 Nanotube Arrays: Intricate Effects of Size-Dependency and Interfacial Contact on Photoconversion Efficiencies (Adv. Funct. Mater. 13/2012) (page 2876)

      Haihua Yang, Wenguang Fan, Aleksandar Vaneski, Andrei S. Susha, Wey Yang Teoh and Andrey L. Rogach

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201290079

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      On page 2821, Wey Yang Teoh and co-workers report that the interfacing of CdTe and CdSe quantum dots (QD) on aligned TiO2 nanotube (TNT) arrays enables the fabrication of efficient, low-cost, photo-electrochemical solar cells. By improving the quality of the QD-TNT interface, multiple-fold enhancement in photoconversion efficiency can be achieved and the charge injection efficiencies of QDs of different sizes are exhibited.

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    1. Masthead: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 13/2012)

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201290080

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    1. Contents: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 13/2012) (pages 2659–2666)

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201290074

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    1. Iridium-Complex-Modified Upconversion Nanophosphors for Effective LRET Detection of Cyanide Anions in Pure Water (pages 2667–2672)

      Liming Yao, Jing Zhou, Jinliang Liu, Wei Feng and Fuyou Li

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201102981

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      Iridium-complex-modified upconversion nanophosphors are fabricated using a polymer coating method. The nanoparticles produce a colorimetric and upconversion luminescence detection method for cyanide anions in pure water with high selectivity.

    2. Fabrication of Gelatin Microgels by a “Cast” Strategy for Controlled Drug Release (pages 2673–2681)

      Anhe Wang, Yue Cui, Junbai Li and Jan C. M. van Hest

      Article first published online: 30 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201102907

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      A “cast” strategy is applied to fabricate biodegradable and biocompatible gelatin microgels with a uniform size and porous structure. The manufacturing process involves no organic solvents and surfactants. Model drugs with a low molecular weight and positive charge can be loaded into the microgels via electrostatic interaction and release is automatically triggered by changing the salt concentration and pH, respectively.

    3. N-Doped Graphene-SnO2 Sandwich Paper for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries (pages 2682–2690)

      Xi Wang, Xinqiang Cao, Laure Bourgeois, Hasigaowa Guan, Shimou Chen, Yeteng Zhong, Dai-Ming Tang, Huiqiao Li, Tianyou Zhai, Liang Li, Yoshio Bando and Dmitri Golberg

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201103110

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      Superior electrochemical performance of lithium-ion batteries is obtained using N-doped graphene-SnO2 sandwich papers. Using this novel material as the anode for lithium-ion batteries results in a larger capacity, better high rate capability, and excellent cycling stability. These results can be attributed to the unique structure of the material.

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    1. Conducting Polymer Hydrogels: A Single Component Conducting Polymer Hydrogel as a Scaffold for Tissue Engineering (Adv. Funct. Mater. 13/2012) (page 2691)

      Damia Mawad, Elise Stewart, David L. Officer, Tony Romeo, Pawel Wagner, Klaudia Wagner and Gordon G. Wallace

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201290075

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      On page 2692 Damia Mawad, Gordon G. Wallace, and co-workers report the development of a single-component conducting polymer (CP) hydrogel that combines both electroproperties and hydrogel characteristics, i.e., electroactivity at physiological pH and temperature, a notable swellingratio, and a porous internal structure. The CP hydrogel is also shown topromote cell adhesion and proliferation, opening the way for the development of new tissue engineering scaffolds for nerve and muscle regeneration.

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    1. A Single Component Conducting Polymer Hydrogel as a Scaffold for Tissue Engineering (pages 2692–2699)

      Damia Mawad, Elise Stewart, David L. Officer, Tony Romeo, Pawel Wagner, Klaudia Wagner and Gordon G. Wallace

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201102373

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      For the first time, a single component conducting polymer (CP) hydrogel is developed and shown to combine both electro-properties and hydrogel characteristics: electroactivity at physiological pH and temperature, a notable swelling ratio while maintaining 3D integrity, good mechanical properties comparable to muscle tissue, and a porous internal structure. The CP hydrogel is shown also to promote cell adhesion and proliferation, opening the way for the development of new tissue engineering scaffolds that have potential applications for nerve and muscle regeneration.

    2. Mechanism for Efficient Photoinduced Charge Separation at Disordered Organic Heterointerfaces (pages 2700–2708)

      Harm van Eersel, René A. J. Janssen and Martijn Kemerink

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200249

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      A kinetic Monte Carlo model that quantitatively explains the high efficiency of charge separation at disordered organic heterointerfaces as a two-step process is presented. One of the carriers first hops across the interface, forming a charge transfer (CT) complex. The remaining Coulomb binding energy is subsequently overcome by further relaxation of the electron and hole in the disorder-broadened density of states.

    3. Co-Implantation of Carbon and Protons: An Integrated Silicon Device Technology Compatible Method to Generate the Lasing G-Center (pages 2709–2712)

      Dilla D. Berhanuddin, Manon A. Lourenço, Russell M. Gwilliam and Kevin P. Homewood

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201103034

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      The optically active carbon related G-center can provide lasing in silicon. A technique to form the G-center that, unlike previous methods, is fully compatible with standard silicon device technology is reported. It is generated by implantation of carbon followed by proton irradiation. Photoluminescence measurements confirm the controlled formation of high levels of the G-center, which completely dominates the emission spectrum.

    4. Up-Conversion Luminescent and Porous NaYF4:Yb3+, Er3+@SiO2 Nanocomposite Fibers for Anti-Cancer Drug Delivery and Cell Imaging (pages 2713–2722)

      Zhiyao Hou, Chunxia Li, Ping'an Ma, Ziyong Cheng, Xuejiao Li, Xiao Zhang, Yunlu Dai, Dongmei Yang, Hongzhou Lian and Jun Lin

      Article first published online: 13 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200082

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      NaYF4:Yb3+, Er3+@SiO2 nanocomposite fibers, which are used as a novel anticancer drug carrier, are prepared using an electrospinning process. The fibers show the attractive properties of regular morphology, porous structure, good biocompatibility, and up-conversion emission. The drug loading and release properties, cytotoxicity, cellular uptake, and cell imaging of nanocomposite fibers are investigated.

    5. Highly Conductive Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):Poly (styrenesulfonate) Films Using 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium Tetracyanoborate Ionic Liquid (pages 2723–2727)

      Chantal Badre, Ludovic Marquant, Ahmed M. Alsayed and Lawrence A. Hough

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200225

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      Highly conductive and transparent poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly (styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) films are obtained using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetracyanoborate (EMIM TCB). The conductivity increases to a record value for such a polymer. The films are highly transparent and can be regarded as one of the most promising films for the preparation of indium tin oxide (ITO)-free organic devices using PEDOT:PSS/EMIM TCB as electrodes.

    6. Investigation of Optical and Structural Stability of Localized Surface Plasmon Mediated Light-Emitting Diodes by Ag and Ag/SiO2 Nanoparticles (pages 2728–2734)

      Lee-Woon Jang, Dae-Woo Jeon, Myoung Kim, Ju-Won Jeon, Alexander Y. Polyakov, Jin-Woo Ju, Seung-Jae Lee, Jong-Hyeob Baek, Jin-Kyu Yang and In-Hwan Lee

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201103161

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      Localized surface plasmon (LSP) effects due to Ag and Ag@SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) are studied. GaN/InGaN light-emitting diode (LED) structures coated with the NPs exhibit enhanced photoluminescence efficiency as a result of coupling between the LSP and the LED active region. Compared with Ag NPs, Ag@SiO2 NPs display a much higher optical stability with respect to long-term storage and annealing because of the protection of Ag by the SiO2 shell.

    7. A Facile Approach to Chemically Modified Graphene and its Polymer Nanocomposites (pages 2735–2743)

      Izzuddin Zaman, Hsu-Chiang Kuan, Qingshi Meng, Andrew Michelmore, Nobuyuki Kawashima, Terry Pitt, Liqun Zhang, Sherif Gouda, Lee Luong and Jun Ma

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201103041

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      Covalently modified graphene is fabricated by grafting the end amine groups of a long-chain molecule with the epoxide groups of graphene platelets. These high C:O ratio platelets are produced by the ultrasonication and thermal treatment of a commercial graphite intercalation compound. Their epoxy nanocomposites show a low percolation threshold at 0.25 vol%.

    8. An Electronic Version of Pavlov's Dog (pages 2744–2749)

      Martin Ziegler, Rohit Soni, Timo Patelczyk, Marina Ignatov, Thorsten Bartsch, Paul Meuffels and Hermann Kohlstedt

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200244

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      A memristive device, together with few-cent, inexpensive analogue electronic circuitry, enables one to mimic all forms of implicit memory. Different threshold voltages for the memristive device and the analogue electronic circuitry are essential in considering memristive devices as realistic substitutes for basic building blocks in neuromorphic circuits.

    9. Processing and Low Voltage Switching of Organic Ferroelectric Phase-Separated Bistable Diodes (pages 2750–2757)

      Mengyuan Li, Natalie Stingelin, Jasper J. Michels, Mark-Jan Spijkman, Kamal Asadi, Rene Beerends, Fabio Biscarini, Paul W. M. Blom and Dago M. de Leeuw

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201102898

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      Resistive switches based on phase separated blends of ferroelectric and semiconducting polymers have only been realized with thick layers due to the film roughness. Diodes with smooth blend films that switch below 5 V in high yield are demonstrated. The processing is related to the phase diagram and supported by numerical calculations. The wire-bar coating process developed is a major leap towards the industrialization of high-density, non-volatile memories.

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    1. Memristors: Synaptic Learning and Memory Functions Achieved Using Oxygen Ion Migration/Diffusion in an Amorphous InGaZnO Memristor (Adv. Funct. Mater. 13/2012) (page 2758)

      Zhong Qiang Wang, Hai Yang Xu, Xing Hua Li, Hao Yu, Yi Chun Liu and Xiao Juan Zhu

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201290076

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      On page 2759 Hai Yang Xu, Yi Chun Liu, and co-workers demonstrate an inorganic synapse based on an amorphous InGaZnO memristor. Such a single device, with its inherent learning and memory abilities, bears striking resemblance in certain functions to the biological synapse. In particular, the “learning-experience” function is obtained for the first time.

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    1. Synaptic Learning and Memory Functions Achieved Using Oxygen Ion Migration/Diffusion in an Amorphous InGaZnO Memristor (pages 2759–2765)

      Zhong Qiang Wang, Hai Yang Xu, Xing Hua Li, Hao Yu, Yi Chun Liu and Xiao Juan Zhu

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201103148

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      A single synaptic device with inherent learning and memory functions is demonstrated based on an amorphous InGaZnO memristor. The “learning”, “forgetting”, and “learning experience” behaviors can be understood using an oxygen ion migration/diffusion model.

    2. Enhancement of Thermopower of TAGS-85 High-Performance Thermoelectric Material by Doping with the Rare Earth Dy (pages 2766–2774)

      E. M. Levin, S. L. Bud'ko and K. Schmidt-Rohr

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201103049

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      The doping of tellurium-antimony- germanium-silver (TAGS-85) alloy with Dy, a rare-earth element with large atomic size and localized magnetic moment, enhances the thermopower, the power factor, and the thermoelectric figure of merit significantly. This may be attributed partially to a reduction in carrier concentration and partially to energy filtering of the carriers by potential barriers associated with the Dy.

    3. Transparent, Double-Sided, ITO-Free, Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Metal Wire/ZnO Nanowire Arrays (pages 2775–2782)

      Wei Wang, Qing Zhao, Heng Li, Hongwei Wu, Dechun Zou and Dapeng Yu

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200168

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      A flexible, transparent, double-sided, substrate-free, planar dye-sensitized solar cell is developed using metal wire/ZnO-nanowire arrays as the working electrode and Pt wire as the counter electrode. The two metal wires are placed in parallel and encapsulated in a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) or polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chamber containing an electrolyte. The device shows very good transparency and can be bent to very large angles without loss of performance.

    4. Universal Electron Injection Dynamics at Nanointerfaces in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 2783–2791)

      Lei Wang, Hai-Yu Wang, Hong-Hua Fang, Hai Wang, Zhi-Yong Yang, Bing-Rong Gao, Qi-Dai Chen, Wei Han and Hong-Bo Sun

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201102550

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      Initial nanointerfacial electron transfer dynamics are studied in dye-sensitized solar cells. The decay profiles, reflecting the electron transfer behavior, show a universal shape. In order to quantitatively comprehend the universal behavior, a static inhomogeneous electronic coupling model with a Gaussian distribution of local injection energetics is proposed in which only the electron injection rate is a variant.

    5. Colossal Thermoelectric Power Factor in K7/8RhO2 (pages 2792–2796)

      Yasir Saeed, Nirpendra Singh and Udo Schwingenschlögl

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201103106

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      The thermoelectric properties of pristine and hydrated KxRhO2 are calculated. A colossal thermoelectric power factor is found and explained in terms of a delicate interplay between the band filling and the length of the lattice parameters. The results demonstrate the important role of hydration for enhancing the thermoelectric performance.

    6. A Twisting Donor-Acceptor Molecule with an Intercrossed Excited State for Highly Efficient, Deep-Blue Electroluminescence (pages 2797–2803)

      Weijun Li, Dandan Liu, Fangzhong Shen, Dongge Ma, Zhiming Wang, Tao Feng, Yuanxiang Xu, Bing Yang and Yuguang Ma

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200116

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      An intercrossed-excited-state (local exciton (LE) and charge transfer (CT)) character, which is identified based on the solvatochromic effect and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, endows the twisting donor-acceptor triphenylamine-imidazol molecule, TPA-PPI, with highly efficient, deep-blue electroluminescence. As one of the best results reported, the intercrossed excited state is thought to be beneficial for obtaining high-efficiency EL.

    7. High-Performance Inverted Polymer Solar Cells: Device Characterization, Optical Modeling, and Hole-Transporting Modifications (pages 2804–2811)

      Jingyu Zou, Hin-Lap Yip, Yong Zhang, Yan Gao, Shang-Chieh Chien, Kevin O'Malley, Chu-Chen Chueh, Hongzheng Chen and Alex K.-Y. Jen

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201102937

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      A comprehensive characterization and optical modeling of polymer solar cells is performed on a series of conventional and inverted structure devices to understand the effect of device geometry on photovoltaic performance. Excellent device performance could be achieved by optimizing the optical field distribution and spatial profiles of excitons generation within the active layer in these device configurations.

    8. A Versatile Synthetic Platform for a Wide Range of Functionalized Biomaterials (pages 2812–2820)

      Zhengwei You and Yadong Wang

      Article first published online: 30 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201102024

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      A simple synthetic platform produces biodegradable and functionalized biomaterials with a wide range of physical, chemical, mechanical, and biological properties. The polymerization can be applied to a wide range of substrates and produces polyesters with free functional groups in one step without protection or deprotection. This provides a simple, versatile, and powerful way to tailor the properties of biomaterials for specific biomedical applications.

    9. Heterojunction Engineering of CdTe and CdSe Quantum Dots on TiO2 Nanotube Arrays: Intricate Effects of Size-Dependency and Interfacial Contact on Photoconversion Efficiencies (pages 2821–2829)

      Haihua Yang, Wenguang Fan, Aleksandar Vaneski, Andrei S. Susha, Wey Yang Teoh and Andrey L. Rogach

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201103074

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      The efficiency of interfacial photoelectron injection from quantum dots (CdTe and CdSe) of different sizes to metal oxide acceptor (TiO2 nanotubes) relies on the size of the quantum dots, as well as the quality of the heterojunction. A low resistance heterojunction is essential to maximize the electron injection efficiencies from smaller size quantum dots.

    10. A Highly Efficient, Blue-Phosphorescent Device Based on a Wide-Bandgap Host/FIrpic: Rational Design of the Carbazole and Phosphine Oxide Moieties on Tetraphenylsilane (pages 2830–2836)

      He Liu, Gang Cheng, Dehua Hu, Fangzhong Shen, Ying Lv, Guannan Sun, Bing Yang, Ping Lu and Yuguang Ma

      Article first published online: 13 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201103126

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      A series of wide-bandgap tetraphenylsilane materials containing carbazole and phosphine oxide units with different ratios and linking arrangements are designed and synthesized. With a double blocking device structure based on FIrpic, a high external quantum efficiency of 27.5% and a maximum current efficiency of 49.4 cd A−1 with very low roll-off are achieved.

    11. An Electrical Rectifier Based on Au Nanoparticle Array Fabricated Using Direct-Write Electron Beam Lithography (pages 2837–2845)

      Boya Radha and Giridhar U. Kulkarni

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201103170

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      An all-gold nanoparticle electrical rectifier fabricated using a simple direct write process exhibits a current rectification of 105 and tunable threshold voltage. Such a rectifier transferred to a flexible spongy substrate shows response to swelling and deswelling of the substrate due to varying interparticle coupling.

    12. Amino N-Oxide Functionalized Conjugated Polymers and their Amino-Functionalized Precursors: New Cathode Interlayers for High-Performance Optoelectronic Devices (pages 2846–2854)

      Xing Guan, Kai Zhang, Fei Huang, Guillermo C. Bazan and Yong Cao

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200199

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      Alcohol-soluble neutral conjugated polymers with amino N-oxide functionalized side chains and different linkages of pyridinyl moieties in the main chain are synthesized as a cathode interlayer for polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) and polymer solar cells (PSCs). High performance of PLEDs and PSCs is achieved by using these polymers as cathode interlayers, which indicates a promising pathway to PLEDs and PSCs with high efficiencies.

    13. Alcohol-Responsive, Hydrogen-Bonded, Cholesteric Liquid-Crystal Networks (pages 2855–2859)

      Chin-Kai Chang, Cees M. W. Bastiaansen, Dirk J. Broer and Hui-Lung Kuo

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200362

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      Alcohol-responsive, hydrogen-bonded, cholesteric liquid-crystal (CLC) networks are used for the detection of and distinction between ethanol and methanol molecules using a hydrogen-bridged CLC network with a controlled porosity. The reflecting color of CLC films has an obviously different response that is determined by the alcohol solution uptake.

    14. Oriented Growth and Assembly of Ag@C@Co Pentagonalprism Nanocables and their Highly Active Selected Catalysis Along the Edges for Dehydrogenation (pages 2860–2866)

      Baolei Sun, Ming Wen, Qingsheng Wu and Jin Peng

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200274

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      Ag@C@Co pentagonalprism nanocables, with both magnetic and catalytic functionality, are synthesized by synchronous growth and a directional assembly process. The resulting magnetically recyclable Ag@C@Co nanocables exert highly efficient selected catalytic activity along the edges for the hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane aqueous under ambient conditions at room temperature.

    15. Synthesis of Ceria–Zirconia Nanocrystals with Improved Microstructural Homogeneity and Oxygen Storage Capacity by Hydrolytic Sol–Gel Process in Coordinating Environment (pages 2867–2875)

      Mauro Epifani, Teresa Andreu, Sara Abdollahzadeh-Ghom, Jordi Arbiol and Joan R. Morante

      Article first published online: 13 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200380

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      Ceria–zirconia solid solutions homogeneously undergo phase transformations from cubic to tetragonal structures. This is due to the initial intimate mixing of the constituent cations, as the energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) image shows.

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