Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 22 Issue 14

July 24, 2012

Volume 22, Issue 14

Pages 2881–3094

  1. Cover Picture

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    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
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    8. Feature Article
    9. Full Papers
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    1. Organic Electronics: High-Performance Top-Gated Organic Field-Effect Transistor Memory using Electrets for Monolithic Printed Flexible NAND Flash Memory (Adv. Funct. Mater. 14/2012) (page 2881)

      Kang-Jun Baeg, Dongyoon Khim, Juhwan Kim, Byung-Do Yang, Minji Kang, Soon-Won Jung, In-Kyu You, Dong-Yu Kim and Yong-Young Noh

      Version of Record online: 11 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201290084

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      Monolithically inkjet-printed, flexible 256-bit polymer NAND flash memory is demonstrated by using a chargeable polymer electret for the memory cell and polystyrene for ground- and bit-line select transistors as a dielectric layer. On page 2915, Kang-Jun Baeg, Yong-Young Noh, and co-workers report that the first demonstration of an inkjet-printed, flexible NAND flash memory array may move up the commercialization of organic memory devices.

  2. Inside Front Cover

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    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
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    8. Feature Article
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    11. Full Papers
    1. Smart Materials: Supramolecular Chiral Structures: Smart Polymer Organization Guided by 2D Polarization Light Patterns (Adv. Funct. Mater. 14/2012) (page 2882)

      Ulises Ruiz, Pasquale Pagliusi, Clementina Provenzano, Valery P. Shibaev and Gabriella Cipparrone

      Version of Record online: 11 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201290085

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      On page 2964 Gabriella Cipparrone and co-workers report on the supramolecular chiral structuring of an amorphous azo-polymer guided by 2D polarization light patterns. Periodic chiral microstructures with spiral- or ribbon-like shape and identical or opposite helicity are demonstrated. They exhibit high stability and complete reconfigurability. These results provide an alternative approach to design a new class of materials with periodic chiral arrangements that have potential advantages for applications in smart functional devices.

  3. Back Cover

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    1. Photonic Crystals: Exploiting Nanoroughness on Holographically Patterned Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystals (Adv. Funct. Mater. 14/2012) (page 3095)

      Jie Li, Guanquan Liang, Xuelian Zhu and Shu Yang

      Version of Record online: 11 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201290086

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      On page 2980, Shu Yang and co-workers report the fabrication of microstructured diamond photonic crystals with controllable nanoroughness made by varying the processing conditions, which include the degree of photocrosslinking density and the choice of solvent for developing and rinsing during the holographic lithography process. The resulting dual-scale photonic crystals exhibit structural color together with superhydrophobicity, thus mimicking butterfly wings, and have significantly enhanced dye adsorption compared to that of a smooth-surfaced crystal.

  4. Masthead

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    1. Masthead: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 14/2012)

      Version of Record online: 11 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201290087

  5. Contents

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  6. Frontispiece

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    1. Hydrogels: Crystal Growth of Calcium Carbonate in Hydrogels as a Model of Biomineralization (Adv. Funct. Mater. 14/2012) (page 2890)

      Emily Asenath-Smith, Hanying Li, Ellen C. Keene, Zhi Wei Seh and Lara A. Estroff

      Version of Record online: 11 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201290082

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      As reported by Lara A. Estroff and co-workers on page 2891, the porous networks formed by hydrogel matrices (freeze-dried silica gel in the background) provide a versatile medium for crystal growth of a wide range of calcium carbonate structures. Shown from top to bottom are single-crystal equilibrium morphologies, non-equilibrium “hopper crystals”, polycrystalline aggregates, and spherulites. In addition, the crystalline products can incorporate the hydrogel matrix forming crystalline composites.

  7. Feature Article

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    1. Crystal Growth of Calcium Carbonate in Hydrogels as a Model of Biomineralization (pages 2891–2914)

      Emily Asenath-Smith, Hanying Li, Ellen C. Keene, Zhi Wei Seh and Lara A. Estroff

      Version of Record online: 3 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200300

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      The porous networks formed by hydrogel matrices provide a versatile medium for crystal growth of a wide range of crystalline materials varying from single crystal equilibrium morphologies to non-equilibrium morphologies and self-organized structures. In addition, the crystalline products can incorporate the hydrogel matrix forming crystalline composites.

  8. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
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    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Feature Article
    9. Full Papers
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    11. Full Papers
    1. High-Performance Top-Gated Organic Field-Effect Transistor Memory using Electrets for Monolithic Printed Flexible NAND Flash Memory (pages 2915–2926)

      Kang-Jun Baeg, Dongyoon Khim, Juhwan Kim, Byung-Do Yang, Minji Kang, Soon-Won Jung, In-Kyu You, Dong-Yu Kim and Yong-Young Noh

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200290

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      A facile strategy for the successful development of monolithically printed and flexible organic NAND flash memory is reported. The success comes from proper selection of polymer electrets (poly(2-vinylnaphthalene) or polystyrene in top-gate/bottom-contact polymer field-effect transistors with bi-layered polymer dielectrics, i.e., poly(vinylidenefluoride trifluoroethylene) and electret.

    2. Triangular Elastomeric Stamps for Optical Applications: Near-Field Phase Shift Photolithography, 3D Proximity Field Patterning, Embossed Antireflective Coatings, and SERS Sensing (pages 2927–2938)

      Audrey M. Bowen, Michael J. Motala, J. Matthew Lucas, Sidhartha Gupta, Alfred J. Baca, Agustin Mihi, A. Paul Alivisatos, Paul V. Braun and Ralph G. Nuzzo

      Version of Record online: 12 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201102455

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      A decal transfer lithography technique is used to fabricate elastomeric stamps with triangular cross sections. These stamps, which contain triangular prisms or cones, are used in several prototypical optical applications that illustrate the utility of triangular poly(dimethylsiloxane) decals for manipulating light–matter interactions in a predictable and controllable manner.

    3. Simplified Large-Area Manufacturing of Organic Electrochemical Transistors Combining Printing and a Self-Aligning Laser Ablation Step (pages 2939–2948)

      Thomas Blaudeck, Peter Andersson Ersman, Mats Sandberg, Sebastian Heinz, Ari Laiho, Jiang Liu, Isak Engquist, Magnus Berggren and Reinhard R. Baumann

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201102827

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      A hybrid sheet-based manufacturing approach for organic electrochemical transistors is reported. It combines screen and inkjet printing with a self-aligning laser ablation step.

    4. One-Step Multipurpose Surface Functionalization by Adhesive Catecholamine (pages 2949–2955)

      Sung Min Kang, Nathaniel S. Hwang, Jihyeon Yeom, Sung Young Park, Phillip B. Messersmith, Insung S. Choi, Robert Langer, Daniel G. Anderson and Haeshin Lee

      Version of Record online: 17 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200177

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      A one-step surface modification method that can immobilize diverse functional molecules onto surfaces is reported. Molecules with carboxyl, primary/quaternary amines, thiol, and enediol groups that have a wide range of molecular weights are immobilized onto versatile substrates of oxides, noble metals, ceramics, and synthetic polymers for multipurpose surface functionalizations.

    5. Thermoacoustic Emission from Carbon Nanotubes Imaged by Atomic Force Microscopy (pages 2956–2963)

      Daniele Passeri, Ugo Sassi, Andrea Bettucci, Emanuela Tamburri, Francesco Toschi, Silvia Orlanducci, Maria Letizia Terranova and Marco Rossi

      Version of Record online: 17 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200435

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      The thermoacoustic effect from isolated single wall carbon nanotubes aligned between electrodes is experimentally observed for the first time by imaging the emitted acoustic wave using an atomic force microscopy-based technique specifically developed for the task.

    6. Supramolecular Chiral Structures: Smart Polymer Organization Guided by 2D Polarization Light Patterns (pages 2964–2970)

      Ulises Ruiz, Pasquale Pagliusi, Clementina Provenzano, Valery P. Shibaev and Gabriella Cipparrone

      Version of Record online: 17 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200389

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      The unique characteristics of an amorphous azo-polymer and its response to light stimuli enable the building of optical architectures with great complexity. A four-beam holographic approach is adopted and 2D polarization patterns allow the formation of spiral- and ribbon-like chiral structures. The results suggest an alternative way to design supramolecular chiral materials that are characterized by high stability and complete reconfigurability.

    7. A Facile Microwave Avenue to Electrochemiluminescent Two-Color Graphene Quantum Dots (pages 2971–2979)

      Ling-Ling Li, Jing Ji, Rong Fei, Chong-Zhi Wang, Qian Lu, Jian-Rong Zhang, Li-Ping Jiang and Jun-Jie Zhu

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200166

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      Two-color graphene quantum dots are prepared using a facile microwave-assisted approach to have fluorescent quantum yields as high as 22.9%. The graphene quantum dots are demonstrated to be electrochemiluminescent. A novel electrochemiluminescence sensor for Cd2+ is proposed based on the competitive coordination between cysteine and graphene quantum dots for metal ions.

    8. Exploiting Nanoroughness on Holographically Patterned Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystals (pages 2980–2986)

      Jie Li, Guanquan Liang, Xuelian Zhu and Shu Yang

      Version of Record online: 16 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200013

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      Microstructured diamond photonic crystals with controllable nanoroughness are fabricated by varying the processing conditions, including degree of photocrosslinking density and choice of solvents for developing and rinsing during the holographic lithography process. The resulting dual-scaled photonic crystals exhibit structural color together with superhydrophobicity and enhanced dye adsorption.

    9. The Impact of Molecular Orientation on the Photovoltaic Properties of a Phthalocyanine/Fullerene Heterojunction (pages 2987–2995)

      Barry P. Rand, David Cheyns, Karolien Vasseur, Noel C. Giebink, Sébastien Mothy, Yuanping Yi, Veaceslav Coropceanu, David Beljonne, Jérôme Cornil, Jean-Luc Brédas and Jan Genoe

      Version of Record online: 16 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200512

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      The effect of molecular orientation on the photovoltaic processes of a polycrystalline zinc phthalocyanine/C60 heterojunction are explored. Not only is absorption affected by molecular orientation, but exciton transport and charge transfer efficiency are also influenced and these processes account for an increase by nearly a factor of two in the efficiency of the bilayer cells studied.

    10. Nanoscale Ferroelectricity in Crystalline γ-Glycine (pages 2996–3003)

      Alejandro Heredia, Vincent Meunier, Igor K. Bdikin, José Gracio, Nina Balke, Stephen Jesse, Alexander Tselev, Pratul K. Agarwal, Bobby G. Sumpter, Sergei V. Kalinin and Andrei L. Kholkin

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201103011

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      γ-Glycine is for the first time reported to be a ferroelectric, as evidenced by the existence of switchable ferroelectric domains and Curie–Weiss behavior. The experimental results are rationalized by molecular simulations that establish that the polarization vector in γ-glycine can be switched on the nanoscale level, opening a pathway to novel classes of bioelectronic logic and memory devices.

    11. Biofabricating Multifunctional Soft Matter with Enzymes and Stimuli-Responsive Materials (pages 3004–3012)

      Yi Liu, Jessica L. Terrell, Chen-Yu Tsao, Hsuan-Chen Wu, Vishal Javvaji, Eunkyoung Kim, Yi Cheng, Yifeng Wang, Rein V. Ulijn, Srinivasa R. Raghavan, Gary W. Rubloff, William E. Bentley and Gregory F. Payne

      Version of Record online: 19 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200095

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      A multifunctional matrix is biofabricated by coupling self-assembly with enzymatic assembly. Self-assembly is triggered using stimuli-responsive materials and device-imposed electrical signals to electrodeposit a gelatin matrix. Enzymatic reactions serve to crosslink the gelatin and conjugate proteins to this matrix. These studies demonstrate the potential for enlisting biological materials and mechanisms to construct multifunctional soft matter.

    12. Mesocylindrical Aluminosilica Monolith Biocaptors for Size-Selective Macromolecule Cargos (pages 3013–3021)

      S. A. El-Safty, M. A. Shenashen, M. Ismael and M. Khairy

      Version of Record online: 24 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200393

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      Mesobiocaptors with large, cylindrical cavities can encapsulate large quantities of protein. Geometrical models of the biocaptor indicate the encapsulation of protein into the interior pores. The protein removal from mixtures is based on size- and shape-selective separation. These findings will open new avenues of research in encapsulation of proteins and bioanalysis.

  9. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Feature Article
    9. Full Papers
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. Photostability: Polyglycerol-Dendronized Perylenediimides as Stable, Water-Soluble Fluorophores (Adv. Funct. Mater. 14/2012) (page 3022)

      Si Kyung Yang and Steven C. Zimmerman

      Version of Record online: 11 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201290083

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      As reported by Si Kyung Yang and Steven C. Zimmerman on page 3023, perylenediimides (PDIs) are encapsulated within polyglycerol dendrons, which confer high water-solubility on the PDIs in aqueous media while retaining their excellent fluorescent properties. The PDI-cored dendrimers retain their fluorescence signals in the presence of a variety of metal ions as fluorescence quenchers. Furthermore, intramolecular cross-linking of the polyglycerol dendrons not only enhances the photostability but also reduces the size of dendrimers.

  10. Full Papers

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    1. Polyglycerol-Dendronized Perylenediimides as Stable, Water-Soluble Fluorophores (pages 3023–3028)

      Si Kyung Yang and Steven C. Zimmerman

      Version of Record online: 17 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200004

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      Water-soluble and biocompatible dendritic polyglycerols are highly effective in solubilizing and protecting hydrophobic dyes. The dendritic encapsulation produces water-soluble and fluorescent perylenediimide-cored dendrimers, which are insensitive to metal ion quenchers. Intramolecular crosslinking of the dendritic shells further protects the fluorescent core and affords additional photostability with a more compact dentritic shell.

    2. Electrically Tunable Nanoporous Carbon Hybrid Actuators (pages 3029–3034)

      Li-Hua Shao, Juergen Biener, Hai-Jun Jin, Monika M. Biener, Theodore F. Baumann and Jörg Weissmüller

      Version of Record online: 20 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200245

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      A novel nanoporous carbon/electrolyte hybrid material for actuation is presented. The nanoporous carbon matrix provides a 3D network that combines mechanical strength, light weight, and low cost with an extremely high surface area. The hybrid material exhibits appreciable strength and can be loaded in compression. This electrically tunable actuator reaches strain amplitudes and mass-specific work density values that are comparable or even superior to many conventional actuation materials.

    3. Near-Infrared Electric Power Generation Through Sub-Energy-Gap Absorption in an Organic–Inorganic Composite (pages 3035–3042)

      Tsz-Wai Ng, Ming-Fai Lo, Qing-Dan Yang, Man-Keung Fung and Chun-Sing Lee

      Version of Record online: 13 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200058

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      A simple approach to achieve near-infrared electric power generation using the interactive charge-transfer complex formed between molybdenum (VI) oxide (MoO3) and the wide-energy-gap 5,6,11,12- tetraphenylnaphthacene (rubrene) is presented. An intermediate state induced within the energy gap of rubrene leads to sub-energy-gap absorption and photo-power generation.

    4. Post Porosity Plasma Protection: Scaling of Efficiency with Porosity (pages 3043–3050)

      Theo Frot, Willi Volksen, Sampath Purushothaman, Robert L. Bruce, Teddie Magbitang, Dolores C. Miller, Vaughn R. Deline and Geraud Dubois

      Version of Record online: 17 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200152

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      Protecting the porosity of ultralow dielectric constant (k) materials allows for limitation of the processing damage to a constant minimal level, independent of the porosity. This trend holds true on both blanket wafers and patterned structures, highlighting how the post porosity plasma protection (P4) can allow the extendibility of actual semiconductor manufacturing processes to future highly porous dielectrics.

    5. Self-Assembling Nanotubes Consisting of Rigid Cyclic γ-Peptides (pages 3051–3056)

      Liangchun Li, Hongmei Zhan, Pengfei Duan, Jian Liao, Junming Quan, Yu Hu, Zhongzhu Chen, Jin Zhu, Minghua Liu, Yun-Dong Wu and Jingen Deng

      Version of Record online: 12 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200488

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      Hydrophobic inner cyclic γ-tetrapeptides are synthesized using a one-pot cyclodimerization. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and NMR analysis, along with density functional theory (DFT) calculations, indicate that the cyclopeptide can self-assemble into nanotubes through hydrogen-bond-mediated parallel stacking. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) images reveal that the individual nanotubes are formed by dispersed aggregates in water.

    6. Temperature-Memory Effect of Copolyesterurethanes and their Application Potential in Minimally Invasive Medical Technologies (pages 3057–3065)

      Karl Kratz, Ulrike Voigt and Andreas Lendlein

      Version of Record online: 16 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200211

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      Biomedical applications often require intelligent devices that can perform self-sufficient shape changes or can be fixed in an adapted geometry. The working principle of temperature-memory catheters based on copolyesterurethanes containing poly(ω-pentadecalactone) and poly(ϵ-caprolactone) segments as controlling units for the temperature-memory effect are explored. The response temperatures of such polymers can be adjusted in a range relevant for biomedical applications.

    7. Co3O4 Nanoparticles as Robust Water Oxidation Catalysts Towards Remarkably Enhanced Photostability of a Ta3N5 Photoanode (pages 3066–3074)

      Maijia Liao, Jianyong Feng, Wenjun Luo, Zhiqiang Wang, Jiyuan Zhang, Zhaosheng Li, Tao Yu and Zhigang Zou

      Version of Record online: 17 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201102966

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      Nanoparticulate Co3O4 water oxidation catalyst is uniformly deposited onto the surface of a Ta3N5 photoanode with abundant and compact nanojunctions formed between Co3O4 and Ta3N5. Profitting from the unique features of the Co3O4 water oxidation catalyst and the alkaline solution, the improved kinetics of water oxidation cause the Co3O4/Ta3N5 photoanode to have the best durability against photocorrosion shown to date.

    8. Formation Mechanism of Fullerene Cation in Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells (pages 3075–3082)

      Shunsuke Yamamoto, Hideo Ohkita, Hiroaki Benten and Shinzaburo Ito

      Version of Record online: 17 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200086

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      The mechanism for forming [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) cation in polymer/PCBM blend films is studied using transient absorption spectroscopy. On a sub-microsecond time scale, PCBM cations are generated by hole injection from the polymer to PCBM domains in the blend films. The final fraction of PCBM cations depends on the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level of the donor polymers.

    9. Duplex DNA/Graphene Oxide Biointerface: From Fundamental Understanding to Specific Enzymatic Effects (pages 3083–3088)

      Longhua Tang, Haixin Chang, Yang Liu and Jinghong Li

      Version of Record online: 23 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201102892

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      The duplex DNA/graphene oxide (GO) biointerface, as well as its biological enzyme digestion effect, are experimentally investigated. The results suggest that GO can adsorb DNA duplexes and has specific effects on enzymatic degradation. The unusual non-covalent assembly of double-stranded DNA on the graphene is envisioned for potential diversified future applications, such as biological imaging, material science, sensing, and biomedicine.

    10. Photoconductivity of C60 as an Origin of Bias-Dependent Photocurrent in Organic Photovoltaics (pages 3089–3094)

      Won-Ik Jeong, Yang Eun Lee, Hyun-Sub Shim, Tae-Min Kim, Sei-Yong Kim and Jang-Joo Kim

      Version of Record online: 17 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200069

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      The bias-dependent change of the photocurrent in copper phthalocyanine/C60 planar heterojunction solar cells is mainly attributed to charge generation by the process of the bulk ionization in the C60 layer. Due to the photoconductivity of C60, a significant current is generated from the bulk of the C60 layer. This results in a linear dependence of the photocurrent on the applied bias.

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