Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 22 Issue 18

September 25, 2012

Volume 22, Issue 18

Pages 3749–3962

  1. Cover Picture

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    6. Contents
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    1. Immunosensors: Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence from a Phenyleneethynylene Derivative and its Ultrasensitive Immunosensing Application Using a Nanotubular Mesoporous Pt–Ag Alloy for Signal Amplification (Adv. Funct. Mater. 18/2012) (page 3749)

      Mei Yan, Lei Ge, Weiqiang Gao, Jinghua Yu, Xianrang Song, Shenguang Ge, Zhiyong Jia and Chengchao Chu

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201290108

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      The electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) of a novel phenyleneethynylene derivative (4,4′-(2,5-di - me thoxy-1,4-phenylene)bis(ethyne-2,1-diyl) dibenzoic acid) that has carboxylic acid groups at the para positions in aqueous solution is studied and its first immunosensing application are reported. On page 3899, Jinghua Yu and co-workers report that the nano tubular mesoporous Pt–Ag alloy nanoparticles are used in the ECL immunosensor as a signal amplification carrier to obtain ultrasensitive ECL analysis.

  2. Inside Front Cover

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    1. Chiral Nanoparticles: Chirality of Metal Nanoparticles in Chiral Mesoporous Silica (Adv. Funct. Mater. 18/2012) (page 3750)

      Junjie Xie, Yingying Duan and Shunai Che

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201290109

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      The chiroptical properties of pure inorganic material are reported by Shunai Che and co-workers on page 3784. The properties are investigated by dispersing achiral metal nanoparticles into chiral mesoporous silica, due to collectively asymmetric plasmon interactions of metal nanoparticles arranged along a helical pore orientation. Such chiral materials will have novel applications for biosensing, chiral recognition, and detection, based on the importance of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in biological structures.

  3. Back Cover

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    1. Photoinduced Conductivity: Conducting Domain Walls in Lithium Niobate Single Crystals (Adv. Funct. Mater. 18/2012) (page 3963)

      Mathias Schröder, Alexander Haußmann, Andreas Thiessen, Elisabeth Soergel, Theo Woike and Lukas M. Eng

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201290110

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      Domain walls (DWs) in highly insulating, millimeterthick lithium niobate (LiNbO3) single crystals show a pronounced electric conductivity when being illuminated by super-bandgap light. As reported by Lukas M. Eng and co-workers on page 3936, this conductivity can be tuned by engineering the tilting angle of the DWs with respect to the polar axis. The results are obtained using conductive atomic force microscopy and macroscopic transport measurements at various temperatures.

  4. Masthead

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    1. Masthead: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 18/2012)

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201290111

  5. Contents

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    1. Contents: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 18/2012) (pages 3751–3758)

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201290106

  6. Full Papers

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    1. Polymer Microparticles Exhibit Size and Shape Dependent Accumulation around the Nucleus after Endocytosis (pages 3759–3764)

      Poornima Kolhar and Samir Mitragotri

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201102918

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      The intracellular accumulation and subsequent spatial segregation of spherical and rod-shaped microparticles are studied. Both spherical and rod-shaped particles exhibit perinuclear accumulation upon cellular internalization; however binary mixtures of particles spatially segregate in the cytoplasm based on their shape and size. Larger particles exhibit preferential accumulation closer to the nucleus.

    2. Multiple Self-Assembly Functional Structures Based on Versatile Binding Sites of β-Lactoglobulin (pages 3765–3776)

      Netta Hendler, Bogdan Belgorodsky, Elad D. Mentovich, Shachar Richter, Ludmila Fadeev and Michael Gozin

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201102463

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      A synthetic methodology for construction of novel multifunctional materials in a bottom-up fashion is demonstrated by combination of highly ordered self-assembly nanostructures with chemical versatility of the orderly doped β-lactoglobulin protein-based fibrils. Well-defined complexes of β-lactoglobulin with retinoic acid, protoporphyrine IX or carboxyfullerene ligands are converted into ligand-doped fibrils with designed physical properties.

    3. High Contrast Superlens Lithography Engineered by Loss Reduction (pages 3777–3783)

      Hong Liu, Bing Wang, Lin Ke, Jie Deng, Chan Chum Choy, Ming Sheng Zhang, Lu Shen, Stefan A. Maier and Jing Hua Teng

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200788

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      Sub-diffraction-limited resolution and high contrast thin flat silver superlenses (Ag, Ag/Ni and Ag/Ge) are engineered through refining interfacial roughness to reduce scattering loss. A smooth interface is a key factor for realizing high performance superlens lithography while the seed layer effect is detrimental. This report verifies that a superlens is a potential tool for nano-photolithography.

    4. Chirality of Metal Nanoparticles in Chiral Mesoporous Silica (pages 3784–3792)

      Junjie Xie, Yingying Duan and Shunai Che

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200588

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      Chiroptical properties of pure inorganic material are investigated in detail by dispersing achiral Ag nanoparticles into chiral mesoporous silica, due to collectively asymmetric plasmon interactions of Ag nanoparticles arranged along helical pore orientation. Such chiral material will develop novel applications for biosensing, chiral recognition and detection based on the importance of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in biological structures.

    5. Focal Infection Treatment using Laser-Mediated Heating of Injectable Silk Hydrogels with Gold Nanoparticles (pages 3793–3798)

      Nikola Kojic, Eleanor M. Pritchard, Hu Tao, Mark A. Brenckle, Jessica P. Mondia, Bruce Panilaitis, Fiorenzo Omenetto and David L. Kaplan

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200382

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      A single 10-minute laser treatment of a subcutaneous infection in mice preserves the general tissue architecture, while achieving a bactericidal effect, and even results in complete eradication in some cases. The unique materials platform presented can provide the basis for an alternative treatment of focal infections.

    6. Directing Osteogenesis of Stem Cells with Drug-Laden, Polymer-Microsphere-Based Micropatterns Generated by Teflon Microfluidic Chips (pages 3799–3807)

      Xuetao Shi, Song Chen, Jianhua Zhou, Haijun Yu, Lei Li and Hongkai Wu

      Article first published online: 4 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200914

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      Newly developed cell differentiated factor laden, polymer microsphere-based grooved micropatterns (PMGMs) generated by Teflon microfluidic chips that combine topographical and chemical/biological cues promote better osteogenic commitment of adipose-derived stem cells when compared with an individual stimulation alone. The results indicate the great potential of PMGMs for stem cell research and bone regenerative therapies.

    7. Room-Temperature Tailoring of Vertical ZnO Nanoarchitecture Morphology for Efficient Hybrid Polymer Solar Cells (pages 3808–3814)

      Yu-Hsiang Sung, Wen-Pin Liao, Dian-Wei Chen, Chun-Te Wu, Geng-Jia Chang and Jih-Jen Wu

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200415

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      The ZnO nanosheet (NS) framework, which is constructed on nanoneedles/indium tin oxide substrate via a room-temperature chemical bath deposition, exhibits a slightly larger absorption edge and a faster electron transport rate compared to a ZnO nanorod (NR) array. Superior interface properties are demonstrated in the ZnO NS framework/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) hybrid, resulting in an enhancement of the solar cell efficiency compared to ZnO NR-P3HT hybrid.

    8. Cationic Hybrid Hydrogels from Amino-Acid-Based Poly(ester amide): Fabrication, Characterization, and Biological Properties (pages 3815–3823)

      Jun Wu, Dequn Wu, Martha A. Mutschler and Chih-Chang Chu

      Article first published online: 4 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201103147

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      Unsaturated arginine poly(ester amide)s are prepared to improve the biocompatibility of Pluronic hydrogels. This is confirmed using fibroblast cell attachment and endothelial cell encapsulation tests.

    9. Room-Temperature Phosphorescence From Films of Isolated Water-Soluble Conjugated Polymers in Hydrogen-Bonded Matrices (pages 3824–3832)

      Hameed A. Al-Attar and Andrew P. Monkman

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200814

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      A new method to fabricate solid films with densely packed near perfectly isolated, non-interacting luminescent polymer chains that yield very high photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) and, more remarkably, room temperature phosphorescence is reported. The method uses water-soluble conjugated polymers (WSCP) and a polymeric surfactant such as poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP).

    10. Feedback Controlled Colloidal Self-Assembly (pages 3833–3839)

      Jaime J. Juárez and Michael A. Bevan

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200400

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      A conceptually new approach that employs feedback control to quantitatively and reversibly guide the dynamic evolution of a colloidal self-assembly process is demonstrated. The key to this approach is the use of free energy landscape models to inform feedback control laws that close the loop between real-time sensing of order parameters and electric field mediated actuation.

    11. High-Mobility and Low Turn-On Voltage n-Channel OTFTs Based on a Solution-Processable Derivative of Naphthalene Bisimide (pages 3840–3844)

      Izabela Tszydel, Magdalena Kucinska, Tomasz Marszalek, Renata Rybakiewicz, Andrzej Nosal, Jaroslaw Jung, Maciej Gazicki-Lipman, Charalabos Pitsalidis, Christoforos Gravalidis, Stergios Logothetidis, Malgorzata Zagorska and Jacek Ulanski

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200258

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      Application of zone-casting technique leads to air-operating n-channel field-effect tansistors (FETs), which have electron mobility that is improved by three orders of magnitude compared to transistors in which the same active layer, a naphthalene bisimide derivative, is spin-coated.

    12. Observation of Magnetic-Switching and Multiferroic-Like Behavior of Co Nanoparticles in a C60 Matrix (pages 3845–3852)

      Yutaka Sakai, Eiiti Tamura, Shuhei Toyokawa, Eiji Shikoh, Vlado K. Lazarov, Atsufumi Hirohata, Teruya Shinjo, Yoshishige Suzuki and Masashi Shiraishi

      Article first published online: 1 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200638

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      Co nanoparticles in a C60 matrix are studied and a novel magnetoelectric coupling appears in the material. A large magnetic switching effect is realized, where an external electric field controls the magnetization alignment of the Co nanoparticles and an external magnetic field controls the charging states of the nanoparticles.

    13. Modular Ligation of Thioamide Functional Peptides onto Solid Cellulose Substrates (pages 3853–3864)

      Thomas Tischer, Anja S. Goldmann, Katharina Linkert, Vanessa Trouillet, Hans G. Börner and Christopher Barner-Kowollik

      Article first published online: 4 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200266

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      Peptide-cellulose hybrid materials are generated via mild hetero Diels-Alder (HDA) cycloaddition to graft thioamide functional oligopeptides onto solid cellulose substrates bearing highly reactive cyclopentadienyl moieties. Oligopeptides (including antimicrobial tritrpticin) are functionalized employing strongly electron deficient thiocarbonyl thio compounds resulting in biomacromolecules bearing a thioamide endgroup. In-depth investigations in solution and on the solid peptide functional substrate were performed confirming a highly efficient grafting process.

    14. Multicomponent Physical Vapor Deposited Films with Homogeneous Molecular Material Distribution Featuring Improved Resist Sensitivity (pages 3865–3873)

      Tristan Kolb, Christian Neuber, Marie Krysak, Christopher K. Ober and Hans-Werner Schmidt

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201103130

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      The homogeneous molecular material distribution of a multicomponent molecular glass electron beam resist is systematically investigated for solvent-based spin-coated and solvent-free physical vapor deposited thin films. The applied screening methods and combinatorial optimizations allow the investigation of dissolution behavior, resist sensitivity, and overall lithographic performance demonstrating the advantages of applying physical vapor deposition for film preparation.

  7. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Full Papers
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. Photosensors: Fabrication of a Large-Area Al-Doped ZnO Nanowire Array Photosensor with Enhanced Photoresponse by Straining (Adv. Funct. Mater. 18/2012) (page 3874)

      Ruey-Chi Wang, Hsin-Ying Lin, Chao-Hung Wang and Chuan-Pu Liu

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201290107

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      A large-area flexible nanowire array photosensor is developed by directly growing horizontal Al-doped ZnO nanowire arrays across Au electrodes on a flexible substrate. This is reported by Ruey-Chi Wang, Chuan-Pu Liu, and co-workers on page 3875 and shown in the false-color scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image. Good nanowire quality and the device layout lead to ultrahigh photoresponsivity and sensitivity. Tensile strain further enhances the photoresponsivity.

  8. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
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    8. Frontispiece
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    1. Fabrication of a Large-Area Al-Doped ZnO Nanowire Array Photosensor with Enhanced Photoresponse by Straining (pages 3875–3881)

      Ruey-Chi Wang, Hsin-Ying Lin, Chao-Hung Wang and Chuan-Pu Liu

      Article first published online: 31 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200344

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      A high-performance flexible nanowire (NW)-array photosensor with a large area is developed by directly growing horizontal single-crystalline Al-doped ZnO NW arrays across Au microelectrodes patterned on flexible SiO2/steel substrates. The device shows excellent photosensing properties with an ultrahigh UV/visible rejection ratio, photoresponsivity, and sensitivity. Tensile strain further enhances the photoresponsivity, which is due to a piezo-photonic effect.

    2. Highly Conductive Few-Layer Graphene/Al2O3 Nanocomposites with Tunable Charge Carrier Type (pages 3882–3889)

      Yuchi Fan, Wan Jiang and Akira Kawasaki

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200632

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      Few-layer graphene/Al2O3 nanocomposites with good electrical conductivity are prepared by using a titration method followed by spark plasma sintering. It is found that the charge carrier type changes from p-type to n-type as graphene content becomes higher. This conversion is deduced to be related to the doping effect induced by Al2O3 matrix and is thickness- dependent with respect to few-layer graphene.

    3. Studies on Chemical Modification of Porous Silicon-Based Graded-Index Optical Microcavities for Improved Stability Under Alkaline Conditions (pages 3890–3898)

      T. Jalkanen, E. Mäkilä, Y.-I. Suzuki, T. Urata, K. Fukami, T. Sakka, J. Salonen and Y. H. Ogata

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200386

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      Chemical modification of graded-index microcavities based on porous silicon is studied with the aim of producing a functionalized surface with improved stability under alkaline conditions. Thermal carbonization treatments are employed for obtaining microcavities with hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface terminations, respectively. Addition of undecylenic acid to the hydrocarbonized surface is demonstrated as a viable method for obtaining functionalized surface with greatly improved stability.

    4. Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence from a Phenyleneethynylene Derivative and its Ultrasensitive Immunosensing Application Using a Nanotubular Mesoporous Pt–Ag Alloy for Signal Amplification (pages 3899–3906)

      Mei Yan, Lei Ge, Weiqiang Gao, Jinghua Yu, Xianrang Song, Shenguang Ge, Zhiyong Jia and Chengchao Chu

      Article first published online: 4 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200544

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      Electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) of novel phenyleneethynylene derivatives with carboxylic acid groups at the para positions in aqueous solutions is studied and the first immunosensing applications are shown. This ECL immunosensor exhibits high sensitivity, good reproducibility, rapid response, and long-term stability.

    5. High Efficiency Semiconductor-Liquid Junction Solar Cells based on Cu/Cu2O (pages 3907–3913)

      Fang Shao, Jing Sun, Lian Gao, Jianqiang Luo, Yangqiao Liu and Songwang Yang

      Article first published online: 4 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200365

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      The abundance and nontoxicity of Cu2O, as well as the good solar spectral absorption, allows for the possibility of constructing efficient solar cells with Cu2O. Cu/Cu2O is prepared by a low-cost and easily scalable solution processing technique; the solar cells based on the obtained Cu/Cu2O have a best conversion efficiency of 3.13% under simulated AM1.5G. The efficiency of the flexible cell based on Cu/Cu2O films is 1.44%.

    6. Interfacial Reaction-Directed Synthesis of Ce–Mn Binary Oxide Nanotubes and Their Applications in CO Oxidation and Water Treatment (pages 3914–3920)

      Guozhu Chen, Federico Rosei and Dongling Ma

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200900

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      Ce–Mn oxide nanotubes are fabricated by an interfacial reaction between Ce(OH)CO3 templates and KMnO4 aqueous solution, followed by selective wash with HNO3. The resulting nanotubes exhibit higher catalytic activity towards CO oxidation and excellent adsorption capacity of Congo red. This work represents a demonstration of an interfacial oxidation–reduction reaction-engaged process capable of generating binary oxide hollow nanostructures with different shapes and compositions.

    7. Energy Transfer in Nanotube-Perylene Complexes (pages 3921–3926)

      Friederike Ernst, Timm Heek, Antonio Setaro, Rainer Haag and Stephanie Reich

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200784

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      A novel perylene-based functional surfactant that suspends nanotubes independent of pH in aqueous solution and forms energy transfer complexes with the nanotube is presented. Upon excitation of the adsorbant an emission from the nanotube is observed, while the adsorbant emission is completely quenched. This energy transfer between the perylene core and the nanotube in biocompatible environments is demonstrated using photoluminescence and is observed for all chiralities.

    8. Controllable Synthesis of a Monophase Nickel Phosphide/Carbon (Ni5P4/C) Composite Electrode via Wet-Chemistry and a Solid-State Reaction for the Anode in Lithium Secondary Batteries (pages 3927–3935)

      Yi Lu, Jiang-Ping Tu, Qin-Qin Xiong, Jia-Yuan Xiang, Yong-Jin Mai, Jun Zhang, Yan-Qiang Qiao, Xiu-Li Wang, Chang-Dong Gu and Scott X. Mao

      Article first published online: 24 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201102660

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      Monophase nickel phosphide/carbon (Ni5P4/C) composites are controllably synthesized via a two-step reaction: a wet-chemistry reaction and a solid-state reaction. Highly crystalline Ni5P4/C spheres with uniform morphology are obtained. The composites exhibit a high specific capacity and rate performance, as well as good cyclic stability, making them one of the most promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

    9. Conducting Domain Walls in Lithium Niobate Single Crystals (pages 3936–3944)

      Mathias Schröder, Alexander Haußmann, Andreas Thiessen, Elisabeth Soergel, Theo Woike and Lukas M. Eng

      Article first published online: 31 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201201174

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      Domain walls (DWs) in highly insulating, millimeter thick lithium niobate (LiNbO3) single crystals show a pronounced electric conductivity when being illuminated by super-bandgap light. This conductivity can be tuned by engineering the tilting angle of the DWs with respect to the polar axis. The results are obtained using conductive atomic force microscopy and macroscopic transport measurements at various temperatures.

    10. Valleytronics, Carrier Filtering and Thermoelectricity in Bismuth: Magnetic Field Polarization Effects (pages 3945–3949)

      Adrian Popescu and Lilia M. Woods

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200818

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      Transport control in bismuth by tuning its charge and thermal properties via the orientation of an applied external magnetic field is proposed. It is demonstrated that the direction dependent polarization effects of the magnetic field can remove the Dirac valley degeneracy in bismuth electronic structure suggesting that valleytronics is a possible way to control thermoelectricity.

    11. Epoxide Speciation and Functional Group Distribution in Graphene Oxide Paper-Like Materials (pages 3950–3957)

      Adrian Hunt, Dmitriy A. Dikin, Ernst Z. Kurmaev, Teak D. Boyko, Paul Bazylewski, Gap Soo Chang and Alexander Moewes

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200529

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      When epoxides align, they can unzip the graphene lattice. This process is an aging effect that may be mitigated using intercalation of dodecylamine. The randomly placed epoxides and the aligned epoxides are easily differentiated using either C 1s X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) or O Kα resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy (RXES) techniques.

    12. Synergistic Improvement of Actuation Properties with Compatibilized High Permittivity Filler (pages 3958–3962)

      Sebastian Risse, Björn Kussmaul, Hartmut Krüger and Guggi Kofod

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200320

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      Electric field-driven actuator materials are improved by an increase in permittivity and by a reduction in stiffness. A synergistic enhancement method is presented that is based on a macromolecular plasticizing filler molecule with a combination of both high dipole moment and compatibilizer moieties, synthesized to simultaneously ensure improvement of electromechanical properties and compatibility with the host matrix.

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