Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 22 Issue 24

December 19, 2012

Volume 22, Issue 24

Pages 5065–5282

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Full Papers
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. Solar Cells: Ideal Energy-Level Alignment at the ZnO/P3HT Photovoltaic Interface (Adv. Funct. Mater. 24/2012) (page 5065)

      Keian Noori and Feliciano Giustino

      Version of Record online: 11 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201290147

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      On page 5089, Keian Noori and Feliciano Giustino report a first-principles atomic-scale investigation of the photovoltaic interface between ZnO and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). It is shown that the ideal open-circuit voltage of this interface, i.e., the maximum voltage that can be achieved in the absence of defects, is significantly higher than previous estimates. This finding makes ZnO/P3HT blends attractive for nanostructured photovoltaics. The image shows an atomistic model of the ZnO/P3HT interface and the highest occupied molecular orbital of the polymer.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
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    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
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    8. Frontispiece
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    1. Nanocomposites: High-Strength Laminated Copper Matrix Nanocomposites Developed from a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Film with Continuous Reticulate Architecture (Adv. Funct. Mater. 24/2012) (page 5066)

      Zhiqiang Niu, Wenjun Ma, Jinzhu Li, Haibo Dong, Yan Ren, Duan Zhao, Weiya Zhou and Sishen Xie

      Version of Record online: 11 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201290148

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      A new strategy for fabricating Cu/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/Cu laminated nanocomposites is reported by Weiya Zhou, Sishen Xie, and co-workers on page 5209. The Cu/SWCNT/Cu laminated nanocomposites exhibit excellent mechanical properties and realize an effective transfer of the outstanding mechanical properties of SWCNTs to the composites. This results from the continuous reticulate architecture of SWCNT films and the optimization of interfacial strength between SWCNTs and the Cu matrix.

  3. Back Cover

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    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
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    1. Waveguides: Bottom-Up Tailoring of Plasmonic Nanopeapods Making Use of the Periodical Topography of Carbon Nanocoil Templates (Adv. Funct. Mater. 24/2012) (page 5284)

      Yong Qin, Ralf Vogelgesang, Moritz Eßlinger, Wilfried Sigle, Peter van Aken, Oussama Moutanabbir and Mato Knez

      Version of Record online: 11 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201290149

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      A guided Rayleigh instability is applied to synthesize Au/Al2O3 nanopeapods with narrow interparticle spacing and regular interparticle distances by annealing carbon nanocoils coated with Au by sputtering and Al2O3 by atomic layer deposition. On page 5157, Yong Qin, Mato Knez, and co-workers demonstrate the strong plasmonic activity of the nanopeapods using confocal laser scanning microscopy, electron energy-loss spectroscopy, energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy imaging, and numerical simulations. The results indicate that the nanopeapods are promising candidates for stable, highly efficient, and ultrathin waveguides.

  4. Masthead

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    1. Masthead: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 24/2012)

      Version of Record online: 11 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201290150

  5. Contents

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
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    6. Contents
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    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
  6. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
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    1. Dramatic Structural Enhancement of Chirality in Photopatternable Nanocomposites of Chiral Poly(fluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) (PFBT) in Achiral SU-8 Photoresist (pages 5074–5080)

      Heong Sub Oh, Hongsub Jee, Alexander Baev, Mark T. Swihart and Paras N. Prasad

      Version of Record online: 27 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201201273

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      Nanocomposites of chiral poly(fluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) (PFBT) dispersed in achiral SU-8 photopolymer show dramatic enhancement of circular dichroism (CD). Thin films with a 1/20 to 1/40 ratio of PFBT/SU-8 have maximum CD values up to 75 times that of a pure chiral PFBT film of equal optical absorbance. This is attributed to supramolecular organization of chiral polymer fibrils.

    2. Supported Faceted Gold Nanoparticles with Tunable Surface Plasmon Resonance for NIR-SERS (pages 5081–5088)

      Giuseppe V. Bianco, Maria M. Giangregorio, Maria Losurdo, Pio Capezzuto and Giovanni Bruno

      Version of Record online: 7 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201201441

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      Faceted gold nanoparticles for near infrared surface enhanced Raman scattering (NIR SERS) are fabricated directly on technologically important substrates using a novel dry plasma methodology.

    3. Ideal Energy-Level Alignment at the ZnO/P3HT Photovoltaic Interface (pages 5089–5095)

      Keian Noori and Feliciano Giustino

      Version of Record online: 20 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201201478

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      Using first-principles calculations the energy-level alignment of organic/inorganic solar cell interfaces based on ZnO and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) is investigated. The interfacial charge transfer is shown to increase the ideal open-circuit voltage with respect to the electron-affinity rule by 0.5 V. The findings suggest that that there is room for improving the efficiency of these devices by tailoring the semiconductor/polymer interface at the nanometer-scale..

    4. Following Chemical Charge Trapping in Pentacene Thin Films by Selective Impurity Doping and Wavelength-Resolved Electric Force Microscopy (pages 5096–5106)

      Louisa M. Smieska, Vladimir A. Pozdin, Justin L. Luria, Richard G. Hennig, Melissa A. Hines, Chad A. Lewis and John A. Marohn

      Version of Record online: 8 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200595

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      Thin pentacene films are layered with putative pentacene trap-precursors and the resulting spatial distribution of charge traps and spectroscopic trap-clearing rates under illumination are measured with time- and wavelength-resolved electric force microscopy. Pentacen-6(13H)-one efficiently generates charged traps with trap-clearing spectra resembling those of aged pentacene, while 6,13-dihydropentacene does not. It is concluded that PHO+ is the charged trap species.

    5. Hyperbranched Polyglycerol-Grafted Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization, Functionalization, Size Separation, Magnetic Properties, and Biological Applications (pages 5107–5117)

      Li Zhao, Tokuhiro Chano, Shigehiro Morikawa, Yukie Saito, Akihiko Shiino, Sawako Shimizu, Takuro Maeda, Takayoshi Irie, Shuji Aonuma, Hidetoshi Okabe, Takahide Kimura, Toshiro Inubushi and Naoki Komatsu

      Version of Record online: 7 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201201060

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      Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are directly functionalized with polyglycerol (PG) using ring-opening polymerization of glycidol to obtain good solubility in pure water and in a phosphate buffer solution. The resulting SPION-PG is further functionalized through multistep organic transformations to immobilize a targeting peptide on the surface. The targeting effect is demonstrated in cell experiments.

    6. Complexation-Induced Biomimetic Long Range Fibrous Orientation in a Rigid-Flexible Block Copolymer Thermogel (pages 5118–5125)

      Min Hee Park, Bo Gyu Choi and Byeongmoon Jeong

      Version of Record online: 15 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201201722

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      A thermogelling system is prepared by a self-assembling ionic complex between amphiphilic peptide block copolymers with a rigid-flexible block structure (polyalanine-PLX-polyalanine; PA-PLX-PA) and hyaluronic acid (HA). The system developes a biomimetic long range nanofibrous orientation and provides a promising 3D cell culture matrix with improved biomarker expression.

    7. Solution-Processed, Alkali Metal-Salt-Doped, Electron-Transport Layers for High-Performance Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (pages 5126–5136)

      Taeshik Earmme and Samson A. Jenekhe

      Version of Record online: 30 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201201366

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      High-performance blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs) are achieved by orthogonal solution-processing of small-molecule electron-transport material (ETM) doped with an alkali metal salt, Cs2CO3 or Li2CO3. It is shown for the first time that various ETMs can be solution-doped with alkali metal salt to fabricate high-performance PhOLEDs. The demonstrated approach is a promising strategy for solution-processed organic electronic devices.

  7. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Full Papers
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. Light-Emitting Devices: Resonant-Enhanced Full-Color Emission of Quantum-Dot-Based Display Technology Using a Pulsed Spray Method (Adv. Funct. Mater. 24/2012) (page 5137)

      Kuo-Ju Chen, Hsin-Chu Chen, Kai-An Tsai, Chien-Chung Lin, Hsin-Han Tsai, Shih-Hsuan Chien, Bo-Siao Cheng, Yung-Jung Hsu, Min-Hsiung Shih, Chih-Hao Tsai, His-Hsin Shih and Hao-Chung Kuo

      Version of Record online: 11 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201290146

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      Resonant-cavity-enhanced, full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting devices are reported by Chien-Chung Lin, Hao-Chung Kuo, and co-workers on page 5138. The fabricated devices exhibit excellent optical characteristics with high stability and may provide an alternative approach to next-generation, high-quality display technology.

  8. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Full Papers
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. Resonant-Enhanced Full-Color Emission of Quantum-Dot-Based Display Technology Using a Pulsed Spray Method (pages 5138–5143)

      Kuo-Ju Chen, Hsin-Chu Chen, Kai-An Tsai, Chien-Chung Lin, Hsin-Han Tsai, Shih-Hsuan Chien, Bo-Siao Cheng, Yung-Jung Hsu, Min-Hsiung Shih, Chih-Hao Tsai, His-Hsin Shih and Hao-Chung Kuo

      Version of Record online: 1 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200765

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      A colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting multilayer structure with a HfO2/SiO2-distributed Bragg reflector is manufactured using a pulsed spray method. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is used as the interface layer between each RGB (red-green-blue) color to avoid a cross-contamination phenomenon. Pure white light with strong enhancement resulting from superior use of a UV pump is demonstrated.

    2. Multifunctional Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles for Cancer-Targeted and Controlled Drug Delivery (pages 5144–5156)

      Quan Zhang, Fang Liu, Kim Truc Nguyen, Xing Ma, Xiaojun Wang, Bengang Xing and Yanli Zhao

      Version of Record online: 30 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201201316

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      Multifunctional mesoporous silica nanoparticles are developed in order to deliver anticancer drugs to specific cancer cells in a targeted and controlled manner. Doxorubicin-loaded nanoparticles containing folate target units can be efficiently trapped by folate-receptor-rich HeLa cancer cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis, leading to the release of doxorubicin triggered by acidic endosomal pH and intracellular glutathione for apoptosis.

    3. Bottom-Up Tailoring of Plasmonic Nanopeapods Making Use of the Periodical Topography of Carbon Nanocoil Templates (pages 5157–5165)

      Yong Qin, Ralf Vogelgesang, Moritz Eßlinger, Wilfried Sigle, Peter van Aken, Oussama Moutanabbir and Mato Knez

      Version of Record online: 8 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201201791

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      Regularly spaced Au nanoparticle chains embedded in helical Al2O3 nanotubes (“nanopeapods”) are synthesized based on a guided Rayleigh instability. This is achieved by annealing carbon nanocoils coated with Au by sputtering and Al2O3 by atomic layer deposition. Their strong plasmonic resonance behavior is revealed by confocal laser scanning microscopy, electron energy-loss spectroscopy, and numerical simulations.

    4. Direct Sun-Driven Artificial Heliotropism for Solar Energy Harvesting Based on a Photo-Thermomechanical Liquid-Crystal Elastomer Nanocomposite (pages 5166–5174)

      Chensha Li, Ye Liu, Xuezhen Huang and Hongrui Jiang

      Version of Record online: 1 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202038

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      A photo-thermomechanical liquid-crystalline elastomer (LCE) nanocomposite is developed and utilized to realize artificial heliotropism. The LCE nanocomposite actuators respond to light and, in turn, drive solar cells to track the light source. Full-range heliotropism is shown in both laboratory and in-field tests under natural sunlight. A significant increase in the photocurrent output from the solar cells in the artificial heliotropic devices is observed.

    5. Phonon Scattering and Thermal Conductivity in p-Type Nanostructured PbTe-BaTe Bulk Thermoelectric Materials (pages 5175–5184)

      Shih-Han Lo, Jiaqing He, Kanishka Biswas, Mercouri G. Kanatzidis and Vinayak P. Dravid

      Version of Record online: 1 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201201221

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      The effect of the coexistence of point defects and nanometer-scale precipitates on lattice thermal conductivity is understood by careful transmission electron microscope study and a proposed Callaway model.

    6. Layered H2Ti6O13-Nanowires: A New Promising Pseudocapacitive Material in Non-Aqueous Electrolyte (pages 5185–5193)

      Yonggang Wang, Zhensheng Hong, Mingdeng Wei and Yongyao Xia

      Version of Record online: 3 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200766

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      H2Ti6O13-nanowires with expanded interlayer space display a high capacitance in non-aqueous electrolyte solution. The asymmetric supercapacitor, which is based on a negative electrode of H2Ti6O13-nanowires and a positive electrode of ordered mesoporous carbon (CMK-3), exhibits a high energy density of 90 Wh kg−1.

    7. Well-Defined Functional Linear Aliphatic Diblock Copolyethers: A Versatile Linear Aliphatic Polyether Platform for Selective Functionalizations and Various Nanostructures (pages 5194–5208)

      Wonsang Kwon, Yecheol Rho, Kensuke Kamoshida, Kyung Ho Kwon, Youn Cheol Jeong, Jonghyun Kim, Hideki Misaka, Tae Joo Shin, Jehan Kim, Kwang-Woo Kim, Kyeong Sik Jin, Taihyun Chang, Heesoo Kim, Toshifumi Satoh, Toyoji Kakuchi and Moonhor Ree

      Version of Record online: 27 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201201101

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      Well-defined and selectively functionalizable linear aliphatic diblock copolyethers are successfully synthesized without any side reactions via sequential step feed of the comonomers. Each block of the diblock copolyether selectively undergoes deprotection and post chemical functionalizations. Moreover, the diblock copolyethers undergo phase-separation and molecular ordering, and form various nanostructures, depending on the compositions and selective post chemical modifications.

    8. High-Strength Laminated Copper Matrix Nanocomposites Developed from a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Film with Continuous Reticulate Architecture (pages 5209–5215)

      Zhiqiang Niu, Wenjun Ma, Jinzhu Li, Haibo Dong, Yan Ren, Duan Zhao, Weiya Zhou and Sishen Xie

      Version of Record online: 8 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201201532

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      A strategy for fabricating Cu/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/Cu laminated nanocomposites is proposed using a SWCNT film as the template. The resulting Cu/SWCNT/Cu laminated nanocomposites exhibit excellent mechanical properties. An effective transfer of the outstanding mechanical properties of SWCNTs to the composites is realized by virtue of the continuous reticulate architecture of the SWCNT film and the optimization of interfacial strength between SWCNTs and the Cu matrix.

    9. Diameter Effect on the Sidewall Functionalization of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Addition of Dichlorocarbene (pages 5216–5223)

      Kang Zhang, Qing Zhang, Cao Liu, Nicola Marzari and Francesco Stellacci

      Version of Record online: 3 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201201777

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      The influence of dichlorocarbene functionalization on the structural and electrical properties of individual single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with diameters ranging from 1.2 to 2.2 nm are studied. SWNTs with small diameters are found to be functionalized more easily than those with large diameters. Furthermore, electrical conductance is preserved for most SWNTs, while effective bandgap variations are generally observed.

    10. Epitaxial Magnetic Oxide Nanocrystals Via Phase Decomposition of Bismuth Perovskite Precursors (pages 5224–5230)

      Kashinath A. Bogle, Jeffrey Cheung, Yong-Lun Chen, Sheng-Chieh Liao, Chih-Hung Lai, Ying-Hao Chu, John M. Gregg, Satishchandra B. Ogale and Nagarajan Valanoor

      Version of Record online: 31 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201201066

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      Ferromagnetic oxides (M-Ox, with M = Mn, Fe, Co, and Cr) nanocrystal arrays are synthesized using a template-free facile approach through decomposition of a pulsed laser deposited bismuth metal oxide (BiMO3) precursor. This decomposition produces bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) and metal oxide (M-Ox) pockets. The subsequent cooling in vacuum volatizes the Bi2O3 leaving an array of monodisperse nanocrystals.

    11. Protein Rebinding to a Surface-Confined Imprint (pages 5231–5237)

      Decha Dechtrirat, Katharina J. Jetzschmann, Walter F. M. Stöcklein, Frieder W. Scheller and Nenad Gajovic-Eichelmann

      Version of Record online: 3 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201201328

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      Surface imprinting of the C-terminal peptide epitope of cytochrome c can be achieved by forming an ultrathin polymer film of comparable thickness of the peptide template. The imprinted film shows selective binding to both the peptide template and target protein. The film is directly prepared on the electrode surface, making this strategy very useful for sensor applications.

    12. Highly Transparent and Conductive Stretchable Conductors Based on Hierarchical Reticulate Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Architecture (pages 5238–5244)

      Le Cai, Jinzhu Li, Pingshan Luan, Haibo Dong, Duan Zhao, Qiang Zhang, Xiao Zhang, Min Tu, Qingsheng Zeng, Weiya Zhou and Sishen Xie

      Version of Record online: 1 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201201013

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      Highly transparent and conducting stretchable conductors are fabricated by embedding hierarchical reticulate single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) films in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). The stretchable conductors can be programmed by the first loading–unloading cycle to tolerate a large strain without resistance changes. Conductance stabilization is achieved under repetitive stretching and relaxing. A light-emitting diode is illuminated using a stretchable conductor under large tensile strains, proving the feasibility of its utility as a stretchable interconnect.

    13. Interface Functionalization of Photoelectrodes with Graphene for High Performance Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 5245–5250)

      Tao Chen, Weihua Hu, Junling Song, Guan Hong Guai and Chang Ming Li

      Version of Record online: 3 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201201126

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      Graphene is found to suppress carrier recombination occurring on fluorinated tin oxide (FTO) surfaces and at FTO/TiO2 interfaces in dye-sensitized solar cells. With a graphene interlayer between FTO and TiO2, the device efficiency can be increased by 40% when compared with those using solely TiO2 as an anode material.

    14. Gas Diffusion, Energy Transport, and Thermal Accommodation in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Aerogels (pages 5251–5258)

      Scott N. Schiffres, Kyu Hun Kim, Lin Hu, Alan J. H. McGaughey, Mohammad F. Islam and Jonathan A. Malen

      Version of Record online: 3 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201201285

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      Inefficient energy exchange between gas molecules and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) permits gas molecules that permeate the aerogel to transport energy over distances hundreds of times larger than the aerogel pore diameter. Heat conduction through the SWCNT network is limited by thermal resistance at the van der Waals bonded tube–tube junctions, which is over one hundred times larger than that of the SWCNTs themselves.

    15. Metal Nanoparticles Acting as Light-Activated Heating Elements within Composite Materials (pages 5259–5270)

      Somsubhra Maity, Jason R. Bochinski and Laura I. Clarke

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201201051

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      Low-intensity resonant frequency light is used to photothermally heat polymer composites doped with metal nanoparticles. A fluorescence-based temperature measuring technique is used to monitor the average bulk temperature of the composite during the photothermal process.

    16. Functional Nanogels as Platforms for Imparting Antibacterial, Antibiofilm, and Antiadhesion Activities to Stainless Steel (pages 5271–5282)

      Emilie Faure, Céline Falentin-Daudré, Tiziana Svaldo Lanero, Christelle Vreuls, Germaine Zocchi, Cécile Van De Weerdt, Joseph Martial, Christine Jérôme, Anne-Sophie Duwez and Christophe Detrembleur

      Version of Record online: 9 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201201106

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      Quinone functionalized cross-linked nanogels are deposited onto industrial stainless steel surfaces precoated with a biomimetic glue. Antibacterial property is imparted to the surface by loading the nanogels with silver nanoparticles. The reactivity of the quinone groups of the nanogels towards thiol functions is exploited to afford long-term antibiofilm and antiadhesion properties to the substrate.

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