Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 22 Issue 4

February 22, 2012

Volume 22, Issue 4

Pages 665–878

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    1. Bioimaging: Biocompatible Nanoparticles with Aggregation-Induced Emission Characteristics as Far-Red/Near-Infrared Fluorescent Bioprobes for in Vitro and In Vivo Imaging Applications (Adv. Funct. Mater. 4/2012) (page 665)

      Wei Qin, Dan Ding, Jianzhao Liu, Wang Zhang Yuan, Yong Hu, Bin Liu and Ben Zhong Tang

      Article first published online: 15 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201290021

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      On page 771, Bin Liu, Ben Zhong Tang, and co-workers report the synthesis of 2-(2,6-bis((E)-4-(phenyl(4′-(1,2,2-triphenylvinyl)-[1,1′-biphenyl]-4-yl)amino)styryl)-4Hpyran-4-ylidene)malononitrile (TPE-TPA-DCM), which has an aggregation-induced emission (AIE) feature. Further formulation of TPE-TPA-DCM using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the polymer matrix allows for successful in vitro and in vivo farred/near-infrared (FR/NIR) bioimaging.

  2. Inside Front Cover

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    1. Self-Assembly: Oriented Assembly of Gold Nanorods on the Single-Particle Level (Adv. Funct. Mater. 4/2012) (page 666)

      Cyrill Kuemin, Lea Nowack, Luisa Bozano, Nicholas D. Spencer and Heiko Wolf

      Article first published online: 15 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201290022

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      Aligning shape-anisotropic nano-objects is a heavily studied topic. On page 702, Heiko Wolf and coworkers demonstrate the oriented assembly of gold nanorods with single-particle resolution. Assembly is achieved from a dense phase of nanorods at the meniscus of an aqueous suspension through capillary forces. The parallel alignment of arrayed gold nanorods becomes evident from their characteristic plasmon colors (red, green) when observed through a polarizer.

  3. Back Cover

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    1. Organic Light-Emitting Diodes: The Mechanism of Charge Generation in Charge-Generation Units Composed of p-Doped Hole-Transporting Layer/HATCN/n-Doped Electron-Transporting Layers (Adv. Funct. Mater. 4/2012) (page 879)

      Sunghun Lee, Jeong-Hwan Lee, Jae-Hyun Lee and Jang-Joo Kim

      Article first published online: 15 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201290023

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      A tandem white organic light-emitting diode (OLED) composed of blue and orange emitting units interconnected by a charge-generation unit (CGU) in which both electrons and holes are efficiently generated is presented. On page 855, Jang-Joo Kim and co-workers analyze the charge generation mechanism of the CGU composed of p-doped hole-transporting layer (HTL)/1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile (HATCN)/n-doped electron-transporting layer (ETL). The energy level alignment shows that the electron injection at the HATCN/n-ETL junction limits the charge generation in the CGU.

  4. Masthead

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    1. Masthead: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 4/2012)

      Article first published online: 15 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201290024

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    1. Contents: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 4/2012) (pages 667–674)

      Article first published online: 15 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201290019

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    1. Hierarchical Nanocomposites Derived from Nanocarbons and Layered Double Hydroxides - Properties, Synthesis, and Applications (pages 675–694)

      Meng-Qiang Zhao, Qiang Zhang, Jia-Qi Huang and Fei Wei

      Article first published online: 9 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201102222

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      Hierarchical nanocomposites derived from nanocarbons and layered double hydroxides, representing the latest frontier for arrangement and construction of different low-dimensional nanomaterials as building blocks, are reviewed. The article highlights the fabrication of novel hierarchical nanoarchitectures via bottom-up self-organization and their promising applications in energy storage, materials science, catalysis, environmental protection, and drug delivery, with a focus on hot topics and future challenges in this field.

  7. Full Papers

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    1. Pipetting Nanowires: In Situ Visualization of Solid-State Nanowire-to-Nanoparticle Transformation Driven by Surface Diffusion-Mediated Capillarity (pages 695–701)

      Maria Eugenia Toimil-Molares, Lars Röntzsch, Wilfried Sigle, Karl-Heinz Heinig, Christina Trautmann and Reinhard Neumann

      Article first published online: 19 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201102260

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      In situ transmission electron microscopy images recorded as movies provide an exceptional real-time visualization of Cu draining out of a carbon coating. The solid content of the carbon tube is effectively evacuated towards the open end, transforming each nanowire into a single monocrystalline, facetted Cu particle. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations propose that this morphological transformation is driven by surface diffusion of Cu atoms along the wire/tube interface.

    2. Oriented Assembly of Gold Nanorods on the Single-Particle Level (pages 702–708)

      Cyrill Kuemin, Lea Nowack, Luisa Bozano, Nicholas D. Spencer and Heiko Wolf

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101760

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      Colloidal gold nanorods are self-assembled from a receding meniscus that is moved over a nanostructured template surface. Their position and orientation can be precisely controlled on the single-particle level. Complex arrangements comprising parallel or perpendicularly aligned nanorods as well as co-aligned nanorod dimers are fabricated.

    3. Oxygen Ion Drift-Induced Complementary Resistive Switching in Homo TiOx/TiOy/TiOx and Hetero TiOx/TiON/TiOx Triple Multilayer Frameworks (pages 709–716)

      Yoon Cheol Bae, Ah Rahm Lee, Ja Bin Lee, Ja Hyun Koo, Kyung Cheol Kwon, Jea Gun Park, Hyun Sik Im and Jin Pyo Hong

      Article first published online: 21 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201102362

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      A novel binary oxide-based triple-layer framework for complementary resistive switching is developed with anti-serially merged two bilayer homojunction switching elements. The oxidation/redox reaction induced by movable oxygen ions at the interface between the middle TiOy and the top/bottom TiOx layers plays a key role in the resistive switching, together with the formation of filamentary paths under bias.

    4. Non-Covalent Functionalization of Graphene Using Self-Assembly of Alkane-Amines (pages 717–725)

      Brenda Long, Mary Manning, Micheal Burke, Bartholomaeus N. Szafranek, Giuseppe Visimberga, Damien Thompson, James C. Greer, Ian M. Povey, John MacHale, Guaylord Lejosne, Daniel Neumaier and Aidan J. Quinn

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101956

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      A simple, versatile method for non-covalent functionalization of graphene based on solution-phase assembly of alkane-amine layers is presented. For 1-aminodecane, the calculated monolayer height from atomistic molecular dynamics simulations is in good agreement with atomic force microscopy data, suggesting formation of a self-assembled monolayer. Passivation and adsorbate n-doping of graphene field-effect devices using 1-aminodecane is also reported.

    5. Oligotriphenylene Nanofiber Sensors for Detection of Nitro-Based Explosives (pages 726–735)

      Yao Zu Liao, Veronica Strong, Yue Wang, Xin-Gui Li, Xia Wang and Richard B. Kaner

      Article first published online: 14 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201102013

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      Blue light-emitting oligotriphenylene nanofiber molecular wires exhibit high thermal stability, high fluorescence quantum yield, enhanced conductivity, and stable fluorescence, when compared to the monomer. Fluorescent sensors based on oligotriphenylene nanofibers and their polysulfone composite films enable trace detection, high sensitivity, and high selectivity of nitro-based explosives including nitromethane, nitrobenzene, and 2,4,6-trinitrophenol as well as Fe(III) owing to formation of stable π-electron/charge transfer complexes between the fluorophores and the analytes.

    6. A Multifunctional Cationic Pentathiophene: Synthesis, Organelle-Selective Imaging, and Anticancer Activity (pages 736–743)

      Gaomai Yang, Libing Liu, Qiong Yang, Fengting Lv and Shu Wang

      Article first published online: 13 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101764

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      A cationic pentathiophene (5T) is synthesized and discovered with both anticancer activity and molecular imaging properties. 5T can selectively accumulate in mitochondria to exhibit organellar imaging and efficiently induce cell apoptosis associating with c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) JNK pathway activation. The 5T-chlorambucil nanoparticles enhance anticancer activity by 2 to 9 fold due to the synergistical anticancer activity of 5T and chlorambucil.

  8. Frontispiece

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    1. Superhydrophobic Surfaces: Self-Assembling, Bioinspired Wax Crystalline Surfaces with Time-Dependent Wettability (Adv. Funct. Mater. 4/2012) (page 744)

      Sasha Pechook and Boaz Pokroy

      Article first published online: 15 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201290020

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      Bioinspired wax crystals on various substrates exhibit time-dependent nanoroughness evolution, which is induced by strain release and recrystallization. As reported by Boaz Pokroy and co-workers on page 745, this evolution of the nanoroughness leads to time-dependent changes in wettability, from hydrophobic to superhydrophobic. This process of evolution is strongly dependent on temperature. The study provides a basis for the production of tuned, time-dependent, temperature-sensitive material surfaces with changeable wettability.

  9. Full Papers

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    1. Self-Assembling, Bioinspired Wax Crystalline Surfaces with Time-Dependent Wettability (pages 745–750)

      Sasha Pechook and Boaz Pokroy

      Article first published online: 13 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101721

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      Bioinspired wax films exhibit time-dependent nanostructure evolution that includes strain release and a nanoroughness increase. Nanoroughness evolution leads to time-dependent wettability changes, from hydrophobic to superhydrophobic. The mechanism for the nano-roughness increase is most likely recrystallization induced by residual strain that develops during the rapid film formation. This provides a basis for the production of tuned, time-dependent, temperature-sensitive material surfaces with changeable wettability.

    2. Regulating Cellular Behavior on Few-Layer Reduced Graphene Oxide Films with Well-Controlled Reduction States (pages 751–759)

      Xuetao Shi, Haixin Chang, Song Chen, Chen Lai, Ali Khademhosseini and Hongkai Wu

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201102305

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      Regulating cellular behaviors on few-layer reduced graphene oxide (FRGO) films are explored by delicately controlling the reduction states of graphene oxide. Importantly, the results indicate that the surface oxygenous content of FRGO has a strong influence on cellular behaviors, and therefore can be tuned in a facile way to regulate cellular behaviors on FRGO.

    3. In Situ Fully Light-Driven Switching of Superhydrophobic Adhesion (pages 760–763)

      Chao Li, Yuanyuan Zhang, Jie Ju, Futao Cheng, Mingjie Liu, Lei Jiang and Yanlei Yu

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101922

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      An in situ fully light-driven switching of superhydrophobic adhesion is demonstrated based on simply spin-coating a hydrophobic azo-polymer on an optimized micro-nanopost arrayed silicon substrate. The detailed designing principles are discussed and might shed light on efficient exploitation of superhydrophobic liquid/solid interfaces for smart microfluidic control.

    4. A Facile and General Method for the Encapsulation of Different Types of Imaging Contrast Agents Within Micrometer-Sized Polymer Beads (pages 764–770)

      Meng-Yi Bai, Christine H. Moran, Lei Zhang, Changjun Liu, Yu Zhang, Lihong V. Wang and Younan Xia

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201102582

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      A facile method based on hollow beads with holes on the surfaces for quick encapsulation of various types of contrast agents is described. The potential uses of these encapsulated contrast agents for biomedical imaging is also demonstrated.

    5. Biocompatible Nanoparticles with Aggregation-Induced Emission Characteristics as Far-Red/Near-Infrared Fluorescent Bioprobes for In Vitro and In Vivo Imaging Applications (pages 771–779)

      Wei Qin, Dan Ding, Jianzhao Liu, Wang Zhang Yuan, Yong Hu, Bin Liu and Ben Zhong Tang

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201102191

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      Encapsulation of far-red/near-infrared luminogens with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) characteristics in a bovine serum albumin (BSA) matrix yields nanoparticles (NPs) with uniform size, high brightness, and low cytotoxicity. Applications of these AIE-active NPs for in vitro and in vivo fluorescence imaging are demonstrated using MCF-7 breast-cancer cells and a murine hepatic H22-tumor-bearing mouse model, respectively.

    6. Silver Nanoparticles Deposited Layered Double Hydroxide Nanoporous Coatings with Excellent Antimicrobial Activities (pages 780–787)

      Chunping Chen, Poernomo Gunawan, Xiong Wen (David) Lou and Rong Xu

      Article first published online: 13 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201102333

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      A simple method to grow well-oriented nanoporous layered double hydroxide LDH coatings from the homogenous suspension of the LDH precursors is developed. The removal of the free electrolytes is critical in developing high quality LDH coatings. Ag nanoparticles can be readily deposited on the LDH coatings without any reducing agents or toxic organic solvents. The resulting Ag-LDH composite coatings present excellent and durable antimicrobial activities.

    7. Octupolar Films with Large Second Harmonic Generation and Electro-Optical Effects (pages 788–796)

      Mi-Yun Jeong, Sophie Brasselet, Tong-Kun Lim and Bong Rae Cho

      Article first published online: 14 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201102257

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      Octupolar films composed of 1,3,5- tricyano-2,4,6-tris(p-diethylaminostyryl)benzene (TTB) octupolar molecules display both polycrystalline and cylindrical domains. The molecular orientation, second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiencies, and electro-optic (EO) coefficients of the crystalline domains are studied theoretically and experimentally. Both structures exhibit high and stable SHG and EO efficiencies. These characteristics will be useful in second order nonlinear optical applications.

    8. Mechanical Confinement: An Effective Way of Tuning Properties of Piezoelectric Crystals (pages 797–802)

      Mie Marsilius, Josh Frederick, Wei Hu, Xiaoli Tan, Torsten Granzow and Pengdi Han

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101301

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      Dramatic changes are seen in the polarization vs. electric field hysteresis loops recorded from Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3− PbTiO3 PMN–PT piezoelectric single crystals under uniaxial as well as radial compressive pre-stresses. The results demonstrate a general and effective approach to overcome the drawback of low coercive fields in these relaxor-based ferroelectric crystals, which could help facilitate widespread implementation of these piezocrystals in engineering devices.

    9. Interdispersed Amorphous MnOx–Carbon Nanocomposites with Superior Electrochemical Performance as Lithium-Storage Material (pages 803–811)

      Juchen Guo, Qing Liu, Chunsheng Wang and Michael R. Zachariah

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201102137

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      Amorphous MnOx-carbon nanoparticles as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries are synthesized via aerosol spray pyrolysis. The resulting MnOx-carbon anode shows high lithium storage capacity, superior cycling stability, rate capability, and lower overpotential owing to its amorphous nature and unique nanostructure of interdispersed MnOx and carbon.

    10. Luminescence of Nanodiamond Driven by Atomic Functionalization: Towards Novel Detection Principles (pages 812–819)

      Vladimíra Petráková, Andrew Taylor, Irena Kratochvílová, František Fendrych, Jiří Vacík, Jan Kučka, Jan Štursa, Petr Cígler, Miroslav Ledvina, Anna Fišerová, Peter Kneppo and Miloš Nesládek

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101936

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      The luminescence of nanodiamond (ND) originates from nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers that can emit luminescence in two spectral regions, either from 570 to 620 nm or from 630 to 750 nm. Chemically induced surface changes enable switching between the two luminescence channels. The hole accumulation layer developed at the nanodiamond surface by hydrogen termination leads to quenching of the NV luminescence.

    11. Manganese Functionalized Silicate Nanoparticles as a Fenton-Type Catalyst for Water Purification by Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP) (pages 820–826)

      Nataša Novak Tušar, Darja Maučec, Mojca Rangus, Iztok Arčon, Matjaž Mazaj, Magda Cotman, Albin Pintar and Venčeslav Kaučič

      Article first published online: 13 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201102361

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      Manganese functionalized silicate nanoparticles with interparticle porosity act as a superior Fenton-type nanocatalyst in WHPCO (wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation) as they can decompose 80% of a test organic compound in 30 minutes at neutral pH and room temperature. By combined use of catalytic tests and X-ray absorption spectroscopic techniques (XANES, EXAFS) direct evidence is given that the superior activity of the nanocatalyst is uniquely attributed to framework manganese.

    12. Polypyrrole-Derived Activated Carbons for High-Performance Electrical Double-Layer Capacitors with Ionic Liquid Electrolyte (pages 827–834)

      Lu Wei, Marta Sevilla, Antonio B. Fuertes, Robert Mokaya and Gleb Yushin

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101866

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      A novel method of activated carbon (AC) synthesis for electrical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) based on direct activation of synthetic polymers polypyrrole is proposed. ACs with high specific surface area are created. The specific capacitance of the produced carbons is very high when measured in a symmetric configuration in an ionic liquid electrolyte. Charge–discharge tests show excellent capacitance retention at an ultrahigh current density.

    13. Highly Efficient, Irreversible and Selective Ion Exchange Property of Layered Titanate Nanostructures (pages 835–841)

      Nian Li, Lide Zhang, Yongzhou Chen, Ming Fang, Junxi Zhang and Huimin Wang

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201102272

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      Inorganic ion exchanger: An ion exchange induced structure collapse of sodium titanates immobilizes target metal cations tightly in the interlayer. These trapped cations are released through a phase transformation under strong acidic conditions. The titanates may find applications in the decontamination and safe disposal of radionuclides and heavy metals.

    14. Photo- and pH-Triggered Release of Anticancer Drugs from Mesoporous Silica-Coated Pd@Ag Nanoparticles (pages 842–848)

      Weijun Fang, Jing Yang, Jiawei Gong and Nanfeng Zheng

      Article first published online: 13 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201101960

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      Based on mesoporous silica-coated Pd@Ag nanoparticles, a smart drug delivery system with anticancer drugs coordinated inside the mesopores is designed and developed. The release of the loaded anticancer drugs is triggered by pH and near infrared (NIR) light irradiation.

    15. Gold Coating of Silver Nanoprisms (pages 849–854)

      Mohammad Mehdi Shahjamali, Michel Bosman, Shaowen Cao, Xiao Huang, Somaye Saadat, Erik Martinsson, Daniel Aili, Yee Yan Tay, Bo Liedberg, Say Chye Joachim Loo, Hua Zhang, Freddy Boey and Can Xue

      Article first published online: 9 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201102028

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      Core–shell Ag@Au nanoprisms are successfully synthesized through a surfactant-free seed-mediation approach by direct gold coating of silver nanoprisms with controllable Au shell thickness. The clean gold shell surface and tunable surface plasmon resonance of these core–shell nanoprisms enable straightforward further functionalization for a variety of applications.

    16. The Mechanism of Charge Generation in Charge-Generation Units Composed of p-Doped Hole-Transporting Layer/HATCN/n-Doped Electron-Transporting Layers (pages 855–860)

      Sunghun Lee, Jeong-Hwan Lee, Jae-Hyun Lee and Jang-Joo Kim

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201102212

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      The rate limiting step of charge generation in the charge-generation units (CGUs) composed of a p-doped hole-transporting layer (HTL)/1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile (HATCN)/n-doped electron-transporting layer (ETL) is reported. Energy level alignment and the current density–voltage characteristics of the structure show that the electron injection at the HATCN/n-ETL junction limits the charge generation in the CGUs.

    17. Mesoporous Co3O4 and CoO@C Topotactically Transformed from Chrysanthemum-like Co(CO3)0.5(OH)·0.11H2O and Their Lithium-Storage Properties (pages 861–871)

      Shenglin Xiong, Jun Song Chen, Xiong Wen Lou and Hua Chun Zeng

      Article first published online: 21 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201102192

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      The controlled, NaCl-mediated synthesis of chrysanthemum-like Co(CO3)0.5(OH)·0.11H2O is demonstrated. The effects of the synthetic conditions are investigated in detail. The Co(CO3)0.5(OH)·0.11H2O is converted to Co3O4 nanowire arrays by direct thermal decomposition and then to carbon-coated CoO (CoO@C) under the reducing ambience of C2H2. These CoO@C nanowire arrays are promising candidates for lithium-ion-battery applications.

    18. Rapid and Facile Microwave-Assisted Surface Chemistry for Functionalized Microarray Slides (pages 872–878)

      Jeong Heon Lee, Hoon Hyun, Conor J. Cross, Maged Henary, Khaled A. Nasr, Rafiou Oketokoun, Hak Soo Choi and John V. Frangioni

      Article first published online: 21 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201102033

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      Microwave-assisted surface funcationlization and ligand imprinting using an automated robotic chemistry system for high-throughput live cell screening is developed. Using microwave irradiation, complete silanization and PEGylation are obtained in 18.4 min, which was characterized by water contact angle and fluorescence measurements. Cell binding ligands are incorporated into 300-μm circular spots providing adequate space for up to 230 living cell interactions.

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