Nanoscale Origins of Nonlinear Behavior in Ferroic Thin Films (pages 81–90)
Rama K. Vasudevan, M. Baris Okatan, Chen Duan, Yoshitaka Ehara, Hiroshi Funakubo, Amit Kumar, Stephen Jesse, Long-Qing Chen, Sergei V. Kalinin and Valanoor Nagarajan
Article first published online: 10 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201201025
The nanoscale origins of Rayleigh behavior in ferroic materials have remained elusive, despite the widespread applicability of this phenomenological law. Using band-excitation piezoresponse force microscopy, individual nanoscale measurements on Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 films probe a distinctly non-Rayleigh regime. The collective average of the individual measurements leads directly to macroscopic Rayleigh-type nonlinearity. These results point to the nanoscale origins of nonlinearity in a variety of disordered ferroics.