Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 23 Issue 11

March 20, 2013

Volume 23, Issue 11

Pages 1349–1471

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      Microcontact Printing: Ultrathin Sticker-Type ZnO Thin Film Transistors Formed by Transfer Printing via Topological Confinement of Water-Soluble Sacrificial Polymer in Dimple Structure (Adv. Funct. Mater. 11/2013) (page 1349)

      Suk Ho Kim, Jongwon Yoon, Su Ok Yun, Youngkyu Hwang, Hun Soo Jang and Heung Cho Ko

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370053

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      Sticker-type electronics give electronic functions to unconventional substrates. On page 1375 Heung Cho Ko and co-workers demonstrate an advanced methodology to guarantee both stability in device fabrication and high-efficiency transfer printing of final devices to enable such a stick-and-play system. They employ a water-soluble sacrificial layer on a dimpled handling substrate, which enables the topological confinement of the ultrathin substrate.

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      Resistive Memory: 32 × 32 Crossbar Array Resistive Memory Composed of a Stacked Schottky Diode and Unipolar Resistive Memory (Adv. Funct. Mater. 11/2013) (page 1350)

      Gun Hwan Kim, Jong Ho Lee, Youngbae Ahn, Woojin Jeon, Seul Ji Song, Jun Yeong Seok, Jung Ho Yoon, Kyung Jean Yoon, Tae Joo Park and Cheol Seong Hwang

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370054

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      Fully functional crossbar array ReRAM devices with 32 × 32 memory block size are reported by Cheol Seong Hwang and co-workers on page 1440. The schematic structure of the 1 diode-1 resistor crossbar array devices is shown in the image. The adopted Schottky diode, serially connected with a unipolar resistive switching memory element, suppresses the sneak-current flow. It also controls the conducting path formation during switching and protects the memory from noise during retention.

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      Crystal Engineering: The Relationship of Solid-State Plasticity to Mechanochromic Luminescence in Difluoroboron Avobenzone Polymorphs (Adv. Funct. Mater. 11/2013) (page 1476)

      Gamidi Rama Krishna, Mangalampalli S. R. N. Kiran, Cassandra L. Fraser, Upadrasta Ramamurty and Chilla Malla Reddy

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370055

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      Quantification of mechanical properties using a nanoindentation technique in a polymorphic, mechanochromic luminescent (ML) material allows a structure-mechanical response in the stiff and soft forms to be established. This explains the quick recovery and a very prominent reversible ML behavior of the two forms. On page 1422, Upadrasta Ramamurty, Chilla Malla Reddy, and co-workers report that the introduction of slip planes in crystals is the key to achieving an efficient ML property in fluorophores or a soft nature in organic functional materials.

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    1. Masthead: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 11/2013)

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370056

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    1. Contents: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 11/2013) (pages 1351–1355)

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370057

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    1. Recent Progress in the Synthesis of Spherical Titania Nanostructures and Their Applications (pages 1356–1374)

      Dehong Chen and Rachel A. Caruso

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201201880

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      Advances in the fabrication and application of diverse spherical titania nanostructures over the last decade are summarized. These nanostructures show excellent performance in applications including biomolecular separation, clean energy utilization, conversion and storage, photoluminescence, electrorheological fluids, catalysis, drug delivery, and gas sensing.

  7. Full Papers

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    1. Ultrathin Sticker-Type ZnO Thin Film Transistors Formed by Transfer Printing via Topological Confinement of Water-Soluble Sacrificial Polymer in Dimple Structure (pages 1375–1382)

      Suk Ho Kim, Jongwon Yoon, Su Ok Yun, Youngkyu Hwang, Hun Soo Jang and Heung Cho Ko

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202409

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      Topologically confining a water-soluble sacrificial polymer layer on a dimpled handling substrate enables controllability of the interfacial adhesion force between the ultrathin substrate and a handling substrate. This technology provides a high yield of transfer printing in a deterministic manner without altering the position of printable designs to formulate sticker-type ZnO thin film transistors.

    2. Interaction of Ferromagnetic Shape Memory Alloys and RGD Peptides for Mechanical Coupling to Cells: from Ab Initio Calculations to Cell Studies (pages 1383–1391)

      Mareike Zink, Florian Szillat, Uta Allenstein and Stefan G. Mayr

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201201789

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      The ferromagnetic shape memory alloy Fe-Pd bears enormous potential for biomedical actuators and sensors. The physics of bonding of arginine-glycineaspartic (RGD), the major binding motif for cells, to Fe-Pd surfaces is explored by employing a combination of ab initio calculations, delamination experiments, and cell tests. Due to strong RGD–Fe-Pd binding, which exceeds the RGD-integrin interaction by an order of magnitude, effective mechanical coupling to cells is established.

  8. Frontispiece

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    1. Gold Nanorod Assemblies: Large Area Self-Assembly of Nematic Liquid-Crystal-Functionalized Gold Nanorods (Adv. Funct. Mater. 11/2013) (page 1392)

      S. Umadevi, Xiang Feng and Torsten Hegmann

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370058

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      An exceptionally effective and versatile method for the reconfigurable self-assembly of gold nanorods is presented by Torsten Hegmann and co-workers on page 1393. Nematic- and smectic-type self-organization of gold nanorods with an aspect ratio of around four is provided by the functionalization with a nematogenic liquid crystal ligand in either an end-on or a side-on fashion. The final arrays of nanorods can be reoriented by the application of a magnetic field. Image design by T. Hegmann.

  9. Full Papers

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    1. Large Area Self-Assembly of Nematic Liquid-Crystal-Functionalized Gold Nanorods (pages 1393–1403)

      S. Umadevi, Xiang Feng and Torsten Hegmann

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202727

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      Fascinating nematic- and smectic-like self-assembled arrays are observed for gold nanorods partially capped with either laterally or terminally substituted nematic liquid crystals upon slow evaporation of an organic solvent on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grids. These arrays can be manipulated and reoriented by applying an external magnetic field from quasi-planar to vertical similar to a Fréedericksz transition of common organic nematic liquid crystals.

    2. Hierarchical Intrafibrillar Nanocarbonated Apatite Assembly Improves the Nanomechanics and Cytocompatibility of Mineralized Collagen (pages 1404–1411)

      Yan Liu, Dan Luo, Xiao-Xing Kou, Xue-Dong Wang, Franklin R. Tay, Yin-Lin Sha, Ye-Hua Gan and Yan-Heng Zhou

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201201611

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      Nanoscale replication of the hierarchical organization of minerals in naturally mineralized tissues is successfully achieved by using a coprecipitation procedure based on two biomimetic analogs. This highly ordered mineralized collagen matrix, with improved nanomechanics and cytocompatibility, offers the opportunity for its potential use as a scaffold in bone grafting and tissue engineering.

    3. Nanoparticle Stacks with Graded Refractive Indices Enhance the Omnidirectional Light Harvesting of Solar Cells and the Light Extraction of Light-Emitting Diodes (pages 1412–1421)

      Cheng-Yi Fang, Yu-Lun Liu, Yang-Chun Lee, Hsuen-Li Chen, De-Hui Wan and Chen-Chieh Yu

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201201949

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      Nanoparticles (NPs) enhance both the omnidirectional light harvesting of solar cells and the light extraction of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The photocurrent of silicon-based solar cells can be significantly improved omnidirectionally using an optical gradient of a NP stack and the light-extraction efficiency of LEDs can also be enhanced, due to both the graded refractive index and the moderate surface roughness.

    4. The Relationship of Solid-State Plasticity to Mechanochromic Luminescence in Difluoroboron Avobenzone Polymorphs (pages 1422–1430)

      Gamidi Rama Krishna, Mangalampalli S. R. N. Kiran, Cassandra L. Fraser, Upadrasta Ramamurty and Chilla Malla Reddy

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201201896

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Quantification of mechanical properties using a nanoindentation technique in a polymorphic, mechanochromic luminescent (ML) material allows a structure-mechanical response in the stiff and soft forms to be established. This explains the quick recovery and a very prominent reversible ML behavior of the two forms. The structural analysis suggests that the introduction of slip planes in crystals is the key to achieving an efficient ML property in fluorophores or a soft nature in organic functional materials.

    5. Understanding the Mechanism of Solvent-Mediated Adhesion of Vacuum Deposited Au and Pt Thin Films onto PMMA Substrates (pages 1431–1439)

      Alan K. Mo, Victoria L. Brown, Brandon K. Rugg, Thomas C. DeVore, Harry M. Meyer, Xiaofeng Hu, W. Christopher Hughes and Brian H. Augustine

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201201955

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      Noble metal deposition onto polymeric substrates is important for electrodes in biomedical, microelectronic, and microfluidic applications. Optical microscopy images of adhesion tests on substrates are shown poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) for arrays of Au dots deposited via electron beam evaporation pretreated with isopropyl alcohol, a remote O2 plasma, fluoroform vapor, and spin-cast with chloroform and bromoform. Density functional theory calculation of a model PMMA/CHCl3/Au system shows that residual solvent molecules result in improved metal adhesion with hydrohalocarbon pretreatment.

    6. 32 × 32 Crossbar Array Resistive Memory Composed of a Stacked Schottky Diode and Unipolar Resistive Memory (pages 1440–1449)

      Gun Hwan Kim, Jong Ho Lee, Youngbae Ahn, Woojin Jeon, Seul Ji Song, Jun Yeong Seok, Jung Ho Yoon, Kyung Jean Yoon, Tae Joo Park and Cheol Seong Hwang

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202170

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      1 diode 1 resistor (1D1R) resistive memory devices with the crossbar array configuration composed of a stacked Schottky diode (Pt/TiO2/Ti/Pt) and unipolar resistive (URS) memory (Pt/TiO2/Pt) elements are fabricated, and their fluent functionality is proven. Atomic force microscopy is used to image one memory cell and scanning electron microscopy is used to study the 32 × 32 memory array.

    7. Synergy of Pickering Emulsion and Sol-Gel Process for the Construction of an Efficient, Recyclable Enzyme Cascade System (pages 1450–1458)

      Jiafu Shi, Xiaoli Wang, Wenyan Zhang, Zhongyi Jiang, Yanpeng Liang, Yuanyuan Zhu and Chunhong Zhang

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202068

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      An efficient and recyclable enzyme cascade system enabled by nanoparticle-stabilized capsules is constructed through the synergy between a Pickering emulsion and sol-gel process. When utilized for CO2 conversion, the enzyme cascade system exhibits high activity, long-term stability, and superior recyclability.

    8. Highly Conductive, Flexible, Polyurethane-Based Adhesives for Flexible and Printed Electronics (pages 1459–1465)

      Zhuo Li, Rongwei Zhang, Kyoung-Sik Moon, Yan Liu, Kristen Hansen, Taoran Le and C. P. Wong

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202249

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      A highly conductive polyurethane (PU)-based adhesive is developed by generating and sintering silver nanoparticles in situ during the curing of silver/PU composites. With the high conductivity, mechanical compliance, good adhesion, and compatibility with various flexible substrates, the PU-based adhesive is promising in support of various advanced interconnection techniques for flexible electronics, including flip-chip and 3D integration.

    9. The Role of Sulfur in Solution-Processed Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 and its Effect on Defect Properties (pages 1466–1471)

      Hsin-Sheng Duan, Wenbing Yang, Brion Bob, Chia-Jung Hsu, Bao Lei and Yang Yang

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201201732

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      Defect properties of Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 with different sulfur content are investigated through admittance spectroscopy and charge density profiling, which are consistent with the cells' characteristics deduced from current density–voltage measurements. As the sulfur content increases, the bandgap of the absorber is enlarged, leading to open-circuit voltage increases, accompanied by a stronger recombination due to higher defect density.

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