Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 23 Issue 21

June 6, 2013

Volume 23, Issue 21

Pages 2665–2781

  1. Cover Picture

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      Sensors: A Printable Optical Time-Temperature Integrator Based on Shape Memory in a Chiral Nematic Polymer Network (Adv. Funct. Mater. 21/2013) (page 2665)

      Dylan J. D. Davies, Antonio R. Vaccaro, Stephen M. Morris, Nicole Herzer, Albertus P. H. J. Schenning and Cees W. M. Bastiaansen

      Article first published online: 3 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370102

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      On page 2723, Albertus P. H. J. Schenning, Cees W. M. Bastiaansen, and co-workers report the fabrication of a printable, optical, irreversible temperature sensor (e.g., a time-temperature integrator) by mechanical embossing of a chiral nematic polymer network, which yields a green colored film. A permanent color shift to orange is observed at temperatures above the glass transition temperature of the embossed film. Cover design by ICMS Animation Studio TU/e.

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      Field-Effect Transistors: Single-Crystalline p-Type Zn3As2 Nanowires for Field-Effect Transistors and Visible-Light Photodetectors on Rigid and Flexible Substrates (Adv. Funct. Mater. 21/2013) (page 2666)

      Gui Chen, Zhe Liu, Bo Liang, Gang Yu, Zhong Xie, Hongtao Huang, Bin Liu, Xianfu Wang, Di Chen, Ming-Qiang Zhu and Guozhen Shen

      Article first published online: 3 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370103

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      As reported by Ming-Qiang Zhu, Guozhen Shen, and co-workers on page 2681, single crystalline p-type Zn3As2 nanowires (NWs) are grown via a simple thermal evaporation process. Single and large-scale ordered Zn3As2 NW array field-effect transistors (FETs) on rigid SiO2/Si substrates and photodetectors on both rigid and flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates are studied. They exhibit high performance, revealing that the p-type Zn3As2 NWs have important applications in future electronic and optoelectronic devices.

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      Metallic-Glass Nanostructures: Tunable Hierarchical Metallic-Glass Nanostructures (Adv. Funct. Mater. 21/2013) (page 2784)

      Sundeep Mukherjee, Ryan C. Sekol, Marcelo Carmo, Eric I. Altman, André D. Taylor and Jan Schroers

      Article first published online: 3 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370104

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      Palladium-rich nanostructures with widely different morphologies are obtained by electrochemical processing of a nickel-palladium metallic glass. Metallic glasses are multicomponent alloys that exist in a wide range of chemical compositions and have a fully amorphous structure. On page 2708, Sundeep Mukherjee and co-workers report that starting with a homogeneous and isotropic amorphous surface, the morphology and chemistry can be modified to obtain hierarchical nanostructures with high catalytic activity.

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      Masthead: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 21/2013)

      Article first published online: 3 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370105

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      Contents: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 21/2013) (pages 2667–2671)

      Article first published online: 3 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370106

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    1. High-Performance Red, Green, and Blue Electroluminescent Devices Based on Blue Emitters with Small Singlet–Triplet Splitting and Ambipolar Transport Property (pages 2672–2680)

      Kai Wang, Fangchao Zhao, Chenguang Wang, Shanyong Chen, Dong Chen, Hongyu Zhang, Yu Liu, Dongge Ma and Yue Wang

      Article first published online: 21 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202981

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      Two coordination complexes with deep blue emission, small singlet–triplet splitting, and ambipolar transport properties are designed and synthesized. Efficient electroluminescent devices with the three primary colors are achieved by employing the complexes as an undoped deep-blue emitter in organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) and as a host in red and green phosphorescent OLEDs.

    2. Single-Crystalline p-Type Zn3As2 Nanowires for Field-Effect Transistors and Visible-Light Photodetectors on Rigid and Flexible Substrates (pages 2681–2690)

      Gui Chen, Zhe Liu, Bo Liang, Gang Yu, Zhong Xie, Hongtao Huang, Bin Liu, Xianfu Wang, Di Chen, Ming-Qiang Zhu and Guozhen Shen

      Article first published online: 27 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202739

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      Single-crystalline p-type Zn3As2 nanowires are successfully synthesized and used as building blocks for high-performance field-effect transistors and photodetectors. By using a contact printing process, highly aligned nanowire arrays are produced to fabricate thin-film transistors and photodetectors on both rigid and flexible substrates.

    3. Components Simulation of Viral Envelope via Amino Acid Modified Chitosans for Efficient Nucleic Acid Delivery: In Vitro and In Vivo Study (pages 2691–2699)

      Jing Chang, Xianghui Xu, Haiping Li, Yeting Jian, Gang Wang, Bin He and Zhongwei Gu

      Article first published online: 27 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202503

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      Alkaline amino acids of arginine-, histidine-, and lysine-modified chitosans (AAA-CSs) are designed for use as nonviral gene vectors and synthesized to simulate the components of viral envelopes. The DNA condensation capacity and intracellular tracking of the AAA-CSs are investigated. Arginine-modified chitosan exhibits the best cellular internalization and gene-transfection efficiency both in vitro and in vivo.

  7. Frontispiece

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      Liquid Crystals: Highly Ordered Helical Nanofilament Assembly Aligned by a Nematic Director Field (Adv. Funct. Mater. 21/2013) (page 2700)

      Fumito Araoka, Go Sugiyama, Ken Ishikawa and Hideo Takezoe

      Article first published online: 3 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370107

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      On page 2701, Fumito Araoka and co-workers report that successful alignment of the B4 helical nanofilament assembly is possible in a binary mixture system of bent- and rod-shaped liquid crystals. The aligned nanofilament domains appear as extremely smooth and uniform stripes over millimeters. Second-harmonic generation (SHG) studies, including a new technique called interferometric SHG microscopy, reveal that in these aligned domains, both polarity from the nucleus and chirality are preserved.

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    1. Highly Ordered Helical Nanofilament Assembly Aligned by a Nematic Director Field (pages 2701–2707)

      Fumito Araoka, Go Sugiyama, Ken Ishikawa and Hideo Takezoe

      Article first published online: 11 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201201889

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      Successful alignment control of the B4 helical nanofilament assembly in a binary mixture system of bent-shaped and rod-shaped liquid crystals is presented. The aligned nanofilament domains appear as extremely smooth and uniform stripes over millimeters. Second-harmonic generation (SHG) studies including a new technique, interferometric SHG microscopy, reveal that in these aligned domains, polarity from the nucleus and chirality are preserved.

    2. Tunable Hierarchical Metallic-Glass Nanostructures (pages 2708–2713)

      Sundeep Mukherjee, Ryan C. Sekol, Marcelo Carmo, Eric I. Altman, André D. Taylor and Jan Schroers

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202887

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      Metallic-glasses are promising for electrocatalytic applications due to their favorable chemistry and unique abilities for thermoplastic manipulation down to the nanometer length-scale. Combination of electrochemical processing and thermoplastic nanofabrication of metallic glasses serves as a versatile toolbox for fabricating hierarchical metallic nanostructures with large surface area and tunable morphology.

    3. Synthesis of Hierarchically Porous Hydrogen Silsesquioxane Monoliths and Embedding of Metal Nanoparticles by On-Site Reduction (pages 2714–2722)

      Nirmalya Moitra, Kazuyoshi Kanamori, Toyoshi Shimada, Kazuyuki Takeda, Yumi H. Ikuhara, Xiang Gao and Kazuki Nakanishi

      Article first published online: 27 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202558

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      Surface-active hierarchically porous monoliths consisting of hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSiO1.5) are prepared via sol-gel accompanied by phase separation. The on-site reduction of aqueous noble metal salts results in the formation and embedding of metal nanoparticles throughout the monoliths. Both the bare monolith and nanoparticle-embedded monolith are promising as reusable and recyclable heterogeneous catalysts.

    4. A Printable Optical Time-Temperature Integrator Based on Shape Memory in a Chiral Nematic Polymer Network (pages 2723–2727)

      Dylan J. D. Davies, Antonio R. Vaccaro, Stephen M. Morris, Nicole Herzer, Albertus P. H. J. Schenning and Cees W. M. Bastiaansen

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202774

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      An optical, irreversible temperature sensor is fabricated based on a chiral-nematic polymer network that has an orange reflection color. After mechanical embossing of the polymer film a temporary shift to a green color is achieved, which shifts back to the original color above a certain threshold temperature. This sensor can be printed on a foil, thus displaying its potential application as a battery-free time-temperature integrator in food and pharmaceutical products.

    5. Efficiency Enhancement of Organic Solar Cells by Using Shape-Dependent Broadband Plasmonic Absorption in Metallic Nanoparticles (pages 2728–2735)

      Xuanhua Li, Wallace Chik Ho Choy, Haifei Lu, Wei E. I. Sha and Aaron Ho Pui Ho

      Article first published online: 6 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202476

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      A broadband absorption of organic solar cells (OSCs) is realized by combining differently shaped nanomaterials exhibiting varied localized plasmonic resonances and scattering regions into the active layer. As a result, power conversion efficiency is enhanced by 19.44% compared to pre-optimized control OSCs. With respect to the origin of this enhancement, theoretical and experimental studies show that the broadband resonance is achieved by the simultaneous excitation of versatile plasmonic resonances, i.e., material-, shape-, size-, and polarization-dependent low- and high-order plasmonic resonances.

    6. Core/Shell PbSe/PbS QDs TiO2 Heterojunction Solar Cell (pages 2736–2741)

      Lioz Etgar, Diana Yanover, Richard Karel Čapek, Roman Vaxenburg, Zhaosheng Xue, Bin Liu, Mohammad Khaja Nazeeruddin, Efrat Lifshitz and Michael Grätzel

      Article first published online: 27 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202322

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      PbSe core and PbSe/PbS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) are employed in a QD/TiO2 heterojunction solar cell. Theoretical calculations show that the wave functions of the electrons and holes are extended to both materials, which contributes to the better photovoltaic performance of the PbSe/PbS core/shell compared to the PbSe core. The PbSe/PbS core/shell heterojunction solar cell produces a power conversion efficiency of 3.93%.

    7. Flexible Organic Photovoltaic Cells with In Situ Nonthermal Photoreduction of Spin-Coated Graphene Oxide Electrodes (pages 2742–2749)

      Emmanuel Kymakis, Kyriaki Savva, Minas M. Stylianakis, Costas Fotakis and Emmanuel Stratakis

      Article first published online: 9 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202713

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      A methodology for controlled in situ reduction of spin-cast graphene oxide nanometric films on flexible substrates and the subsequent realization of highly conductive and transparent electrodes for flexible organic photovoltaic devices is presented. The technique is compatible with temperature-sensitive substrates in the sense that it achieves reduction of films on flexible substrates in a single step.

    8. Candle Light-Style Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (pages 2750–2757)

      Jwo-Huei Jou, Chun-Yu Hsieh, Jing-Ru Tseng, Shiang-Hau Peng, Yung-Cheng Jou, James H. Hong, Shih-Ming Shen, Ming-Chun Tang, Pin-Chu Chen and Chun-Hao Lin

      Article first published online: 19 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201203209

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      A sensationally warm but physically cold candle-light-style emission driven by electricity is developed in lieu of hydrocarbon-burning in the energy-inefficient, greenhouse gas releasing candles invented 5000 years ago. The dimmable and single-sided emitting nature of the developed candle-light-style organic light-emitting diode (OLED) provides a lighting atmosphere free from glare and obtrusion.

    9. Layered α-Co(OH)2 Nanocones as Electrode Materials for Pseudocapacitors: Understanding the Effect of Interlayer Space on Electrochemical Activity (pages 2758–2764)

      Lei Wang, Zhi Hui Dong, Zheng Gong Wang, Feng Xing Zhang and Jian Jin

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202786

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      Three types of layered α-Co(OH)2 nanocones with intercalated anions of dodecyl sulfate, benzoate, and nitrate, corresponding to interlayer spacings of 1.6, 0.7, and 0.09 nm, respectively, are prepared and used as model materials to investigate the effect of interlayer space on the electrochemical activity in the system of α-Co(OH)2 nanocone-based pseudocapacitors.

    10. A Dramatic Odd–Even Oscillating Behavior for the Current Rectification and Negative Differential Resistance in Carbon-Chain-Modified Donor–Acceptor Molecular Devices (pages 2765–2774)

      Zhenhua Zhang, Chao Guo, Denise Jeng Kwong, Jie Li, Xiaoqing Deng and Zhiqiang Fan

      Article first published online: 11 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201201790

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      Tremendous improvement in rectifying performance is predicted by calculations for donor–acceptor molecular devices with odd numbers of carbon atom chains that act as spacers, to predicted values that are much higher than in all previous studies. A dramatic odd–even oscillation effect is also shown for the current rectification and negative differential resistance with increasing carbon-chain length.

    11. Evaluating the Critical Thickness of TiO2 Layer on Insulating Mesoporous Templates for Efficient Current Collection in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 2775–2781)

      Aravind Kumar Chandiran, Pascal Comte, Robin Humphry-Baker, Florian Kessler, Chenyi Yi, Md. Khaja Nazeeruddin and Michael Grätzel

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202956

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      Different thicknesses of TiO2 are deposited by atomic layer deposition on SiO2 mesoporous templates and a critical thickness for the efficient collection of the photogenerated charge carriers in dye-sensitized solar cells is identified. An alternative photoanode with one order of magnitude higher transport rate compared to the conventional nanoparticle titanium dioxide mesoporous films is presented.

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