Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 23 Issue 23

June 20, 2013

Volume 23, Issue 23

Pages 2901–3014

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      Biomineralization: Phase Transformations and Structural Developments in the Radular Teeth of Cryptochiton Stelleri (Adv. Funct. Mater. 23/2013) (page 2901)

      Qianqian Wang, Michiko Nemoto, Dongsheng Li, James C. Weaver, Brian Weden, John Stegemeier, Krassimir N. Bozhilov, Leslie R. Wood, Garrett W. Milliron, Christopher S. Kim, Elaine DiMasi and David Kisailus

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370112

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      Many biological materials are known for their remarkable structural complexity as well as their impressive mechanical properties. The ultrahard abrasion-resistant radular teeth of the chitons are one such example and members of this group of mollusks, studied by David Kisailus and co-workers on page 2908, have the surprising capacity to erode away the rocky substrates on which they graze for algae. The foreground image depicts the anterior end of the conveyor belt-like radula that contains the magnetite-rich teeth and the background image depicts the oriented rod-like aggregates of magnetic nanoparticles that comprise the material.

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      Hollow Nanostructures: Efficient Ag@AgCl Cubic Cage Photocatalysts Profit from Ultrafast Plasmon-Induced Electron Transfer Processes (Adv. Funct. Mater. 23/2013) (page 2902)

      Yuxin Tang, Zhelong Jiang, Guichuan Xing, Anran Li, Pushkar D. Kanhere, Yanyan Zhang, Tze Chien Sum, Shuzhou Li, Xiaodong Chen, Zhili Dong and Zhong Chen

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370113

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      On page 2932, Tze Chien Sum, Shuzhou Li, Zhili Dong, Zhong Chen, and co-workers report an efficient Ag@AgCl cubic cage photocatalyst with well-defined hollow interior, prepared using a watersoluble sacrificial salt-crystal-template process. The photocatalyst shows excellent photocatalytic degradation performance, which is attributed to the significant light confinement and enhancement around the Ag/AgCl interfacial plasmon hot spots, multilight-reflection inside the cage structure, and the observed ultrafast electron transfer from Ag nanoparticles to AgCl.

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      Smart Materials: Multi-Stimuli Responsive Hydrogel Cilia (Adv. Funct. Mater. 23/2013) (page 3016)

      P. J. Glazer, J. Leuven, H. An, S. G. Lemay and E. Mendes

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370114

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      On page 2964 Eduardo Mendes and co-workers report the production of large arrays of multi-responsive hydrogel cilia using microfabrication techniques. The cilia operate in aqueous solutions and are sensitive to pH, electric, and/or magnetic fields. Electrically stimulated cilia reversibly reduce their size by more than 80%. In the case of magnetoresposnive cilia, high-speed rotational movement is achieved. In addition, a biomimetic system that combines pHsensor triggered motility is presented.

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      Masthead: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 23/2013)

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370115

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    1. Phase Transformations and Structural Developments in the Radular Teeth of Cryptochiton Stelleri (pages 2908–2917)

      Qianqian Wang, Michiko Nemoto, Dongsheng Li, James C. Weaver, Brian Weden, John Stegemeier, Krassimir N. Bozhilov, Leslie R. Wood, Garrett W. Milliron, Christopher S. Kim, Elaine DiMasi and David Kisailus

      Version of Record online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202894

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      A difference in Q values between a ferrihydrite reference and ferrihydrite phase of about ≈0.002–0.006 Å−1 is detected from synchrotron X-ray diffraction. This discrepancy may come from the calculation error of the standards in synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The assumption during calculation that the distance between the sample and the detector is the same as that between the aluminum standard and the detector results in the small shift in the Q values as there is about ≈50–100 μm difference in thickness between the tooth sample and the alumina standard.

    2. A Large Magnetoresistance Effect in p–n Junction Devices by the Space-Charge Effect (pages 2918–2923)

      Dezheng Yang, Fangcong Wang, Yang Ren, Yalu Zuo, Yong Peng, Shiming Zhou and Desheng Xue

      Version of Record online: 6 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202695

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      A large magnetoresistance effect in conventional silicon p–n junctions is reported. By utilizing the magnetic field to manipulate the space-charge region of the p–n junction, a 2500% magnetoresistance ratio is observed at room temperature with H = 5 T. The p–n junction controlled by both electric field and magnetic field will open a new avenue for future magneto-electronics.

    3. One-Pot Synthesis of Luminescent Polymer-Nanoparticle Composites from Task-Specific Ionic Liquids (pages 2924–2931)

      Paul S. Campbell, Chantal Lorbeer, Joanna Cybinska and Anja-Verena Mudring

      Version of Record online: 31 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202472

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      A multifunction polymerizable ionic liquid, diallyldimethylammonium tetrafluoroborate, is used in a one-pot synthesis of novel luminescent polymer-nanoparticle composites. Small monodisperse lanthanide fluoride nanoparticles are formed by microwave irradiation in the presence of Ln(OAc)3·xH2O (Ln = Gd, Eu, Tb, OAc = acetate) in the ionic liquid. Irradiation under high intensity UV gives colorless, processable polymer materials with good photophysical properties.

    4. Efficient Ag@AgCl Cubic Cage Photocatalysts Profit from Ultrafast Plasmon-Induced Electron Transfer Processes (pages 2932–2940)

      Yuxin Tang, Zhelong Jiang, Guichuan Xing, Anran Li, Pushkar D. Kanhere, Yanyan Zhang, Tze Chien Sum, Shuzhou Li, Xiaodong Chen, Zhili Dong and Zhong Chen

      Version of Record online: 23 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201203379

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      A novel and economic water-soluble sacrificial salt-crystal-template process is developed for the large-scale production of hollow Ag@AgCl cage materials. The hollow Ag@AgCl cages show superior photocatalytic performance (28 times larger) compared with the solid form, which profits from the highly efficient electron-hole pair separation that results from ultrafast plasmon-induced electron transfer from Ag nanoparticles to the AgCl surface.

    5. Impact of Materials versus Geometric Parameters on the Contact Resistance in Organic Thin-Film Transistors (pages 2941–2952)

      Manfred Gruber, Egbert Zojer, Ferdinand Schürrer and Karin Zojer

      Version of Record online: 23 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201203250

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      The contact resistance in organic thin-film transistors is affected by many more parameters than just the injection barrier at the metal/organic interface. The arrangement of the electrodes, the operation conditions, as well as the carrier mobility can change the contact resistance by many orders of magnitude. This can be understood from the details of the potential distribution in the devices.

    6. The Impacts of Cation Stoichiometry and Substrate Surface Quality on Nucleation, Structure, Defect Formation, and Intermixing in Complex Oxide Heteroepitaxy–LaCrO3 on SrTiO3(001) (pages 2953–2963)

      L. Qiao, K. H. L. Zhang, M. E. Bowden, T. Varga, V. Shutthanandan, R. Colby, Y. Du, B. Kabius, P. V. Sushko, M. D. Biegalski and S. A. Chambers

      Version of Record online: 23 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202655

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      The effect of cation stoichiometry and substrate defect density on nucleation, structure, defect formation, and interfacial mixing during III-III perovskite complex oxide heteroepitaxy is explored. Cation imbalance is shown to result in anti-site defect formation within the film, and subsurface cation vacancies promote cation mixing.

    7. Multi-Stimuli Responsive Hydrogel Cilia (pages 2964–2970)

      P. J. Glazer, J. Leuven, H. An, S. G. Lemay and E. Mendes

      Version of Record online: 18 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201203212

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      High-aspect-ratio responsive cilia arrays that combine, in one system, sensing and motility functions are fabricated. Based on different approaches the system can be electrically, environmentally, or magnetically activated. Detection of changes in environment, such as a decrease in pH, triggers a collective cilia response, to an external time-dependent magnetic field.

  7. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
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      Porous Graphene: Functional Free-Standing Graphene Honeycomb Films (Adv. Funct. Mater. 23/2013) (page 2971)

      Shengyan Yin, Yulia Goldovsky, Moshe Herzberg, Lei Liu, Hang Sun, Yanyan Zhang, Fanben Meng, Xuebo Cao, Darren D. Sun, Hongyu Chen, Ariel Kushmaro and Xiaodong Chen

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201370117

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      A scalable and solution-processable strategy called the “on water spreading” method is developed to create free-standing graphene honeycomb films. As reported by Xiaodong Chen and co-workers on page 2972, the free-standing honeycomb films obtained can be easily transferred to the substrates of interest while retaining their original sizes and structures. They exhibit broad spectrum antibacterial activity and enhanced efficiency of photoconversion.

  8. Full Papers

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    1. Functional Free-Standing Graphene Honeycomb Films (pages 2972–2978)

      Shengyan Yin, Yulia Goldovsky, Moshe Herzberg, Lei Liu, Hang Sun, Yanyan Zhang, Fanben Meng, Xuebo Cao, Darren D. Sun, Hongyu Chen, Ariel Kushmaro and Xiaodong Chen

      Version of Record online: 17 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201203491

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      A facile strategy to create free-standing graphene honeycomb films is developed. The obtained free-standing honeycomb films can be easily transferred to the substrate of interest while retaining their original sizes and structures, and exhibiting broad spectrum antibacterial activity and enhanced efficiency of photoconversion.

    2. Functional Polymer Brushes on Diamond as a Platform for Immobilization and Electrical Wiring of Biomolecules (pages 2979–2986)

      Andreas A. Reitinger, Naima A. Hutter, Andreas Donner, Marin Steenackers, Oliver A. Williams, Martin Stutzmann, Rainer Jordan and Jose A. Garrido

      Version of Record online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202342

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      Polymer brushes created by self-initiated photografting and photopolymerization provide a straightforward route for the biofunctionalization of bioelectronic devices, where a high loading and stable immobilization of biomolecules as well as a biocompatible environment and efficient charge transfer are essential. The potential of this approach is demonstrated by the example of amperometric glucose sensing with glucose oxidase- and ferrocene-functionalized poly(methacrylic acid) brushes on nanocrystalline diamond electrodes.

    3. A Giant Electrocaloric Effect in Nanoscale Antiferroelectric and Ferroelectric Phases Coexisting in a Relaxor Pb0.8Ba0.2ZrO3 Thin Film at Room Temperature (pages 2987–2992)

      Biaolin Peng, Huiqing Fan and Qi Zhang

      Version of Record online: 20 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202525

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      A giant electrocaloric effect at room temperature is obtained in coexisting antiferroelectric and ferroelectric phase relaxor Pb0.8Ba0.2ZrO3 thin films. Such an effect is usually obtained only at the Curie temperature. This is therefore a promising material for applications in cooling systems near room temperature.

    4. Solution-Processed Nickel Oxide Hole Transport Layers in High Efficiency Polymer Photovoltaic Cells (pages 2993–3001)

      Jesse R. Manders, Sai-Wing Tsang, Michael J. Hartel, Tzung-Han Lai, Song Chen, Chad M. Amb, John R. Reynolds and Franky So

      Version of Record online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202269

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      By replacing poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) hole-transporting layers (HTLs) with solution-processed nickel oxide (NiO), polymer photovoltaic cells with a power conversion efficiency of 7.8% are fabricated. Solar cells with NiO are more efficient and more air stable than those with PEDOT:PSS. The HTL/active layer interface plays a critical role in solar cell performance.

    5. Foam-Like Behavior in Compliant, Continuously Reinforced Nanocomposites (pages 3002–3007)

      Brent J. Carey, Prabir K. Patra, Myung Gwan Hahm and Pulickel M. Ajayan

      Version of Record online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201201999

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      The dynamic mechanical compression of continuously reinforced carbon nanotube (CNT)/poly(dimethylsiloxane) composites provides insight into the mechanics of deformation in nanocomposite systems. Loaded along the nanotube axis, these composites respond similar to open-cell forms due to a collective buckling of the CNTs. Compressed normal to nanotube alignment, the CNTs will effectively augment the cross-link density of the elastomer network, lowering the ultimate compressive strain.

    6. An Optimized and General Synthetic Strategy for Fabrication of Polymeric Carbon Nitride Nanoarchitectures (pages 3008–3014)

      Jinshui Zhang, Fangsong Guo and Xinchen Wang

      Version of Record online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201203287

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      Based on a combination of surface acidification and sonication-promoted insertion, an optimized and general synthetic strategy is established for the templated construction of polymeric carbon nitride nanoarchitectures with maximized material and structure functions.

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